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Full text of "The American Almanac and Respository of useful knowledge for the year 1830"

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THE 






AMERICAN A'LMANAC 



REPOSITORY 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 



FOR THE YEAR 



X O eJ X. ^'^•^ 







BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY GRAY AND BOWEN; 

HIU.IA&D, ORAT, AND CO. ; CARTER AND HENDEE ; AND RICHARDSON, LORD, 
AND HOLBROOK. — TIEW YORK, G. AND C. AND H. CARTILL. — PHILA- 
DKLPHIA, JOHN ORIOO ; AND CARET AND HART. — BALTIMORE, E. J. 
COALS. CINCINNATI, C. D. BRADFORD AND CO. 

Checked 



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DISTRICT OP BiASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT. ^ 

DitTRioT CbBBx's Orrics. 

Bb it remembered, that on the eleventh day of Norember, A. D. 1830. in the fiftf* 
fifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Gra^ &. Bowen, of the 
fNiid district, have deposited in this oflSce the title of a book, the right whereof they 
cUim as proprietors^ in the words following, to vit. — ** The American Almanac and Re- 
pository of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1831." In conformity to the act of the Con- 
gress of the United States, entitled " An act for the encouragement of learning, by 
securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies, during the times therein menticmed ** ; and also to an act. entitled " An act 
supplementary to an act, entitled, * An act for the encouragement of learning, b^ securing 
the copies of maps, charts, and bocdu to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during 
the tiroes therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, 
engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

JNO. W. DAVIS, 
Clerk of the District of Massachuietts. 



cahbrioob: 

pbiktbo bt b. w. mbtcalr abo ookraht, 

Printers to the University. 



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PREFACE. 



<<The main object of this work," as was stated in the first vol- 
ume, " is utility." The Conductors engaged in the design under 
the impression that such a work was wanted by a numerous class 
in the community, and that, if well executed, it would meet with a 
good degree of success ; and they have been gratified by the man« 
ner in which their attempt has been received. 

In this volume the general character and design of the work 
remain unaltered ; though the j^an has been, in some particulars, 
changed. The first volume was divided into five parts ; but the 
contents of this, though embracing as great a variety of subjects, 
have been formed into two general divisions, the First Part com- 
prising the topics corresponding to those of the first two parts of 
i^e former volume, and the Second Part, the topics corresponding 
to those of the other three parts. For explanations respecting the 
astronomical department, the reader is referred to the Preliminary 
Observations of Mr. Paine, who has executed this portion with 
great labor and ability. 

The large space occupied by the numerous and interesting 
details relating to the great eclipse of the 12th of February, has 
rendered it necessary to postpone several articles corresponding to 
those of the second part of the first volume. 

r The Second Part of the present volume is particularly charac- 
ized by containing a view of the general and state governments, 
the constitution of the United States, the executive government, 
the national legislature and judiciary, outlines of the constitutions 
of the several states, and complete lists of their governors from the 
first organization of the respective governments. This informa- 
tion is of permanent value, and will be useful, for reference, at any 
future period ; but that portion of it which is unchangeable, having 
now been inserted in this volume, will not need to be repeated in 
the volumes which may follow. 

The plan adopted with respect to the articles relating to the 
several states has left less space than could be wished for the 
notice of foreign countries ; and although the- information given 
respecting them will probably not be deemed an unimportant part of 

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IV PREFACE. 

the volume, yet it is less full than was intended : other useful mat- 
ter has also been omitted for want of room. 

It is impossible to give a complete enumeration of the sources 
from which information has been derived ; some of the principal 
ones, relating to foreign countries, are the English Royal Kalen- 
dar, the Englishman's Almanac, the British Almanac and Com- 
panion, the Alma^ach de Grotha, the GenealogischeK-Historischef* 
nnd-Statistischer Almanach, published at Weimar, and voriood 
journals ; relating to our own country, the Laws of the United 
States, the Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate, 
Official Documents of the General Government, the Register of 
Officers and Agents in the Service of the United States, the Direc- 
tory of the Twenty-first Congress, the National Calendar, the 
Constitutions of the several states, the American, Historical, Chro- 
nological, and Geographical Atlas, works on the History and Geog>- 
raphy of the different states, the Quarterly Journal of the American 
Education Society, Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania, Niles's Reg- 
ister, the State Registers of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Connecticut, and New York, a variety of journals and other pub- 
lications, together with private correspondence with gentlemen of 
every state in the Union. To those who have been so good aa to 
communicate information, the Conductors return their grateful 
acknowledgments. 

A full view of the Fifth Census of the United States will form ta 
important article in the next volume. Though our own country 
must hold a prominent place in every number, yet copious detaik 
respecting foreign countries may be occasionally expected ; also 
essays on interesting subjects of a scientific and practical nature ; 
notices of important discoveries^ and useful inventions; views of the 
itate and progress of education ; and accounts of the proceedings 
of benevolent societies and associations . for promoting religion, 
learning, philanthropy, and moral civilization. The Conductors take 
ihe liberty to request the purchasers of this volume to preserve it, 
as belonging to a series of volumes which, should they be able to 
execute their design, will be diversified in their contents, and em- 
body such a variety of valuable matter as to form a library* of useful 
knowledge, exhibiting the most important facts of contemporary 
history, the statistics of the globe, views of the state and progreei 
ef society, and miscellaneous information on the di£^rent defprt- 
ments of human knowledge and active life. 

Cambridge, JSTov. 15, 1830. The CoNPUCTORa. 

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PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE ASTRONOMI- 
CAL DEPARTMENT. 



Thb .year 1831 is peculiarly distinguished for phenomena worthy of the 
attention of the astronomers of the United Statefl. 

The eclipse on the twelfth of February is the first of a Very remarkable 
series of five large eclipses of the sun, visible to us in the short term of 
Beven years. The others happen as follows; the first on the 27th of July , 
18S2, total in Cuba ; the second on the ^Oth of November, 1834, total in 
Charleston, Beaufort, &.c., in South Carolina ; the third on the 15th of May, 
1836, annular near Cuba ; and the fourth on the 18lh of September, 1838, 
annular in three fidhs of the States of the Union. 

The eclipse of the present year, taking place near noon, will of course 
attract great attention. Should the sky be clear, at the time of the nearest 
approach of the centres of the Sun and Moon, much diminution of the light 
Is not to be expected, probably not enough to render visible the planet 
Venus, then about 13 degrees east of the Sun ; but a very considerable 
effect on the thermometer will doubtless be noticed ; and, for half an hour, 
flie power of a lens to produce combustion, by refracting the solar rtfys, will 
be entirely destroyed. If the day should be cloudy, the darkness will prob- 
ably be complete. 

In the fourth page there is a representation ^f the appearance of the sun, 
tt those places where he will be eclipsed centrally, and where about 11| 
di^ts on his south limb ; by inverting the volume, the lower figure be- 
comes a representation of his appearance at those places (New Orleans, 
'Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, &.c.) where the eclipse will be of about the 
same magnitude on the north. 

The passage of the eclipse over the United States only, is represented 
in the map prefixed to the title-page ; but a representation of the entire 
eclipse for the whole Earth may be easily obtained, by marking on a map 
of America and the contiguous oceans, the points passed over by the paths 
of the different digits, and connecting them by curve lines. 

After the second sheet had been printed, it was discovered that the 
phasoA of the eclipse at the city of Mobile, ia the state of Alabama, had 
been omitted ; they are therefore inserted here, viz, — 

Latitude, 30<5 40' North ; Latitude reduced, SO"^ 29' 57" North. 
Longitude in degrees, 88° 11' W. ; Long, in time, 5h. 52m. 44s. W. 
Constant logarithms, 0.10357 9.66938 9.94650. 

S» D. hot corrected. S. D. corrected, 
h. m. sec. h. m. sec. 

* Beginning of the ecUpse 9 50 4.0 M. 9 50 19.9 M.*) 
- Greatest obscuration 11 27 15.8 H ^7 15.8 I ^^^^^ ^„^ 

Apparent conjunction 11 27 19.4 11 27 19.4 >f:V?liSS 

End of the eclipse 1 7 16.2 A. 1 6 59.3 A. t " ^<«««- 

Duration of the eclipse 3 17 12.2 8 16 89.4 J 

J J>igits eclipsed, 11° 35' 31" on Sun's north limb. 
At greatest obscuration, moon north 48.06" ; at apparent d 48.08. 
Point first touched at the beginning, 68^^ 59'' from the vertex of the Sun. 

- -Tht oecttltftttont thi^' year are uncoiamoidy numerous; and sevetitl 
a* 

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yi PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION^. 

years must elapse before as many eclipses of stars of the first magnita^y 
imd of the principal planets, can again be expected. 

Particular mention has already been made of the most important use to' 
which observations of eclipses of the son, planets, and stars may be applied^ 
viz. the determination of terrestrial longitude, wlrich cannot be settled with 
equal precision, within the same space of time, in any other way. In the 
Almanac for IS32, all the occultations will be computed for ChariesUm, 
Washington and Boston. 

The catalogue of those eclipses of tlie satellite* of Jupiter, which are fisi* 
ble in some part of the United States, has been contioued, for the purpose d 
affording an easy method of determiuing the longitude, with a very 
considerable degree l}f precision. On the 37th page a recent discovery 
respecting these eclipses is boticed, viM. that they might be observed 
at sea with sufficient accuracy for nautical purposes. The discoverer 
remarks, '* that as it is difficult to follow the satellite when the (»hip has 
xnuch motion, \t will be advisable for the observer to linnt his atteotioo to 
the times when the vessel is at the extremity of lier roll or pitch. An at- 
tendant, with a watch, should note the time when the observer is certaia 
he does see the satellite previous to immersion, and certain that he does 
Dot see it after immersion ; the mean ot these times should be taken for 
the true time. The power applied to the telescope stiould t^e aUout 45." 
As the number of transit tel^copes in the United States is very linuted^ 
the insertion of a catalogue of Moon-cuUninating stars was considered ioex^ 
pedient at this time ; but it may appear in the next number, should the itk* 
sertion be recommended. 

In the arrangement of the Calendar pages, there is but little alteration 
from that of the last year. The Equatorial Parallax and Semidiameter of 
tile Moon have, however, been placed in the Appendix, and the begirming 
and end of twilight for every eighth day, and the distance of the centre of 
the Moon from the centre of the Earth, at each apogee and perigee, sub^ 
atituted. 

The beginning and end of twilight, and the rising and setting of the Sua 
and Moon, are given for five places in the United States* situated in d^r- 
ent latitudes ; the Almanac is thus adapted to the inhabitancs of every pait 
of the country, as these particulars depend simply oU the latitude, and ai* 
wholly independent of the longitude. 

The column headed Boston, 8fe. will answer for all places north at 
latitude 41^ 32', that is, British Continental North America, Maine, New 
Hampsliire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Micliigan ; all but the sootbem 
extremity of New York and Rhode Island, the northern half of Counecti'* 
cut, the northern third of Penns^ylvania, the Connecticut Reserve in Ohio, 
and the northern extremities of Illinois and Indiana. 

The column headed JST^w York, 8fc. is intended for places situated be- 
tween latitude 4l<* 32' and 39° 48', that is, the southern extremities of New 
York and Rhode Island, all but the northern third of Pennsylvaniaa, all but 
the southern extremity of New Jersey, the central parts of Ohio, liiinoia, 
and Indiana, and the northern third of Missouri. 

The column headed Washington^ ift, may be used between latitude 89^ 
48' and %^ 52', that is, throughout Marylaild, Virginia, Delaware, the Di»- 
trict of Columbia, and Kentucky, the northern half of Tennessee, the soii^i- 
em extremity of New Jersey, the si^uthern third of Ohio and Indiana, the 
southern half of IHinob, all but the northern third of Missouri, and th# 
northern third of North Carolina and Arkansas. 

' The column headed Charleston 8tt. is suited to places between latitude 
•(P sr and Si*" 24', tiMt ia, S#«ik Caralina^^lt but #iefo«tiMni «st«»iiW 



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M^Geor|rit, Ali^jftttia» and Mi^^Mppl,^ but the noriheni HiM of North 
Carolina and Arkansas ; the souihem half of Tennessee ; the northern hatf 
•C Louisiana. 

,' The column beaded JVew OrletmM ice. Is adapted to places south of la(r 
ibmle Sl^ 24% that is, all Florida and Texas, the soatbem half of Loui^ana, 
niid the southern extremities of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. 

The setting of the Moon is given from new moon to AjH, and (he risinc 
from full moon to new ; the letters M. A. m. a , to be found in these co£ 
4iBins and in other parts of the Almanac, are used to denote Morning and 
y^/tema&n, 

t The time of the Phases of the Moon is computed for the meridian of 
Washington, but may be readily reduced to that for any other meridian, by 
iMkling or subtracting tlie difference of tlie longitude, according as the same 
is east or west of that city. The time of the moon*s southing is computed 
ior the same meridian. The variation, however, even in a remote part of 
the United States, will be inconsiderable. 

The time of High Water is corrected for the difference of the Right 
Ascension of the Sun and Moon, and the distance of the Moon from the 
Earth. The small corrections depending on their declinations and our dis- 
tance from tlie Sun, have been ne&lected as unimportant ; indeed it has 
been ascertained, from a series of several hundred observations that the 
^corrections we have introduced will, in calm weather, give the time of high 
water within ,^e«n minutes, and, generally, much nearer. The difference 
between the thne of high water nt New York, Charleston, and Boston, was 
derived from the best authorities ; but perhaps it has not been ascer- 
teined with the degree of accuracy that is to be desired. If our authorities 
kre correct, the time of high water along the coast of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and Massachusetts, as far as Nantucket, is nearly the same as at Boi* 
ton. Moreover, when it is high water in JVew Yorkt it is nearly so in Long 
Island Sound, along the coast of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 
and North Carolina, as far as Cape Lookout, (with the exception of Sandy 
Hook and the entrance of Chesapeake Bay;) whilst along the coast of the 
southern part of North Carolina, of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, at 
Sandy Hook and the entrance of the Chesapeake, the time agrees very 
nearly with that in the column for Charleston ; when greater accuracy is 
desired, reference should be had to the Tide Table on the 16th page, llie 
time of the tide immediately preceding the southing of the moon, only, 
having been given, it should be corrected by tbe addition of half the differ- 
ence when the thne of the other tide is required. 

The Planets are placed in the order in which they pass the meridian oa 
the fint day of each month, and their declinations are computed for the 
moment of their passage over the meridian of Washington. 

The equation of time is the correction by which apparent is reduced to 
mean time. It is computed for apparent noon at Greenwich, and is to be 
spplied with the actual sign ; but when it is desired to reduce mean to 
apparent time, die sign of the equation should be reversed. 

Apparent time has been generally used in this Almanac ; the only ez« 
eeption being in what relates to eclipses, occuitations, and th^r elements, 
the rising and setting of the Moon, the passage of the Moon and planets 
over the meridian, and the. time of high water. The beginning and end of 
tniiight, and the rising and setting of the Sun, could not be given in meai^ 
tune, as was ia he desired, without occupying too much room. 

The Appendix is intended to answer all the essential purposes of a Nau^ 
tieal Almanac, and the insertion therein of the distances of the Moon from 
iSm planeist and of dite propoi;tional logacitbm of the difference between tl^ 



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Viii F&ELIMINART OBtXRTATIONS* 

distances, it is hoped, will be found ap improvement on any Almanac hith<* 
erto published. The diflfijculty of measuring the altitude of stars at sea \» 
so great, that the insertion of the Moon's distance from them is rendered 
nearly useless. Indeed it has been asserted, that it could be more accu- 
rately measured on a celestial globe, than by any instrument of reflectioa 
whatever. But the planets are so much more brilliant, that their distance 
from the Moon, and altitude, can generally be determined with great accu- 
ftcy, in the twilight, and before the horizon becomes invisible. The in- 
sertion of the proportional logarithm not only very considerably facilitates^ 
the computation, but affords an opportunity of correcting a typograpliical 
error, should any exist. 

The whole of the Ephemeris of the Sun was calculated from the cele- 
brated Ahnanac of Professor Encke. It was reduced with great care, and 
with corrections for the second and higher orders of differences, from 
the meridian of Berlin to that of Greenwich. As Bessel's corrections of 
Carlini's Solar Tables were introduced by Encke into his Ephemeris, the 
place of the Sun, both with respect to the ecliptic and the equator, as well 
as his distance from the Moon, as given in the Appendix to this Almanac, 
will always be found to differ very considerably from the English Nautical 
Almanac, in the computation of which, these corrections were wholly 
unnoticed. 

The places of six stars of the first magnitude, as determined at Konigs- 
berg, are given for every fifteenth day ; they afford an opportunity to those 
possessed of a transit telescope, of determining the time with the greatest 
precision; or if the time has been otherwise accurately asceruined, of 
adjusting the telescope to the meridian. The stars selected are situated as 
nearly equidistant as possible. 

The most important astronomical phenomena visible in the United 
States, in 1832, are a transit of Mercury on the 5th of May, an eclipse of 
the Sun on the 27th of July, three occultations of Saturn, two of Uranus, 
one of Mercury, one of Venus, one of Mars, two of Aldebaran, besides 
many of the smaller stars. 

The year 1832 will be rendered memorable, also, by the return to the 
perihelion of two of the three comets, whose orbits have been discovered 
to be elliptical, viz, that known as Encke's, whose period is about 1212 
days, which will pass the perihelion about the 7th of May ; and that known 
as Biela's, whose period is about 2460 days, which will pass the perihelion 
on the 27th of November, and the perigee on the 22d of October, when 
it will be distant from the earth about 51 millions of miles. The latter, 
when nearest the Sun, will have an elongation of about 120**, and be 
about 30° nearer the elevated pole than the Sun, and will, consequently, 
be in a very favorable situation for observation. The former, it is believed, 
will have, when brightest, a great southern declination, and will, if this 
supposition is correct, be wholly invisible throughout the United States. 

R. T. PAINE. 

Boston, JVovember 12, 1880. 



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CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

Calbitdar AiffB Cblbstiai. FHunmuMKx roR ths Ybar. 



Pafa. 

Chroaologieal Cycles . . .1 

Signs of the Zadia« ... I 

Bmber Days ... 2 

Movable Festivals of the Church io 1831 2 
Jewish Calendar . . .3 

Mabometan Calendar 3 

Bclipses of the Sun and Moon in 1831 5 
Solar Eclipse of February 12lh . 5 

OecaltatloQs in 1831 . . .29 

Occultatton of u Star by a Planet . $29 
Qccultation of Stars by the Moon . 29 
A|»pulses of the Moon to Planets and 



Pkf«. 



Stars in 1831, at Boston 
Appulses of the Moon to the Planets 

and principal Fixed SUrs in 1831, at 

Charleston, S. C. . 
Eclipses of the Satellites of Japiter io 

1831 9D 

Hcisht of the Spring Tides in 1831 . 39 
TmIa Table .... 40 
Latitude and Lonfitode of Plaoes . 43 
Longest and Shortest Days . . 45 

CALENDAR— January &c . . 46— eO 
Eclipses of the Sun from 1892 to 1900 70 



34 



MbTXOROLOOICAI« and GxOLOOtCAL JifrORMATIOir. 



1. Natural History of the Weadier 
S. Shape of the Earth and its Size 



77 
101 



I 3. Density of the Earth . . . lOS 
I 4. Temperature of Interior of the Eaith 104 



PART n. 



0HiTSi> States . . .107 

1. Declaration of Independence 107 

8. Revolutionary Rogister . .111 

3. Presidents ot (congress . 119 

4. Constitution of the United States 113 
ft. Successive Administrations . 135 
6. Executive (Sovernment . 129 
7* Legislature or Congress of U. S. 134 

8. The Judiciar^r . . .138 

9. Intercourse with Foreign Notions 146 

10. The Army . . .146 

11. Military Academy • • 147 

12. Vesseh of War • . .149 

13. The Customs ... 150 

14. I^nd Offices . . .158 
Jft. Bank of the United Sutes . 153 

16. Public Debt.— Lead . . 154 

17. Post Offices and Postage . 155 
Receipts. U. S., from 1789 to 1829 156 



g: 



L9. Expenditure from 1789 to 1829 158 
90. Imporiii, Exports, and Tonnage 160 
SI. Oommerce . . .161 

fie. ExporU iu 1829 . . 162 

93. Population . . ~ . 164 

94. Number of Indians . . 165 
85. Benevolent Societies , . 165 
96. Colleges . . .166 

IirDiTiDUAL States . . .171 

1. Maine . . , ' . 171 

5. New Hampshire . , .173 

3. Vermont . , .176 

4. Massachusetts . . .179 
ft. Rhode Island ... 186 

6. Connecticut • . .190 

7. New York ... 194 
6. New Jersey . , ,201 
9. Pennsylvania . . ,204 

10. Delaware • . .210 

,11. Marybind . . .212 

19. Virginia . . . .216 

13. North Carolina . . 223 

/14. South Carolina . . .225 



15. Georgia « « • 299 

16. Alabama « « . .233 

17. Mississippi ... 936 

18. Louisiana • • .239 

19. Tennessee ... 249 

20. Kentucky . • . .244 

21. Ohio .... 247 

92, Indiana • • • • 251 

93. Illinois ... 859 

24. Missouri . . . .264 

25. District of Colombia . . 25$ 

26. Florida . . • .257 

27. Michigan Territory . . 258 
98. Arkansas Territory . . 856 

Governors of States and Territories 958 

Population of Towns . . .860 

British American Colonies 261 

Independent Sutes . . .869 

EuRora .... 963 

Reigning Sovereigns of Europe . 263 

Statistical Table of Europe . . 964 

Sweden and Norway . . 266 

Russia . . . .267 

Denmark .... 868 

1 he Netnerlands . . .869 

Great BriUia ... 871 

France . . • .890 

Prussia . . : . 896 

Saxony . . . .297 

Hnnover, Wurteroberg . . 298 
AusUia .... SI99 

Spain . . . .301 

Portugal .... 301 

Sardinia . . . .309 

States of the Church . . 308 

Two Sicilies , . . .309 

Turkey ... 309 

Greece • r« • • • 308 

Asiatic and AfVican^tates . 303 

Temperanee Soeieties . - . 304 

Chronicle of Events in 1830 . 306 



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INDEX. 



Page. 

Admrnistfations, Successive . . 135 

Africuu Northern Slf>tes . . 303 

Alabama — Settlemeni j Governors ; Out- 
UneB ofthe Constitution ; Executive 
and Legislature : Judiciary j Internal 
Improvement ; Education . 233—236 
Amendments of the Constitution . 1J23 
Appulses of the Moou to Planets and 

Stars 32,34 

Arkansas Territory — Crovernors } Grov- 

ernment 258 

Army ofthe Revolution . . . Ill 
Army ofthe United Stdtea. , . 146 
Army of England .... 385 
Atmosphere, constituent parts of the 79 
Atmosphere, height of the ... 78 
Asiatic States . . . .303 

AiMtria — Emperor and Imperial Fam- 
ily J Government .... SJ99 
Bank of England .... 187 
Banks of the individual States. See 

the several States. 
Bank ofthe United States . . . 153 
Barometer, phenomena of the . 81 

Bavaria — King and , Royal Family j 

Government 399 

Benevolent Societies, United States 165 
Benevolent Societies, England . ; 289 
Bishops of England . . . • 281 
Bishops in the United States . . 170 
Bishops of Ireland .... 283 
Britain. See Great Britain. 
British American Colonies . . 961 
Calendar— January &c. . . ' 46—69 
Calendar, Jewish .... 2 
Calendar, Mahometan ... 3 
Canada, Lower — Governors j Govern- 
ment 261 

Charter, Conotitutional, France . 291 

CrOnoloffical Cycles ... 1 

Chronicle of Events in 1830 . . 308 
Cbureh, movable Festivab ofthe . 2 

Cirrus .90 

Cirro-cumulus 92 

Clouds, classification of . . .89 
Colleges, United States ... . 166 
Columbia, District — Remarks ; Judici- 
ary; Banks*, Educatioa . . 256 
Commerce, United States . . 160—162 
Congress ofthe United States . . 134 
Congress, Presidents of . . . 112 
Connecticut — Settlement and History; 
Governors; Outlines of the Constitu- 
tion jGovernmont ; Judiciary ; Banks; 
Statistics; Education . . 190—194 
Oonstitution ofthe United States . 113 
Constitutional ( 'baiter of France . 291 
Continental Army . . . .111 
Oourt, Supreme, United States . 140 
Courts, Circuit, UnifM States . . 141 
- Count, District, United States , 1^ 



Pago. 
Courts, U.S.,Tifne8 and Placef ofholding l4t 
Courts of the several States. See the 

several States. 
Courts of England . . . - • 28^ 
Cumulus ...... 91 

Cumulo-stratus . . . . .93 

Customs, United States ... 150 
Days, Longest and Shortest in some of 
the Chief Towns .... 45 

Declaration of Independence . . 107 
Debt, United States . . . .154 

Debt of England . . . . 288 

Delaware — Settlement and History; 
Presidents and Governors ; Outlines 
of the Constitution ; Legislature ; 
Judiciary ; ' Banks ; Education 2 10— 212 
Denmark — King and Royal Family; 
Government .... 268,269 

Department of State . . . .129 

Distance of places from Washington 43 — 45 
Earth, density of the .... 103 

Earth, figure ofthe ... 101 

Earth, nevy method of determining the 
magnitude of the . . . . l62 

Earth, oblateness of the ... 103 
Earth, temperature ofthe interior ofthe 104 
East India Company .... 288 

Ecclesiastical States. See States of 

the Church. 
Ecclesiastical Establishment, England 280 
Eclipses ofthe Sun and Moon . . 5 
Eclipse ofthe 12th of February, Phases 

ofthe 5 

Eclipse of the 12th of February, Gen- 
eral Phenomena ofthe . . . 5— 9S 
Eclipse, great, at Albany . . .23 
Baltimore . . 21 
Boston . . . 24 
Cahawba . .17 
Charleston, S. O. . 19 
Cincinnuti . . 19 
Dinwiddle Court H. 90 
Georgetown, Del. 99 
Halifax, N. S. . .9ft 
Lexington, Ken. 18 

Milledgeville . . 18 
Nashville . . 18 
Natchez . . .17 
New Haven . . 23 
Newpoit, R. I. .523 
New Orleans . 17- 
New York . . 29 
Philadelphia . 29 
Portland ... 95 
Raleigh, N. C. . 19L 
Richmond, Va. . 91 
Scottsville, Va. . 90: 
Siasconsek . . 95 
Tisb«ry . . 94 
Washington City . SI 
EoUpseofAu«uiit93a . . • ^98 



Digitized by (jOOgl'C 



Paf«. 
Ember Bftyi 8 

JBoglaud. See Great Britain. 
Europe, Reigaiag Sorereif ns of 963 

European State* . . . , 954 

Evaporation . . • • ttl 

Executive Government, United States 199 
Expenditure, United States . . IM 

Expenditure, England . . 937 

Expentes incurred durinf the Bevolu- 

Oonary War . . . .112 

Exports, United State* . ; 160—168 
Florida — History ; GoTemmeDt ; Ja- 

diciary; 6ank . . .957 

Fogs and Mints . . « 87 

Foreign Intercoorse . . .146 

Force supplied by each of the Thirteen 

States . . . .119 

Fraoee— King and Royal Fami ly ; Rev- 
oluiiou ; Constitutional Charter } 
Ministry . . . 990--^ 

General Post Office . . .133 

Ctoorgia — .Settlement ; Governors } Out- 
lines of the Constitution ; Govern- 
ment ; Judiciary ; Banks ', Peniten- 
tiary 'f Internal Improvement ; Edu- 
cation •, Iniiians . . . 929—933 
Goverumont, Executive^ United States 199 
Ck>vemment of the individual States, 8tc. 

See the several StateSj&.c. 
Governors of States and Territories 959 
Governors, l^isu of, enumerated. See 

the several Stiites. 
Great Britain— King and Royal Fam- 
ily ; Government ; Ministers and Cabi- 
net ; Parliament } House of Lords s 
Peers of England, Scotland, and 
Irelnnd ; House of Commons : Ec- 
clesiastical Establishment : English 
Bishops j Iriiih Bbhops ; Church of 
Scotland } Judiciary ; Army y Navy ; 
Ordnance : Bank of England ; Rev- 
enoe and Expenditure ; Debt ; East 
India Company ; Newspapers ; Be- 
nevolent SocteUes . . ^-971—989 

Gfeeee 303 

Hanover .... 998 
Bouse of Lords, England . . 975 

House of Commons, England • 980 
Bouse of Representatives, U. States 135 
Ulindts— rSettleroent ; Croveraors ; Out- 
lines of the Constitution ; Govern- 
ment ; Judiciary : Education 959—954 
Imports, Exports, Tonnage, U. States 160 
Independent American States . 969 
Indiana — Settlement ; Governors ; Out- 
lines of the Constitution ; Govern- 
ment ; Judiciary } Education 951, S)59 
Indians in the United States . . 165 

Indians in Geor^ ... 939 
Indians in Missunippi . . . 938 

Intercourse with Foreign Natioof 146 

Ireland. See Great Britain. 
Judiciary of England . . .984 

Judiciary of the United States . 138 
Jodieiary of the individual States. See 

the several States. 
Kentoeky — Settlement ; Goremocs ; 
Outlines of the Constitution ; Execu- 
tive and Legislature: Judiciary : 
Banks $ Taxes ; Penitentiary and 
. Bespitals } Internal Improvement ; 



LandOiBeee . 

Latitude and Longitude of Plaoes 
Lead— United States Lead Mines 154 

Legislatare, United States . 138 

LordSj engiub House of . 978 

LouLuana— Settlement and History; 
Governors : Outlines of the Consti- 
tution ; Government : Judiciary ; 
Banks i Commerce of New Orleans ; 
Education . 939-JM8 

Maine— Settlement and Histerf ; Gov- 
ernors ; Outlines of the Cunstitutioa ; 
Government; Judiciary ; Banks ; Ed- 
ucation . , , 171—179 
Maryland — Settlement ; Governors ; 
Outlines of the C<nistitQti«»n : Gov- 
ernment ; Judiciary ; Banks ; Inspec- 
tions of Flour ; Education 919—^6 
Massachusetts -Sett lement and Histo- 
ry *, <«overnurs ; Outlines of the Con- 
stituiion ; Executive: Legislature; 
Judiciary ; Banks ; Education 179—186 
Medical Schools, United Htates . . 160 
Members of «yongress, United States 134 
Michigan Territory— Governors ; Gov- 
ernment; Banks . . SIS7 
Military Academy . . . 147 
MissiMippi — Settlement ; Governors , 
Outlines of the Constitution ; Govern- 
ment ; Judiciary ; Bank ; Education ; 
Indians . . . 936--4 
Missouri'— -Settlement and History ; 
Governors ; Outlines of the Constitu- 
tion ; Judiciary: Education 954—956 
Naples. See Sicilies, Two. 
Navy of England . . 186 
Navy of the United States . , 148 
Navy Department . .139 
Netherhinds — King and Royal Family ; 

Government; Exfienditure . 969,970 
New Hampshire-^Sett lement and His- 
tory ; Governors ; Outlines of the 
Constitution ; Executive ; Legisla- 
ture ; Judiciary ; Banks ; Educa- 
tion .... 173—176 
New Jersey— Settlement and History ; 
Governors; Outliw's of the Consti- 
tution ; Judiciary ; Banks ; Educa- 
tion . . . 901—904 
Now York— Settlement and History; 
Governors ; Out!ines of the Constitu- 
tion ; Executive ; Legislature ; Judi- 
ciary ; Real and Personal Elstato in 
the city of Now York ; Banks : Ca- 
nals ; Salt Springs ; Number of Cierry; 
Education . . . 1O4--90I 
Newspapers .... 989 

Nimbus 94 

North Carolina— Settlement ; Gover- 
nors ; Outlines of the Constitution ; 
Ckivemment ; Judiciary ; Banks ; Ed- 
ucation .... 993- 
Norway— >Government . . 967 

Occttltation of the Planet Jupiter and 

his Satellites . . 30,31,33 

Oceultation of tlie Planet Saturn 39, 34 
Oecultation of Stars bv the Moon 99, 31 
Occuftation of a Star by a Planet 90 

Oceultation of the Planet Venus 99, 33 
Occultations, Remarks upon . 34 3 6 
Ofllcers of the Continental Army 111 

Ohio— Settiemeot ; Governors ; Ont- 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Page, 
lines of tlw Conatitatioo } Gt^nro' 
neat; Jndiciary } B«nlw; latanial 
ImprorMMiit ; BtotwtiM vf CMim *, 
Education • . . S47— JKO 

Fan^lea 



ParluaMttt, Ea|kncl 
Peera of Great Britain 



Fenn^raniaF— s^ettlement ; Goveroon ; 
Ootfinaf of the Cothititation ; Exeeo- 
tive and Legialatare ; Judieinry ; 
SehaylltiU ^aTigation ; Banks ; Bdn- 



10 

Planets, rinaf , wttinf , Ibe. of the 38, 39 
Planets, Signs of the . . .1 

Popnlatiou, United States . • 164 

Population of T6wns, United States 960 
Popniation of Europe . . . S64 

Fbrtiural— King and Royal Fuaiiy 901 

Post Office, General . . .133 

Post Offices and Postage . . 155 

Presidents of Congress . .113 

Prognostics .... 95 

^otestaatEptsoopal Church, U. S. 170 
^ussia^King uid Koyal Family ; Gef<- 

ernment; Edoeation . . 986 

Public Debt, United States . 154 

Kain, Amount of, in Great Britain . 100 
RAin, Theory of ... 96 

Rates of Postage . . .155 

Receipts, United States . . 156 

Rncular Army, United States . 112 

Religions Denominations, U. States 170 
Representatives to Congress . 135 

Revenue and Expenditure, England 967 
Revolutionary Expenses . . 119 

Revolutionary Register, Oflioers . Ill 

Rhode island— Settlement and Historr; 
Governors; Government ; Banks ; ^d- 
ucation . . . 186—190 

Rings of Saturn, position and magni- 
tude of the ... .38 
Russia — Emperor and Imperial Family ; 

Government . . . 967,968 

Sardinia — King and Royal Family 303 

Satellites of Jupiter, Bcfip^s nf the 36, 37 
Saxony— Kias and Rojral Family ; Gov- 
ernment J Leipsic uterury Fair 997 
Scotland. See Great Britam. 
Senate of the United States . . 134 
Sicilies, the Two, King and Royal 
Family . . . .309 



eigners of the Declaration of l ais p ea 

deuce .... 110 

South-Carolina — Settlement; Oosw- 

nors i Outlines of tlie Constitotkm ; 

Judiciary ; Banks ; Education 99 5-» «ig 
Sovereigns w Europe . . • M3 

Spain— King and Royal Family ; Gmu 

ernment .... SM 
Speakers of the Bsasn ef Repceseatft- 

tives .... 196—1216 
Bifttee of the Church— Government 368 
Statistical View of all the Ewopena 

States .... 964 
Steam-boat Tonnage . . . MO 

Supreme Court, United Slates . 140 

Stratvs . . . .91 

Successive Administrations . . ISS 

Sweden aod Norway— King and Royal 

Family: Govemraeot . . 5M6 

Tsmperance Societies . 364—307 

Tennessee Settlement ; GovemMs ; 

Outlines of the Constitution ; Govera^ 
ment ; Judiciary ; Edncatioo 919 ' 944 
Theological Seminaries . . 160 

Tide Table . . .41,48 

Tides, keifiht of the greatest . 9»,40 

Tonnage, United States . . 140 

Treasury Department . . IJJ 

Treasury, l£ngland . • • 97# 

Twenty-first Congress . . 131 

Turkey— SuHan and his Family; Gar- 

ernment .... 109 

United States . . . .107 

Vacations in Colleges . . 168 

Vermont — SeUlement and History; 
Governors ; Outlines of the Coo8tit»- 
tien ; Government , Jatticiary ; Banks ; 
Edoeation . . . 1»— 170 

Vessels of War, United States . 149 

Virginia — Settk^meot and History; 
Governors ; Outlines of the Consti" 
tuUoo j Expotitive Government j Jn- 
diciary; Hospitals and'FenitesluirT; 
Banks: Internal Improvement ; Ed«K 
caUon .... 916-4W 
War Department . 198 

Water, quantity of, in the Atmoepheia . 65 
Wurtemberg— King and Royal Family ; 

Government . . • . 916 

Zodiac, Signs of tha . . 1 



ERRATA. 



Puge 19, Kae 11, ibr on rtad or 

(( 13. (« 16. <( SaMtanbnrir << Spartanburg 



13; « 16;"" SpaaUnburg 
-^ « 80, ♦« infbtiar 



-superior 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



AMERICAN ALMANAC 



FOR THE TEAR 



1831. 



I. THE CALENDAR 
AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR. 



SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. 



The Sun. 

The Eartbi 
> #0<1 1*1^6 Moon. 
9 Mercury. 
2 Venus. 
^ Mars, 
fi Vesta. 



$ Juno. 

$ Pallas. 

J CereSi 

1|. Jupiter. 

Yi Saturn. 

^ Herschel or Uranus. 

3 Conjunction, or hav- 



ing the same Longitude or 
Right Ascension. 
Q Quadrature, or differing 

90° in Long, or R. A. 
,9 Opposition, or diTering 

180° in Long, or R. A. 
<^ ascend., y descend, node. 



The sign -f^ prefixed to the latitude or declination of the Sun, &c. indi- 
cates that the same is north; but when the sign — is prefixed, the latitude 
or declination is south. 

The letters M. A. or m. a. are used to denote Morning and Afternoon. 

By reduced latitude is meant the latitude referred to the centre of the 
terrestrial spheroid. If the earth were a perfect sphere, the common 
latitude and the reduced latitude would be the same. 



Dominical Letter . B 

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number 8 
Epact 17 



CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. 

Solar Cycle 
Roman Indiction 
Julian Period 



20 

4 

6644 



SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, 



WUk the Mean Time (at Washingtoii) of the Sun*8 Entrance mto, and 
Contmuanee tn, each of them, and the Length of the Seasons. 



San enters 

10. Vf (Capricomus.) 

11. t& (Aquarius.) 

12. H (Pisces.) 


1830, Dec. 21, 

1831, Jan. 20, 
« Feb. 18, 


h. m. 1. 
13 68 8.7 

85 15.9 
15 18 7.6 


Continues 

d. h. m. s. 

29 10 37 12.2 

14 42 61.7 

80 1 46.0 


1. cp (Aries.) 

2. y (Taurus.) 
8. n (Gemini.) 

1 


*' March 20, 
« April 20, 
« May 21; 


16 19 58.6 
8 86 84.9 
8 51 86.8 


12 16 41.8 

81 15 1.4 

8 86 57.8 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



8I«H8 or THE SODIAC, BMBER DATS, d&C. 



m^i 



San «nt«n 

; (Cancer.) 
(Leo.) 
' (Virgo.) 



7. £2: (Libra.) 

8. m (Scorpio.) 

9. / (Sagittarius.) 

Suo in the TV inter Signs 
«« Spring ^« 
«« Summer «* 
« Autumn " 



h. m. ■. 

21, 12 28 38.6 

22, 23 23 25.8 

23, 6 51 2.8 

Sept 23, 2 26 44.1 

Oct. 23, 10 36 48.1 
Nov. 22, 7 9 57.9 



1831, June 
" July 
•• Aug. 



Continoei 

d. h. m. ■• 

81 10 54 51.7 

6 27 87.0 

80 20 35 41.8 

8 10 4.0 

29 20 33 9.8 

12 48 49.1 

89 1 21 49.9 

92 21 8 40.0 

93 13 58 10.6 
89 17 27 2.9 



Sun pTorth df the Equator (Spring and Summer) 186 11 6 50.5 

«< South " ** (Winter and Autumn) 178 18 48 52.8 

Length of the tropical year, commencing at the winter ) o^. . k(i iia » 

solstice, 1830, and ending at the winter solstice,.1831 5 **'*** ^ ^ ^'^ 

Mean or average length of the tropical year . 865 5 48 47.8 

EMBER DAYS. 

February 2Sd, 25th, and 26th. I September 2l8t, 23d, and 24th. 
May 25th, 27th, and 28th. | December 14th, 16th^ and 17tb. 



MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH IN 1831. 



Septuagesima Sunday, January 80. 
Quinq. or Shrove Sunday, Feb. 13. 
Ash Wed., Ist day of Lent, '* 16. 
Mid-Lent Sunday, . March 13. 



Palm Sunday, 
Ea$Ur Dat/i . 

Low Sunday, . 
Rogation Sunday, 



27. 
AprU 3. 
" 10. 

May 8. 



Rogation Monday, . May 9. 

" Tuesday, . «« 10. 

Ascension Day, . . ** 1^ 

Whitsunday, or Pentecost, «« 22. 

Trinity Sunday, . . «« 29. 

Corpus Christi Day, . June 2. 

Advent Sunday, . . Nov. 27* 



JEWISH CALENDAR. 
The Faatf m Feaits noarked with an asterisk are ttrictly observed. 



Namei of the Moothf. 

5591 IstofThebet 

«« 10th ** 

*« 1st of Sebat 

« IstofAdar 

«« 13th «« 

«• 14th « 

«« 15th «« 

« 1st of Nisan 

« 15th " 

«« 16th ** 



Dec. 17, 1880. 
Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem " 26, «« 

Jan. 15, 1881. 

Feb. 14, «« 

Fast of Esther . . «« 26, «< 

•Purim . . . « 27, •« 

Schuican Purim . . << 28, ** 

. March 15, •« 

"Beginning of the Passover <* 29, ** 

•Second Feast or Morrow of the 

Passover . *• 80, •• 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



JEWMB A3X9 UAMOMMTASI CjUJBVPA&I. 



ICtmei of the M onthi. 

5691 21stofNi8an 

«c 22d " 

«« 1st of Ijv 

" 18th •* 

«< Ist of Sivan 

«« 6th « 

« 7th * " 

« 1st of Thammus 

« 17th 

«« 1st of Ah 

" 9th " 

« 1st of Elul 

5592 IstofHsri 

" 2d 

«« Sd " 

'« 10th " 

« 15th " 

«« 16th " 

« 21st " 

« 22d «« 

« 23d " ' 

** IstofMarchesvan 

«* Ist of Chisleu 

" 25th *' 

« IstofThebet 

" 10th " 

" IstofSebat 



•Seventh Feast . 
•End of the Pasaover 

Lag boomer 

•Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost 
Second Feast . 

Fast for the Taking of the Temple 

•Fast for the Burning of the Temple 

•Feast for the New Year 
•Second Feast for the New Year 

Fast of Gedaljah 
•Feast of the Reconciliation 
•Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles 
•Second Feast 

Feast of Palms or Branches 
•£nd of the Congregation, or Hut- 
Feast 
•Rejoicing for the Discovery of the 
Law . ' . 



Consecration of the Ten^le 
Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem 



April 4, 


188L 


" 6. 


c< 


" 14, 


(C 


May 1, 


<< 


« IS, 


<« 


« 18, 


« 


" 19, 


<c 


June 12, 


a 


" 28, 


« 


July 11, 


«€ 


« 19, 


« 


Aug. 10, 


it 


Sept. 8, 


«< 


*' 9, 


« 


« 10, 


*t 


" 17, 


u 


«« 22, 


it 


" 23, 


it 



29, 



« 80, 


(C 


Oct. 8, 


« 


Nov. 6, 


« 


« 80, 


« 


Dec. 6, 


<c 


'• 14, 


it 


Jan. 8, 


1882. 



MAHOMETAN CALENDAR* 



KwBOM of the Months. 



1246 1st 
«* 1st 
« 1st 
«« Ist 
** 1st 
•* 1st 

1247 1st 
" Ist' 
« 1st 
« 1st 
«* 1st 
'* Ist 
« Ist 
« 1st 



of Regeb 
of Shaban 
of Ramadan 
of Schewall 
of Dsu'lkadah 
of Dsulhejjah 
of Moharrem 
of Saphar 
of Rabia I. 
of Rabia II. 
of Jomadhi I. 
of Jomadhi II. 
of Regeb 
of Sliaban 



SigoifieatioBS* 

Month of Hope . 
Month of Abstinence 
Month of Rejoicing 
Month of Repo«e 
Month of Ceremonies 
Sacred Month 
Month of Study . 
Honored Month 

C( (C 

Month of Prayer 



Month of Hope 



. Dec. 15, 


1880. 


Jan, 14, 


1831. 


. Feb. 12, 


<c 


. March 14, 


it 


April 12, 


a 


May 12, 


<c 


. June 11, 


<c 


July 11, 


it 


. Aug. 9, 


it 


Sept. 8, 


it 


. Oct. 7, 


it 


Nov. 6, 


it 


. Dec. 6, 


«« 


Jan. 4, 


1882. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



4 ECLIPSE OF FSBEUART 12tH. 

Appearance of the Sun, at the apparent Conjunction of the Sun and Mood, in 
the Eclipse of the 12th of February, at Petersburg, Va., Cahawba, Siascon- 
set, Halifax, and all other places where the Sun is centrally, or very nearly 
centrally, eclipsed. 




Appearance of the Sun, at the greatest Obscuration, at Natchez, Nashville^ 
Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, New Haven, Hartford, 
Boston, New Bedford, Por'.smouth, Portland, and all other places where the 
Sun will be about 11^ digits eclipsed on his South Limb. 




aeuptnb 



ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AND MOON IN 1831. 

There wiU be two eclipses of the Sun, viz. od the 12th of Febniuy and 
7th of August The former will be annular, and the latter total. 

There will be two eclipses of the Moon also, both partial ; viz. on the 
26th of February and 23d of August 

I. Annular eclipse of the Sun on Saturday, February 12th, risible through* 
out the United States. 

[In the computation of tliis eclipse, Carlini's tables, corrected by the for- 
mula of Professor Bessel, were used for the Solar elements, and the tables 
of Damoiseau for the elements of the Moon. Damoiseau*s tables were 
preferred to those of Burckhardt and Bui^, not only from the circumstance 
that they are of later date, but because the apparent latitude of the Moon 
in this eclipse, deduced from these tables, is yery nearly the mean of that 
deduced from the other two, as will be seen by turning to the phases of 
the eclipse at Nantucket, Halifax, and Boston ; the difference, however, 
between them amounts to a very few seconds only, especially in the longi- 
tude. The elements of the eclipse, as given by these tables respectively, will 
be found in the Appendix to this part They were computed twice with 
great care, for February 12th, 2d, 8d, 4th, 6th, 6th, 7th, and 8th hours, for 
ue meridian of Paris, and thence interpolated for eveiy quarter of an hour 
for the meridian of Greenwich* 

The ellipticity of the Earth was considered one three«hundredth ; accord- 
ing to which quantity the equatorial parallax of the Moon was invariably 
diminished, and the latitude of each place reduced. 
In computing the paths of the different digits, and of the contact of the 
. limbs, the augmentation of the Moon's diameter, on account of her altitude 
was taken into consideration. The diameter of the Sun was diminished 
T' for irradiation. The Moon's motion was not considered uniform through- 
out the eclipse, as is sometimes done, but her actual distance from the Sun 
in Right Ascension, and the difference of their declinations, were made use 
of in each computation.] 

The Longitudes are, reckoned from Greenwich. 

The Longitude of Washington in time is 5h. 7m. 42s. 

Phaset of the General EeUp$e, 
The ecHpie will first be visible in the North Pacific Ocean. 



Mean Time at Mean Time at 



h. nu •• b. u. 



Bechuung of the general ^ 
edipee, or ecMp«e first > [9 42 4 M 
teen at tunrise ) 



Washington 



the place. 



6 28 84 M. 



Latitiide of 
the place. 

14 9N. 



Longitad* of 
the place. 

12fi 18 W. 



Latest termfnition of the eclipse in the Atlantic Ocean, near the West 
emldtnds. 



End of the general e- 
clipse, or eclipse last 
Men at sunset 



40 16 N. 



2 44 88A.» tt 7A 
DoratiOB of #ke entire ecKpse for fhe wliole ear^ 8h. 2fii. 49i. 



86 22W. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ECLIPSE OF FEBRUARY 12tH. 



Path of the Central Eclipse, that of the contact of the JUnibs, and qf sev- 
eral of the Digits. 

[By the tables of Durckhardt, these paths will pass about 6 miles farther 
north, and by those of Burf^, about 6 miles farther south.] 

The Siio will not be eclipsed less than six digits, on his south limb, in 
any part of the Earth ; but ihe path of six digits, on his south limb, will be 
almost exactly In contact with the E^rth, at sunrise,^ at Oh. 16m. A. Mean 
Time at Washington, in Latitude 70° N., Longitude 124^1° W. 

Path of 9 Digits eclipsed on ihe South Limb. 



San riies 9 digits eclipsed at 
Sun 8 digits eclipsed ' 



Mean time 

at 
WoshUon. 
h. m. s« 

11 19 26 M, 

22 18 
37 18 
52 18 

7 18 A. 

23 18 
37 18 
37 55 
52 18 

1 7 18 
10 38 

Duration of this path on the Earth 

* On the meridian of the place. 



u * 



Bon sets 9 digits eclipsed at 



Mean time, Latitude 



the place, 
h^ m. s. 

7J0 44M. 
59 52 

915 46 

10 5 2 
47 53 

11 29 IS 
012 42 A. 

14 34 

1 3 53 

2 23 14 
342 



Longitude 



of the 


of 




place. 


the place. 




^4 41 N. 


1§9 '6W. 


North Pacific. 


42 5.6 


127 32.0 


" « [icow 
IntProv.ofMeiy 


40 42.4 


112 18.4 


4128.0 


103 44.5 


Missouri Territ. 


43 9.3 


96 46.7 


(( t( 


45 36.6 


90 11.2 


Northwest «* 


48 56.9 


83 4.6 


Upper Canada. 


49 6.5 


82 45.6 


(( {( 


53 36.7 


74 1.7 


Lahrador. 


61 59.0 


56 41.6 


Uavis» Stiaiti. 


63 32.0 


39 5.0 


6re<=^nland. 




Ih. 51m. 


12s. 



The path of nine digits begins in the north Pacific Ocean, passes over 
the northern or internal provinces of the Republic of Mexico, the Missouri 
and Northwest Territories of the United States, Lake Supeiior, Upper 
Canada, Labrador, and Davis* Straits, and ends with the setting of the 
Sun in Greenland. 

Eleven Digits on the South lAmb. 



Son ria. 11 dig. ec, 
Son lldigitaec. at 



Mean time 


Mean time ; 


at 


at 1 


Wash'ton. 


the plac 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


11 3 28M. 


6 54 54 M 


7 18 


7 49 31 


22 18 


9 2 12 


37 18 


49 35 


52 18 


10 29 52 


57 18 


42 31 


2 18 A. 


M58 


7 18 


11 7 12 


12 18 


1925 


17 18 


3143 


22 18 


43 56 


27 18 * 


56 18 


32 18 


9 A 


3496 


14 34 


37 18 


22 3 


42 18 


35 36 


4718 


4935 


5318 


1 413 


6718 


30 11 


1 218 


37 34 


7 18 


56 44 


2218 


336 3 


23 43 


4 3417 



of the 1 of 
place, the place. 

fe4'l N. 1§9 '4W. 
33 5.2 126 22.3 
11157.0 



3125.8 
42.7 

32 47.6 

33 17.2 
50.5 

34 27.4 
3.5 7.7 

51^ 

36 39.7 

37 31.5 
27.5 
53.0 

39 28.3 

40 33.6 
4144.7 

43 2.7 

44 29.3 

46 5.7 

47 55.0 
56 53.4 
60 40.0 



103 51.3 
97 32.1 
95 37.2 
93 45.6 
9156.9 
90 8.7 
88 19.6 
86 30.9 
84 40.4 
82 45.0 
8153.6 
80 44.4 
78 38.5 
76 23.7 
73 66.7 
71 12.2 
68 6.6 
64 34.1 
43 29.6 
2917.0 



Son Mtfl 11 dig. ec. 

DoMtioQ of this path on the Earth 

t On the meridian of the place. 



North Pacific Ocean. 

(C i( (( 

Internal or noithem proT> 
inees of the AepobliC 
of Mexico. 

Ct ({ (t 

Arkansas Territory, near 

LitttP Rock. 
Ark. Ter., near Tenn. 
Carrol Co., Tennessee. 
Robertson Co., " 
Washington Co., Kentoc. 
Lawrence Co.^ ** 
Mason Co., Virciiua. 
Tyler " ?« 

Cambria Co., Pennsylr. 
Bradford " " 

Saratoga " N. York. 
Coos (* N. Hamp. 
Penobscot Co., Maine. . 
Bav, Chaleur. 
Atfantie Ocean. 

** near Iceland. 
Sh. aOm. Us. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



KCI.1PSB OF FBBEUAET l^T^. 7 

This path begins id the North Pacific, passes across the province of Old 
CaKfomia, the Grulf of California, Intendency of Sonora, and the province 
of New Mexico, in the Republic of Mexico ; through the southeastern part 
niArkansfU Territory (passing near Little Rocic), across the Counties of 
Shelby, Tipton, Haywood, Madison, Carroll, Humphries, Dickson, Mont- 
gomery, and Robertson, in the State o{ Tentieisee ; the Counties of Simp- 
son, Warren, Barren, Greene, Washineton, Mercer, Casey, Lincoln, Garrard, 
Madison, Clark, Moutgomery, Bath, Fleming, Lawrence, and Greenup, in , 
Kentucky ; the Counties of Lawrence and Gallia, in Ohio ; the Counties 
of Mason, Wood, Tyler, and Ohio, in Virginia ; the Counties of Greene^ 
Fayette, Westmoreland, Indiana, Cambria, Clearfield, Centre, Lycoming, 
Bradford, aud Susquehannah, in Pennsylvania ; the Counties of Brooqne, 
Chenango, Otsego, Schoharie, Montgomery, Saratoga, and Washington, 
in the State of JVHo York; the Counties of Rutland, Windsor, and Orange, 
in Vermont; the Counties of Grafton and Coos, in JVeto Hampshire; Uie 
Counties of Oxford, Somerset, Penobscot, and Washington, in Maine; 
the north part of JVew Brunswick ; the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; the east 
end of the island Anticosti ; the northern eictremity of JVewfoundland to 
the Atlantic Ocean ; and ends about 450 miles S. W. of Iceland. 

Paih of the Contact of the Southern Limbs, or JVorthem Limit of the 
Annular JSelipse. 

This path, whilst on the Conthient, will pass about 35 English mile* 
northerly of the path of the Centre, and very nearly parallel thereto ; where 
the Moon is near the horizon, the distance will be about 50 miles. 

This path will begin in the North Pacific, and will pass across the prov- 
inces of Old California, Sonora, Durango, San Luis Potosi, aud Texas, in 
Mexico ; the County of Opelousas, and the Parishes of Avoyelles and 
Concordia, in Louisiana ; the Counties of Wilkinson, Amite, Lawrence, 
and the south part of the Choctaw territory, in Mississippi ; the Counties 
of Greene, Perry, Bibb, Shelby, and the territory of the Upper Creeks, in 
Alabama} the territory of the Cherokees, the Counties of Hall and Habers- 
ham, in Georgia ; Pendleton district in South Carolina ; the Counties of 
Haywood, Buncombe, Burke, Iredell, Rowan, Stokes, and Rockingham, in 
^orth Carolina ; the Counties of Pittsylvania, Campbell, Charlotte, Prince 
Edward, Cumberland, Powhatan, Goochland, Hanover, Caroline, King and 
Queen, Essex^ Richmond, and Westmoreland, in Virginia; across the 
Potomac, the County of St Manr, Chesapeake Bay, and the Couaties 
of Calvert and Dorchester, in Maryland ; the Counties of Sussex and 
Kent.in Delaware ; across Delawace Bay and the Counties of Cape May 
and Gloucester, in J^Tew /ersey, into the Atlantic Ocean; thence across 
Boke's County and the County of Barnstable, in Massachusetts ; thence 
Into the AtlanUc again, thence across the whole length of J^Tova Seetiat 
the islands of Cape Breton and JVewfoundland into the Atlantic Ocean for 
iBtke third time, and will end about 600 miles east of Greenland. 

To the inhskbitants of the portion of the earth comprehended between 
tiie two preceding paths, the Sun will appear to be eclipsed from 11 to 11| 
digits on his south limb, the magnitude of the eclipse being greatest near 
Ae latter path. It will be observed, that a large part of the inhabited por- 
tion of the United States, and a stiU larger proportion of our principal 
dties, are contained in this space. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



BCLXPSS OF FSBEUART l^TB. 



Paih of the Centred Eclipse for everif Minute^ from ihe Time of ii» 
eowimg upon the Continent, in Cah/omia, till it leaees the Island tf 
^e^fiundland, and for every Fifth Minute during the Remaindtr of 
tho Time of Us Continuance upon the Earth. 



8.iif.O0iitr»llyec. 
*< oentnUy eclip«. 



Meantime 


Mean time 


Latitude 


Longitude 




at 


at 


of 


of 




Wathton. 


the place. 


the place. 


tlie place. 




b. n. s. 

10 58 DM. 


h. m. ■. . , 
6 50 9M.Jl25.2N. 


l58 5^.4W. 


North Paoifio. 


11 218 


7 4913 


29 26.9 


125 11.7 


{( u 


7 18 


818 22 


28 30.6 


119 9.6 


(( t( 


1918 


4029 


3.4 


11458.8 


laland of Oerrai. 




BepubUe of Mexico. 




1113 18 M. 


8 44 96 M. 


27 59.9N. 


114 8.6W. 


Old California. 


1418 


48 16 


57.0 


113 25^ 


{< C( 


1518 


52 2 


54.4 


112 44.6 


Golfof «« 


16 18 


55 41 


59.3 


4.7 


(( <« 


17 18 


59 15 


50.8 


111 26.2 


Intendency of Sonera. 


18 18 


9 244 


49.5 


110 49.0 


{( i» It 


1918 


6 8 


48.6 


12.9 


C( (C •( 


9018 


929 


48.0 


10937.8 


<( C< t( 


2118 
21^18 


12 46 


47.7 


3.5 


(C (t tc 


16 


47.8 


108 30.0 


Prorince of New BiMaj. 


2318 


1910 


48.1 


107 57.4 


CI CC *4 


24 18 


22 18 


48.8 


25.6 


« It <( 


25 18 


25 22 


49.7 


106 54.4 


U t* «C 


2618 


28 24 


50.8 


94.0 


(( (C CC 


27 18 


3123 


52.3 


105 54.9 


CC CC u 


2818 


3120 


54.0 


25.0 


CC CC CC 


2918 


3715 


55.8 


104 56.2 


CC C( K 


30 18 


40 8 


57.9 


98.0 


CC CC M 


3118 


^^58 


98 0.1 


0.4 


BolMHideMapiiBi. 


3218 


45 47 


2.6 


103 33.9 


CC CC 


33 18 


48 35 


5.3 


6^ 


CC CC 


3418 


5191 


8.1 


109 39.8 


M <( 


35 18 


54 5 


11.0 


13.8 


PnmneeofOoliabnaa. 


36 18 


56 48 


14.1 


101 48.1 


u tt 


37 18 


59 29 


17.4 


22.8 


tt ' CC 


38 18 


10 2 8 


20.9 


100 57.9 


CC CC 


39 18 


447 


24.5 


33.9 


C» CC 


4018 


725 


98.3 


8.9 


CC CC 


4118 


10 1 


32.3 


99 44.8 


Prav.ofNewSantaadflB 


42 18 


12 36 


36.4 


9L1 


CC CC u 


4318 


15 10 


40.7 


98 57.6 


CC CC CC 


44 18 


17 43 


45.1 


34.9 


M CC K 


45 18 


2015 


48.7 


11.9 


PrariimorTazai. 


4618 


22 46 


54.5 


97 48.4 


CC CC 


47 18 


2517 


59.4 


95.7 


C H 


4818 


27 47 


29 4.4 


3.9 


CC CC 


4tl8 


3016 


9.6 


9640.9 


CC CC 


5018 


38 45 


14.9 


18.7 


u u 


5118 


3513 


90.3 


85 56.7 


CC CC 


5818 


37 40 


25.9 


34.9 


CC CC 


SB 18 


40 7 


31.6 


13.3 


CC CC 


5418 


4SiaSk 


37.5 


9i51.9 


a M 


5518 


4457 


43.5 


aoj 


CC CC 


5618 


47 28 


49.6 


9^ 


CC CC 


5718 


«46 


55.8 


9348.9 


CC i« 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC • 



XCLIFSE OF FEBRUARY l^fl 

United States. 
Louisiana. 







Mean time 


Mean time 


Latitade 


Longitudel 








at 


at 


of 


of 








Wash'ton. 


the place. 


the place. 


the place. 




Bun centrally ec. 


ll. ID. R. 

J158 18M. 


h. m. s . 
10 52 10 M. 


* ^.IN. 


& ^.5W. 


County of Opelooias. 


C( 


cc 


59 18 


54 34 


8.6 


6.6 


cc cc 


« 


cc 


018 


56 57 


15.3 


99 45.8 


cc cc 


u 


cc 


118 


59 2J 


22.0 


25.0 


cc cc 


u 


cc 


218 


11 142 


28.9 


4.4 


(C cc 


it 


cc 


318 


4 5 


36.9 


9143.8 


cc cc 


tt 


cc 


4 18 


627 


43.0 


23.2 


" of Point Coupee. 


c. 


cc 


5 18 


8 49 


60.2 


2.7 


PariHh of New FeliciaiM. 


cc 


(C 


618 


nil 


57.6 


90 42.3 


« of St. Helena 








Mississippi. 


cc 


cc 


7 18 


11 13 32 M. 


31 5.1 N. 


90 22.0W. 


County of Pike 


(( 


cc 


818 


' 15 54 


12.8 


1.6 


•• Marion. 


cc 


cc 


918 


18 15 


20.6 


89 41.3 


cc (c 


cc 


cc 


10 18 


20 36 


28.5 


20.9 


« Covington. 


cc 


cc 


1118 


22 58 


36.6 


0.6 


i; Wa^ne. 


cc 


cc 


1218 


25 19 


44.7 


88 40.2 








Alabama. 


u 


cc 


01318 


11 27 40 M. 


31 52.9 N. 


88 19.9W. 


County of Washingtoo. 


cc 


cc 


14 18 


30 2 


32 1.3 


87 59.6 


" Marengo. 


cc 


cc 


15 18 A. 


32 23 


9.9 


39.2 


cc (C 


cc 


cc 


1618 


34 45 


18.6 


18.8 


*« Dallat. 


cc 


cc 


16 35 


35 24 


^.2 


13.2 


Town of Cahawba. 


u 


cc 


17 18 


37 6 


27.3 


86 58.4 


County of Dallas. 


cc 


cc 


1818 


39 28 


36.2 


38.1 


" Autauga. 


cc 


cc 


19 18 


4149 


45.3 


17.7 


Territory of Upper Creek 


cc 


cc 


20 18 


4411 


54.6 


85 57.2 


Indiana. 


cc 


cc 


2118 


46 34 


33 3.9 


36.5 


(C M 


cc 


cc 


2218 


48 57 


13.4 


15.8 


C« M 








Georgia. 


cc 


cc 


23 18 A. 


11 51 20 M. 


33 22.9 N. 


84 55.1W. 


Territory of the Lower 


cc 


cc 


24 18 


53 43 


32.6 


34.2 


Creeks. 


cc 


cc 


2518 


56 7 


-^2.4 


13.3 


County of De Kalb. 


cc 


cc 


2618 


58 31 


52.4 


83 52.2 


« Gwinnett. 


c< 


cc 


27 18 


056 


34 2.6 


31.1 


« Jackson. 


u 


«« 


2818 


320 


12.9 


9.9 


« Madison. 


c. 


cc 


2918 


546 


23.4 |82 48.6 


« Franklin. 








South Carolina. 


cc 


cc 


30 18 A. 


812 


34 34.0 N. 


32 27.1W. 


Distiict of Pendleton. 


cc 


cc 


3118 


10 38 


44.8 


5.5 


" ^ GreenviUe. 


cc 
cc 


cc 
cc 


32 18 
♦32 54 


13 5 

14 34 A. 


55.7 
35 2.4 


8143.7 
30.5 


Yotk. 


cc 


cc 


33 18 


15 33 


6.8 


21.8 


U (C 








North Carolina. 


cc 


cc 


034 18 A. 


18 lA. 


35 18.1 N. 


80 59.7W 


County of Lincoln., 


- cc 


(C 


3518 


20 30 


29.5 


37.4 


« Cabarraa. 


cc 


cc 


36 18 


23 


41.1 


14.9 


" Rowan. 


cc 


cc 


37 18 


25 31 


52.9 


79 52.2 


« Randolph. 


cc 


cc 


38 18 


28 3 


36 4.8 


29.3 


" Orange. 


cc 


cc 


39 18 


30 36 


16.9 


6.1 


" Person. 


cc 


cc 


40 18 


33 


29.2 


78.42.8 


« Granville. 



* On the meddian of the place. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



10 



Bon oentrally ec. 



mcLXBnm or mKOA&T l^B. 

Virginia. 



Meantime 


Meanthne 


Latitade 


Longitude 


at 


at> 


of 


of 


Wasb'ton. 


the place. 


the place. 


the place. 


h. ID. B. 

41 18 A. 


h. m. 8. 

35 43 A. 


&^1.6N. 


f8 rt.2W. 


42 18 


3819 


54.1 


77 55.3 


43 18 


40 56 


37 6.0 


31.1 


44 18 


43 33 


19.9 


6.7 


45 la 


46 la 


33.2 


76 41.9 


4618 


48 53 


46.6 


16.7 



County of MecUenbnry. 
Lunenbarff. 
Chesterfield. 
Charles City. 
King & daeeiu 
Northnmbeiland. 



Maryland. 



I 47 18 A.| 51 35 A.|38 0.2N.|75 51.3W.ICounty of Somerset. 
I 4818 I 5418 j 14.1 | 25.5 | <' Worcester 

Delaware. 
I 49 18 A.i 57 3 A.I38 28.2 N.I74 59.3W.|S.E. extrem. of San»x 09, 



Off Cape May. 
Off New Jersey. 





Atlantic Ocean 


. 


50 18 A. 


59 49 A. 


38 42.5 N. 


74 32.7W. 


5118 


1 238 


57.1 


5.6 


52 18 


528 


39 12,0 


73 38.1 


53 18 


820 


S7!l 


10.1 


54 18 


11 14 


42.3 


72 41.6 


i>5J8 


14.10 


57.8 


12.6 


56 18 


17 8 


40 13.6 


71 43.0 


57 18 


20 9 


29.7 


12.7 


57 48 


2140 


37.9 


70 57.4 


58 18 


2312 


46.1 


41.9 


58 48 


24 45 


54.4 


26.3 



Off Long Island. 



Off Rhode Island. 
Off Massachosettft. 



I 59 18 A, 
♦ 59 48 
I 1 018 



Massachusetts. 
1 26 18 A.I41 2.8N.|70 10.4W.| 



27 53 

29 28 



11.3 
20.0 



169 54.3 
38.0 



Atlantic Ocean. 



1 118 A. 


132 40 A. 


41 37.5 N. 


69 4.9W. 


218 


35 56 


55.3 


68 31.0 


318 


39 16 


42 13.5 


67 56.1 


418 


42 39 


32.2 


20.3 


518 


46 6 


51.4 


66 43.6 


6 18 


49 37 


43J0.9 


5.8 


7 18 


5313 


30.9 


65 26.8 


818 


56 54 


51.4 


64 46.4 


9 18 


2 042 


44 12.4 


4.6 


1018 


435 


34.0 


63 21.3 


1118 


8 3-1 


56.2 


62 36.5 



15 miles S. from NaoyL 
6 «* S. E. «« «* 
18 ' « £. «< «« 



Off Cape Cod. 
East of Cape Cod. 
Cape Ann. 
it 

S. E. of Cape Sab]^ 



Near Cape Sable. 
{( <( (( 

South of Halifax. 
S. E. of « 



Nova Scotia. 



I 1 12 18 AJ 
I 13 18 1 



2 12 40 A.|45 19.0 N.|61 49.9 W.t To^ FromRM. 

16 55 I 42.7 I 1.2 |N. E. extremity, n. Streit 

Island of Cape Breton. ^ 

« « I 114 18 A.I 2 21 19 A. 146 7.1 N.I60 10.2W. INorth of Louisburg 

Atlantic Ocean. 

« "11 W 18 A.I 2 25 53 A.|46 32.5 N.|59 16.7W.|Gulf of St. Lawrenoe. 

«•■ « 1618 30 39 58.6 58 20.3 

« «< I 1718 I 35 87 |47 26.3 157 20.7 

Island of Newfoundland. 

« " I 1 13 18 A.I 2 40 50 A.|47 54.8N.|56 17.6W.| 

" « I 19 18 I 4618 148 24.8 |55 10.5 | 

• By Burckhardt's tables, the eclipse will be exactly central in the Tillage of Siaoooo* 
■et, in the southeast extremity of this island. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ECLirSE <Mr VSBftUART IdVB. 



u 



Atlantic Ocean. 



a centrally e 



Son Mtt cent. ec. 



Mean time 


Meantime 


Latitude 


Longitode 


at 


at 


of 


%f 


Waah»ton. 


Uie place. 


the place. 


the place. 


h. m. 8. 


D. m. s. 






120 18 A. 


252 3A. 


4 5^.0 M. 


jfe5b.aw. 


3118 


58 8 


49 29.2 


52 43.1 


2218 


3 5 3 


50 5.8 


5114J3 


2718 


54 8 


5413.5 


40 13.0 


26 45 


443 39 


57 50.6 


2812.1 



Bonarista Bar. 
EastofNewfot 



South of Greenland. 
Soniheait of Greenkoid. 



Duration of thii path 



3h. 30m. 36s. 



Ttia path bedns in the North Pacific, passes across the island of Cerros^ 
the province of Old California, the Gulf of California, the Intendency of 
Sonora, and the provinces of New Biscay, Bolson de Mapimi, Cohahuila, 
New Santander, and Texas, in Mexico, into t*he United State§, crosring 
flie river Sabine at the place of its entrance into the lake of the same 
name ; thence over the County and near the town of Opelousas, the norUi- 
west comer of the parish of West Baton Rouge, the County of Point 
CoQpee, and the pari^ of New Feliciana, in the State of Louisiana ; acnNW 
&e Counties of Pike, Marion, Perry, Covington, and Wayne, in Mitnt' 
tippi; the Counties of Washington, Marengo, Wilcox, Dallas, Autauga^ 
and the territory of the Upper Creek Indians, in Alabama ; the territoiy of 
the Cherokee and Lower Creek Indians, and the Counties of Fayette, De 
Kalb, Gwinnett, Hall, Jackson (passing a little north of the town of Athens), 
Madison, Elbert, and the southeast comer of Franklin, in Georgia; the 
districts of Pendleton, Greenville, Spartanburgh, (passing a few miles south- 
east of the towns of the same name,) and York, in South Carolina ; the 
Counties of Lincoln, Mecklenburg, Cabarras, Rowan, Randolph, Guildford, 
Oranse, Ct^well, and Person, in JVorth Carolina ; the Counties of Hali- 
te, Mecklenburg, Lunenburg, Dinwiddie (passing very near Petersburg), 
Chesterfield, Charies City, New Kent, King WilTiam, King and Queen, 
Ifiddlesex, Lancaster, and Northumberland, in Virginia ; across the 
Chesapeake a little below the entrance of the Potomac, and the Counties 
of Somerset and Worcester, in Maryland; across the southeast comer of 
Baltunore Hundred* in the County of Sussex, in Delaware, into the At- 
lantic Ocean ; thence to Cape Sable in Nova Scotia, passing within 6 males 
of the southeast part of the island of Nantucket (where, however, by the 
tables of Burckhardt, the eclipse will be exactly central), across Novm 
Bcotia, the island of Cape Breton, the entrance of the Gulf of St Law* 
rence, and the island of Newfoundland into the Atlantic, where it ends about 
050 miles E. S. E. of Greenland, and 500 miles southwest of Iceland. 

The apparent velocity of the Moon, it will be observed, is quite unequal, 
being very great when she is near the horizon, then decreasing till the time 
flf her true conjunction with the Sun in longitude, at which time her loi^ 
citnde is the same as that of the nonagesimal or of the zenith, and then 
mcreasfaig widi an accelerated velocity till she comes to the horizon again, 
or till the time of the end of the central eclipse. 

The Moon, at the time when the preceding path crosses the island of 
Cerros, apparentlg moves at the rate of about 45 miles per minute, but at 
the time of its entrance into the United States, in Louisiana, moves about 
91 miles only per minute, which is neariy the least velocity ; her velocity 
tilien begins, but very slowly, to increase, being in the State of Missis* 
rippi about the same ; in Alabama about 23 miles ; in Georgia! about 24 ; 
in Soatfi and North Carolina about 25; in Vir^nia about 26; in Maryland 
and Delaware about 28 ; in crossing the Atlantic to the island of Nantucket 
abont 83 ; off Nantucket about 85 ; in crosMng the ocean to Cape Sable 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



18 aeuvss of fbbiutaat Idra. 

about 88 ; in (he southwest part of Nova Scotia about 41 ; in the northeast 
part of the same province 46 ; in crossing from Cape Breton to Newfound-* 
land 61 ; and in crostning the latter island, about 64 miles per minute. 

Neither will the distance of the Moon, nor her motion in her orbit, be 
uniform throughout the eclipse. At the beginning of the general eclipse 
the distance between the centres of the Earth and Moon will be 236,460, 
and at the end 235,940, English miles ; and her hourly motion from the 
Sun, referred to the centre of the Earth at the same tintes, will be 2134- and 
2140 miles. 

Path of the Contact of the JVorthem Limbs, on the Southern Boundary 
of the Annular Eclipse, 

This path will pass about 36 miles in a southerly direction from the path 
of the Centre, and very nearly parallel to it ; but, where the Moon has 
but little altitude, the distance from the Central path will be about 50 
miles. 

This path begins in the North Pacific, crosses the province of Old Cali- 
fornia, the Gulf of California, the Intendency of Sonora, the provinces of 
Chiguagua, Bolson de Mapimi, Cohahuila, New Santander, and Texas, in 
Mexico ; the Counties of Opelousas and Attakapas, the Parishes of West 
Baton Kouge, East Baton Rouge, St. Helena, and St. Tammany, in 
Louisiana; the Counties of Hancock, Jackson, and Greene, in Mi^r 
sissippi; the Counties of Mobile, Washington, Clarke, Monroe,' Wilcox, 
Montgomery, Pike, and the Territory of the Upper Creek Indians, in 
Alabama ; the Territory of the Lower Creeks, and the Counties of Pike, 
Henry, Jasper, Morgan, Greene, Washington, and Lincoln, in Georgia; 
the Districts of Abbeville, Laurens, Union, Chester, York, and Lancaster, 
in South Carolina ; the Counties of Mecklenburg, Anson, Montgomery, 
Moore, Chatham, Wake, Franklin, Warren, Halifax, and Northampton, m 
^orlh Carolina ;^ the Counties of Greenville, Sussex, Surry, Warwick, 
and York, across the Chesapeake, and the Counties of Northampton and 
Accomack, in Virginia^ where it leaves the Continent ; thence across the 
Atlantic to the island of Newfoundland^ across that island where it is nar- 
rowest (between Placentia and Trinity bays) into the Atlantic again, and 
ends near the termination of the path of the Centre, about 600 miles south- 
east of Gceenland, and 550 southwest of Iceland. 

The magnitude of the obscured part of the Sun will be very nearly the 
same throughout the space comprehended between the three preceding 
paths ; but the appearance of the Sun at the nearest approach of the centres 
of the Sun and Moon will be very different. To the inhabitants of the 
country traversed by \he first of the three, the south limbs of the Sun and 
Moon will appear exactly in contact. Approaching a little towards the path 
of the centre, 2i xm^ mW be seen about the Sun; but of unequal width, 
being much wider on the northern than on the southern side. As we con- 
tinue to advance, this inequality diminishes, the southern side of the ring 
becoming wider, and the northern contracting, until, on our aniving thereat, 
the ring becomes peifect, and of equal width round the Sun. Its duration 
is here the greatest, being (on the continent) about two minutes. If we 
proceed, still in a southerly direction, the ring will again become unequal, 
but the north side of it is now the narrower ; the inequality continually 
increases as we proceed, until on arrival at the last of the preceding paths, 
the north limbs of the Sun and Moon will come into contact, and the ring 
he destroyed. 

Not one of the largest cities of America is comprehended in the space 
between the contact of the north and south limbs, the width of this space 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



l»eiD|^ only (whOe on the conttnent) about 70 Engttih mQes. In tfie re- 
pvUic of Mexico it does not appetf > by our map, that the eclipse will be 
annular in any town of note. 

The principal Tillages or towns at which the eclipse wfll probably be an- 
nular, are. 

In Louisiana — Opelousas, St. Marion's, Point Coupee, Baton Rouge, 
and St. Francisville. 

In Mississippi — Pinkneyrille, Liberty, Holmesville, MonticeUo, and 
Winchester. ^ 

In AuLBAMA — St. Stephens, Clarksrille, Linden, Canton; Cahawba, 
Marions, Washio^on, and Montgomery. 

In Georgia— ^jawrenceville, Monroe, Madison, GainesyiUe* Jefferson, 
Athens, Lexington, Danielsville, and CamesTille. 

In South CAROiiUrA — Pendleton, Abbeville, Greenville, Laurensville, 
Spantanburg, Union, and Yorkville. 

^ In NoBTH Cakouna — ^Rutherfordton, Lincolnton, Charlotte, States- 
Tille, Concord, Tindalsville, Blakel^y, Lexington, Salem, MartinvlUe, Pitts- 
borouffb, Danbury, Hillsborough, Oxford, and Warrenton. 

In Virginia — Boydstown, Marvsville, Nottoway, Hicksford, PeterS' 
burg, ScottsviUe, Blandford, Richmond, Williamsburg, York, Dunkirk, 
Rappahannock, Urbanna, Bridgetown, and Drummond. 

In Maryland — Princess Ann and Snowbill. 

In Delaware — Georgetown, Bridgetown, Afilford, and Le wisto wu. 
. In New Jersey — Cold Spring. 

In Massachusetts — Chilmark, Edgartown, Harwich, Chatham, 8Uu- 
eanset, and JVantucket. 

In NoYA Scotia — Shelbume, Liverpool, Lunenburg, SaltfaXf and Pic- 
tou. ^ 

In Cape Breton — Louisbourg. 

Path of the Phase of 9 Digits on the J^\)r1h Unib. 



North Pacific. 
Near Socorro Island. 
Intendency of Vera Omz 
Bet. Yuca. &. C. St. Ant. 
Between Cuba & Florida. 
Bet. Abaco & Eleuthera. 
Near the Bermudai. 
Atlantic Ocean. 
North of the W. islands. 

%. 5&n. 508. 





Mean time 


Mean time 


Latitude 


Lonffitude 




at 


at 


of 


of 




Wa«h*ton. 


the place. 


the place. 


the place. 


ScBiri8.9dif.ec. 


h. m. B. 
10 43 35 M. 


h. m. 8. 

6 37 25M. 


^ 3^.0N. 


1§8 2^.0W. 


9digiUecUps. 


11 7 18 


9 2 10 


17 29.3 


108 19.4 


« " CC 


3718 


10 22 40 


18 23.6 


95 35.0 


«C Ci 


7 18 


1129 53 


21 11.1 


86 16.8 


CC (C « 


27 50 A. 


14 34 A. 


24 2.2 


80 14.6 


tt C( 


3718 , 


35 45 


25 35.7 


77 18.8 


CC C( 


1 7 18 


151 6 


3157.5 


65 58.4 


CC CC 


37 18 


4 5 14 


43 46.5 


39 56.4 


SMISSti 9 dig.se. 


4035 


510 51 


48 29.0 


S419.0 



Duration of this path 



* On the meridian of the place. 

' Between this and the preceding path are included the middle provinces 
and the north part of Yucatan, in J^Iexieo ; the southern extremities 6i 
Lomsiaoa> Mississippi, and Alabama, the whole of Florida, a large pert of 
€(eofgia and South Carolina, the southeast half of North CaroHmi, and the 
fOUtheast'extreraity of Virginia ; the northwest extremity of Cuba, (he Ber- 
mudas, and some of the Bahamas. 

Themfagnitude of the obscuration, in this space^ wiB vary fwrnll} to 
9:digitfion the Sub's J^torth limb, according to the distance of the phice 
from the path of the contact of the northern limbs. 

2 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



14 



ECLIPSE OF TXmKVAMY 12tK. 



Six DigUt on the ^orth lAmb. 



Sun rit. 6 dig. oc. 
Son 6 digit! ec. at 



Sun aeta 6 dig. ec. 
Duration of this path 3 16 11 



Mean Um'e 


Meantime 


Latitude 


Longitude 


at 


at 


of the 


of 


Wash'lon. 


the place. 


place. 


the place. 


h. m. 8. 

10 32 25 M. 


h. m. 1. 

6 27 51 M. 


1% 2*1.0 N. 


1§8 low. 


5218 


840 27 


8 9.9 


109 53.2 


1122 18 


10 4 38 


23.2 


96 20.5 


52 18 


111137 


10 32.7 


87 5.8 


22 18 A. 


014 3 


14 3.6 


78 59.4 


22 33 


' 14 34 A. 


5.7 


55.3 


52 18 


11850 


18 57.8 


70 17.5 


12218 


937 24 


25 50.3 


68 9.0 


48 36 


5S8 3 


39 31.0 


22 4.0 



Pacific Ocean. 
tt 

" [timala. 
Near Coeta Rica, Goft- 
Caribboanaea 

(C (( 

Iiland of Hayti. 
Atlantic Ocean. 
Near the W. Ishada. 



♦ On the meridian of the place. 



This path begins in the Pacific Ocean, crosses the province of Costtt 
Rica in GtuUimala, the Caribbean sea, the island of Hayti, into the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, where it ends a little east of the Western islands Within the 
two preceding paths are included the south provinces of Mexico, the north 
provinces of GuaHmala, the whole of Jamaica, nearly the whole of Cuba 
and Hayti, several of the Bermudas, and all the Western islands. 

Within this space the Sun will be eclipsed from 9 to 6 digits on his north 
limb. 

Three DigiU on the JVorth JAmb. 



South Pacific 
(( (( 

Near the Oallipagoa. 

South Pacific 

Cundinamarca. 

[Cabello. 

Venezuela, near Porto 

At. Ocean. [O.Verda. 
between Asorat It 
S. of Azores. 





Meantime 


Mean time 


Latitude 


Longitude 




at 


at 


of 


Sf 




Wash'ton. 


the place. 


the place. 


the place. 




h. m. 1. 


h. m. a■ 






Sun ria. 3 dig. ec. 


10 24 24 M. 


61922M. 


°4 5^.0N. 


iSs ll.OW. 


Sun 6 dig. eclipe. 


5318 


9 014 


47.4 S. 


104 56.5 


it « 


112218 


10 18 31 


6.7 


92 52.3 


<c u 


5318 


1133 38 


3 11.0 N. 


84 5.5 


C( cc * 


17 19 A. 


14 34 A. 


5 3.1 


77 36.7 


u cc 


3318 


34 43 


41.3 


76 19.3 


tc cc 


5318 


137 34 


10 25.8 


68 6JS 


(C cc 


13218 


34115 


16 48.7 


57 11.3 


cc cc 


5318 


5 340 


28 37.7 


3919.9 


Snn sets 6 dig. ec. 


53 35 


40 41 


31U.0 


30 9.0 



Duration of this path 3h. 39m. lis. 



t On the meridian of the place. 



This path begins in the Pacific, passes over the Gallipagos, and ■ the 
provinces of Cundinamarca and Venezuela, of that country which is, or 
was recently, known by the name of the Republic of Colombia, thenoe 
across the Caribbean sea into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Between the two preceding paths are included the southern provinces of 
Guatimaki, the province of Panama, the north part of Cundinamarca, and 
the northeast part of Venezuela, the southeast part of Hayti, and the 
islands Cura^oa, Buen Aire, Orchilla, Martinique, Dominica, Mariagalante, 
Guadaloupe, Montserrat, St Kitts, Nevis, Barbuda, St. Eustatia, Sab», 
St. Barts, St. Martins, AnguiUa, St. Croix, St. John's, St. Thomas, Virgin 
Gorda, Ane^ida, Porto Rico, and several others in the Caribbean sea. 

The degree of obseuration within this space will be from 6 to 3 digits on 
the northern limb. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



XCI.IF8B aw VSB&UA&T IdTH. 



15 



PiUh of the Contact <fthe J^Torthem Limb of the Sun with the Southern 
Lmb of the Moon, or of the Southern Boundary tfthe EeUp$e. 





[MMOtillM 


BfaanUme 


LatHode 


Loafitode 






•t 


at 


of the 


of 






WMh*toa. 


the place. 


place. 


thep.aee. 




at Snnrif e 


h. m. f . 

10 19 34 M. 


h. m. 8. 

6 11 48 M. 


§4^.0 8. 


1535&.0W. 


South Pacific Oeean 


(( 


. 37 18 


893 40 


8 48.8 


11090.1 


({ (i it 


" ♦ 


5818 


912 47 


919.4 


10148J2 


(( (( t. 


(i 


11 7 18 


5318 


8 57.3 


95 95.5 


ii C( M 


(( 


37 18 


11 935 


llOJt 


85 36iJ 


iC U (( 


cc 


7 18 


453 


4 8.9 


77 31.8 


i< <C CC 


I! t 


13 3 


14 34 A. 


a33.9 


76 18.3 


Ollito. 




37 18 A. 


1 554 


9.9 


69 46.5 


»* 


«* 


1 718 


91199 


5 18.4 N. 


60 52.7 


Spaoiflh Gniana. 


(i 


3718 


335 36 


19 42.8 


47 91.1 


AtlanUc Ocean. 


stSantet 


56 6 


550 48 


23 4.7 


18 16.0 


•« nwC.Verdf. 


Duratioa of this path 3h. 36m. 331. 




«6reateft 


Sooth latit 


Dde. t On the meridian of the plaoe. 



This path, like all the rest, begins in the Pacific Ocean, passei across the 
north part of the province of Truxiilo, in Peru ; the provinces of Quito and 
Spanish Guiana, in Colombia ; and the north extremity of Dutch Guiana 
into the Atlantic Ocean, where it ends a little north of the Cape Verd 
islands. 

Between this and the preceding path are included the northern extremity 
of the province of Truxillo, the northwest half of the province of Quito, 
and the southern half of Cundinamarca, a large part of Venezuela, nearly 
the whole of Spanish Guiana, the northern extremity of Dutch Guiana, 
and the islands Trinidad, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, Grenada, To- 
bago, Margarita, Blanca, Tortu^, and many others in the West Indies. 

The degree of obscuration within this space will be from 3 to digits on 
tiie northern limb ; under the path of the contact of the limbs, and of 
«OUF0« Still farther south; the Sun will not be eclipsed* 



PHASES OF THE ECLIPSE FOR SOBIE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

The eclipse was computed for the foUdwinc places by the tables used for 
eomputing the path of the centre and that of the digits. For the sake of 
comparison, the phases at Halifax, Nantucket, and Boston, were likewise 
computed W the tables of Burckhardt, and for the last of these places, by 
the tables oi Burg, which, however, are now but rarely used. 

It will be observed that the several phases of the eclipse, at each place, 
have been computed for the semidiameters of the Sun and Moon, as given 
by the tables, and as corrected, for irradiation ( — 3i|"), and inflexion ( — 2"), 
according to the theory of Dusejour. The exbtence of these corrections 
is extremely doubtful. Indeed, the correction of the Moon's S. D. for 
inflexion ( — 2'') has been altogether neglected in the computation of the 
occuttations (al^ough introduced into the computation of those of the last 
year), from the circumstance that in each of the occultations of Aldebaran, 
observed in Boston in 1829 and 1830, the star was eclipsed longer, by sev- 
eral seconds, than it should have been, if the correction had been well 
established. 

The apparent places of the Sun and Moon were always computed widi 
great care, even the latitude of the Sun being taken into consideration ; 
yet it is not impossible that some small errors may have escaped notice; 
greater error, however, is to be apprehended from a Nvrong assumption of 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



16 



XCLIPSH OF rSBftOAKT 12tS. 



the latttade tnd longNude of the place in qw^ftion, aithoa|(fa, in these pw^ 
ticulara, we have followed the best anthoiitiet^ lodeesd it may be safely 
remarked, that the geoffcaphical positions of but very few places in the 
United States (espedsuly the longitude), are well established. It is 
confidently hoped, that the highly lavprable opportunity for determining 
the diffecence of the meridians of our principal cities, afforded by this re- 
markable eclipse, and, the occultations of Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, AMebaran, 
and Regulus, in the course of this year, will not be neglected. 

The longitude and altitude of the Nonagesimal degree of the Ecliptic (in 
other words, the longitude and latitude of tne Zenith) were computed by the 
method pointed out in the Appendii^ to the "New Amer. Prac. Nayigator." 
As the position of this point depends on the reduced latitude of the place, the 
obliquity of the Ecliptic, and the Right Ascension of the Meridian, or of the 
Zenith, five of the logarithms used in the computation of this point, must be 
very nearly the same, at any place, for many years ; being affected only by 
the very slow diminution of the obliquity. For the purpose of facilitating as 
much as possible the recomputation of the eclipse, at any place, should the 
same be deemed necessary, the sum of these logarithms, as well as the 
sum of the reductions of the Moon's Equatorial parallax for the ellipticity 
of the Earth (one three-hundredth), an^ the Horizontal parallax of the Sun, 
have been prefixed to the phases; the two first of the logarithms referring 
to the Longitude, and the third to the Altitude of the Nonagesimal. 

rhe following places have been arranged with reference to the apparent. 
Ecliptic conjunction of the Sun and ]VK>on, which, in mean time lor the 
meridian of Washington, will take place as follows, viz. — 

red. of pur. 



Natchez 

New Orleans . 

Cahawba . 

Nashville 

MiUedgeville 

Lexington^ Ky. 

Cincinnati . 

Charleston 

Raleigh 

ScotsviUej Va. 

Dinwiddle C. H. 

Petersburg . 

Richmona 

Washington 

Baltimore 

Georgetown, Del. 

Philadelphia 

New York City 

Albany 

New tiaven . 

Newport 

Boston . 

Tisbury 

Portland . 

Siascdiset . 

Halifax, N.S. 



at 



h. m. a. 

6 llM. 


Constant LogmrithnM. 


0.10168 


9.66266 


9.93964 


6 31 
16 36 A. 


0.10606 
0.10008 


9.67448 
9.66676 


94)6186 
9.93378 


21 28 


0.09226 


9.62489 


9.90429 


26 69 


0.09846 


9.66064 


9.92779 


28 90 


0.08848 


9.60697 


9^66926 


29 4 
36 36 


0.08647 
0.0SW04^ 


9.60679 
9.66280 


9.88142 
9.92996 


89 42 


0.09304 


9.62786 


9.90726 


42 67 


0.08961 


9.61186 


9.89393 


43 18 


0.09037 


9.61663 


9.89692 


43 44 
43 48 
46 16 


III 


9.61444 
9.61146 
9.69807 


9.89608 
9.6eU3 
9.^16 


46 7 


0.08611 


9.69862 


9.87997 


48 40 


0.08T26 


9.69991 


9.88466 


49 14 


0.08482 


9.68676 


9.87473 


61 47 


0.08336 


9.67833 


9.86871 


62 42 


0.07966 


9.66638 


9.86327 


63 66 


0.08322 


9.67160 


9.86404 


67 9 


0.08187 


9.66046 


9.86268 


67 36 


0.08022 


9.66909 


9.86567 


68 19 


0.08196. 


9.66996 


9.86291 


68 64 


0.07777 


9.64269 


9.84633 


69 86 


0.08223 


9.67218 


9.86444 


1 10 6 


0.07674 


9.62791 


9.88646 



11^ 

11.65 
11.9B 
12.70 
12.19 

ujn 

13.27 
12.07 
12.63 
12.96 
12.89 
12M 
134W 
18.33 
13.31 
13.19 
13.44 
18.68 
13.98 
18.70 
13^74 
18.91 
13.73 
14.18 
13.69 
14.40 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



XCLIP8E OF f^EBRUART 12tH. 



17 



City o/Natchsz, County ofJldanu, State of MigsiaiippL 

Latitude . . 81° 84' N. Latitude Reduced 31° 23' 47" N. 
Longitude in Degrees 91 26 W. Longitude in Time 6h. 5m. 40s. W. 



S. D. not corrected. 

h. m. ■. 

9 32 8.1 M. 

11 7 13.0 

11 7 13.8 

47 10.7 A. 

3 15 2.6 



S. D. oorraeted. : 
h. m. 1. I 

9 32 23.6 M. 
11 7 13.0 i 
11 7 13.8 ! 
46 54.0 A. 
3 14 80.4 I 



Mean Time at 
Natchez. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
i^parent Conjunction 
Gmatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Digits eclipsed 11^ 40' 27'' on Sun's South Limb. 

The Eclipse will begin at a point on the right* side of the Sun, 67^ 51' 
' from the vertex, or hif^est point of his disc. 

At Ap. (j and at nearest approach of centres. Moon's centre South of the 
Sun's 32.78". 



City of New Orleajts, in the Parish of JVeto Orleans and State of 
Louisiana, - 

Latitude . . 29« 57' N. Latitude Reduced 29^ 47' 5" N. 
Longitude in Degrees 90 9 W. Longitude in Time 6h. Om. S6s. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Greatest Obscuration 
Apparent Conjunction 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



S. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected, 
h. m. 8. 
9 37 29.9 M. 
11 13 83.9 
11 13 37.1 
54 2.0 A. 
3 16 32.1 



Mean Time at 
' New Orleans. 



9 37 14.1 M. 
11 13 33.9 
11 13 37.1 

54 19.0 A. 

8 17 4.9 
Digits eclipsed 11<» 36' 6" on Sun's North Limb. 

The Eclipse will begin at a point on the right side of the Sun, 65^^ 28' 
from the vertex. 

At Ap. d , Moon North, 45.87" ; at greatest Obscuration 45.86". 

Tbton of Cahawba, in t?ie County ofDaUaSt lately the Seat of _Oov- 
eminent of the State ofAlab€una. 

Latitude . . 82® 20' N. Latitude Reduced 32« 9' 88" N. 
Longitude in Degrees 87 10 W. Longitude in Time 6h. 48m. 40s. W. 

S. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected, 
h. m. 1. h. m. ■. 

9 58 40.6 M. 9 58 56.2 M. 
11 84 27.4 11 84 82.6 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
FornuUion of the Ring 
Ap. (j and Nearest Ap- > 
proach of Centres y 
Rupture of the Ring 
End of the Eclipse 
Dotation of the King 
«« . «« Eclipse 



11 85 86.8 

11 36 46.2 
1 14 80.1 A. 

2 18.8 
8 15 49.5 



11 85 86.8 

11 86 41.1 
1 14 18.5 A. 

2 8.6 
8 15 17.8 



Mean Tune at 
Cahawba. 



* An 9C^aa9 of the Son always begins on the right side, and an eclince of the Moon on 
the left. When a itar is eelipted by the Moon it dSsanwui on her left, and reappean on 
her right fide. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



18 



ECLIPSE OP FEBRUART 19tH. 



At the nearest (Dist. of the North Limb» (not cor.) 19.09'' (eor.) 17.59^' 
approach of^ ** Centres " 0.99 « 0.99, 

tile centres ( «* South Limbs « 21.07 « 19.57 

Digits eclipsed 11® 46' 12". Point on the right side of the Sun first 

•trucK by the Moon 78° 19' from the vertex. 



Toum q/'NASBTiLLE, in the County of Davidson, the CctpitcU of tki 
State of Tennessee. 

Latitude . . 3(P 10' N. Latitude Reduced 85° 59' 4"N. 
Longitude in Degrees 86 42 W. Longitude in Time ih. 46m. 48s. W. 

S. D. not corrected, fi. D. conrected. 
h. m. 1. h. m. s. 

10 7 17.5 M. 10 7 33.3 M. 

11 42 17.3 11 42 17.3 
11 42 28.1 U 42 28.1 

1 18 31.8 A. 1 18 15.6 A. 

3 11 14.3 3 10 42.3 

Didts eclipsed 11° 4' 31" on Sun's South Limb. 
Point first touched by the Moon 82° 9' from the vertex. 
At Ap. c5 > Moon South, 2' 10.26". At nearest approach 2' 10.21 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



(Mean Time at 
Nashville. 



Town o/'3fii.LEDGEviL.LE, iu the County of Baldwin, and Seat qf 
Government of the State of Georgia. 

Latitude . . 83<» 7' N. Latitude Reduced 32° 56' 31'^ N. 
Longitude in Degrees 83 20 W. Longitude in Time 5h. 33m. 20s. W. 



S. D. not corrected, 
h. m. s. 
10 24 17.8 M. 
0, 1 15.4 

1 20.9 

1 88 17.2 A. 
8 13 59.4 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Greatest Obscuration 
Apparent Conjunction 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Dteits eelipsed 11® 39' 8" on Sun's North Limb. 

Pomt first touched 79® 27' from the vertex. 

At Ap. d » Moon North, 37.76". At nearest approach 37.72". 



S. D. corrected, 
h. m. s. 
10 24 34.2 M. 
1 15.4 

1 20.9 

1 88 1.0 A. 
8 13 26 8 



I Mean Hme at 
I Milledgeville. 



Town ofLmxiNQTON, in the County of Fayette, and State of Kentucky, 



Latitude . . 88® 6' N. 
Longitude in D^ees 84 18 W. 



Latitude Reduced 87® 64' ' 62" N. 
Longitude in -Tiffle 6fa.>37m. 1^ W. 



S; D. not corrected.h S. D. corrected, 
h. m. B. h. m. i. 

10 24 84.6 M. 10 24 50.5 M. 

11 58 59.7 11 68 59.7 
11 59 12.3 11 59 12.3 

1 83 16.4 A. 1 33 0.7 A. 

3 8 41 8 3 8 10.2 

Digits ecUpsed 10° 53' 68" on Sun's South Limb. 
Point first touched 88® 11' from the vertex. 
At Ap. d , Moon South, 2' 38.39". At nearest approach 2' 88.84' 



Beginning of the Eclipse' 
Apparent Conjunctic^n 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
D u r a t i o n of tiie Eetipse 



I 



Mean Tim^iat 
Lexington. ^ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



EOLIPSE OF FBBEUAET 13tH« 



Id 



Ciiy of CufciNJTJLTi, in ihe County of Hamilton, and State of Ohio. 

Latitude . . 99^ 6' 'S. Latitude Reduced 88<> 54' W N. 
Longitude in Degrees 64 22 W. Longitude in Time 6fa. 87m. 288. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent ^Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



S. D. not eorrected. 
h. m. I. 

10 25 41.1 M. 

11 59 18.3 
11 69 33.2 

1 29 47.3 A, 
3 4 6.2 



S. D. corrected. 

h. m. 1. 

10 25 57.0 M, 

11 59 18.3 
11 59 33.2 

1 29 81.7 A. 
3 8 34.7 



I 



Mean Time at 
f Cincinnati. 



Digits eclipsed 10^ 40' 59^' on Sun's South Limb. 

Point first touched 90° 1' from the vertex. 

At Ap. c$ , Moon South, 3' 13.15'^ At nearest approach 3' 13.09"'. 



diy of CHABI.B8T0M-, xn the Dieiriet of Charleston, and State of South 
Carolina. 

Latitade . . 82<' 60' N. Latitude Reduced 32<» 89' 38" N. 
Lon^tude in Degrees 79 48 W. Longitude in Time 5h. 19m. 12s. W. 

S. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected, 
h. m. s. h. m. a. 

10 45 7.8 M. 10 46 24:5 M. 
23 4^A A. 23 43.4 A. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Greatest Obscuration 
Apparent Conjunction 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



i Mean Time at 
I Charleston. 



24 5.2 24 5.2 

1 59 8.2 1 58 52.4 
3 14 0.4 3 13 27.9 

Digits eclipsed 11° 9' 49" on Sun's North Limb. 

Point first touched 82° 55' from the vertex. 

At Ap. d , Moon North, 1' 66.99". At nearest approach 1' 56.77", 



Ctty o/Rai«kigh, w the County of Wake, the Capital of the State of 
JVorth Carolina. 



Latitude . . 35° 47' N. 
LoBgitude in Degrees 78 48 W. 



Latitude Reduced 35° 36' 7" N. 
Longitude in Time 6h.l5m. 128«W. 



3. D. not oorreoted. 

h. m. 8. 

10 55 2.1 M. 
32 8.0 A. 
82 12.2 
2 5 30.4 
8 10 28.3 



8. D. corrected. 


h m. 8. 


10 55 18.5 M. 


82 8.0 A. 


82 12.2 


2 5 15.1 


3 9 56.6 



(Mean Time at 
Raleigh. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
GrMtest Obscuration 
Apparent Conjunction 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Didts ecJipsed 11<' 44' 5" on Sun's North Limb. 

Point first touched 89° 40' from the vertex. 

At Ap. d , Moon Nordi, 23.90". At nearest approach 23.86". 

Difference of S. D. (not corrected) 20.50" (correct^) 19.00". 

The Eclipse at Raleigh will be veiy nearly annular; the path of the ooDr 
taet of the northern limbs passing about 8 miles N. W. of this city. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



^ 



SCJLIPSE OF FEBKUART IdTH. 



Tmim o/*ScoTT8ViLLK, in the County of Powhatan, and State of Vtr- 

ginia. 



Latitude* 
Longitude in 



370 30' N. 
77 44 W. 



Latitude Reduced 37« 18' 55" N. 
Longitude in Time 5h. 10m. 56s. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Formation of the Ring 
Apparent Conjunction 
Nearest Ap. of Centres 
Rupture of the Ring 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Ring 

" " Eclipse 
At the nearest 

approach of 

the centres 



S. D. not corrected, 
h. m. ^ s. 
11 3 45.0 M. 
39 18.6 A. 
89 42.9 
39 45.7 
40 12.8 
2 11 39.6 
54.2 
8 7 54.6 



S. D. corrected. 

h. m. B. 

11 4 1.4M. 

39 81.3 A. 

39 42.9 

39 45.7 

40 0.2 

2 11 24.7 

28.9 

8 7 23.3 



Dist. of North Limbs (not cor.) 
" Centres " 

« South Limbs " 

Digits eclipsed 11<^ 45' 35". 



39 64" 

18.74 

2.16 



! Mean Time at 
I Scottsville. 



(cor.) 88.14" 
« 18.74 
« 0.66 



Point first touched 93° 52' 



Court House of the County of Dinwiddie, in the State of Virginia. 



Latitude* . . 37' 7' N. 
Longitude in Degrees 77 30 W. 



LatiUide Reduced 36° 55' 58" N. 
Longitude in Time 5h. 10m. Os. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Formation of the Ring 
Ap. (5 Sun centrally ec. 
Rupture of the Ring 
End ol the Eclipse 
Duration of the Ring 

" « Eclipse 
At the nearest 

approach of 

the centres 1 



S. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected. 

h. m. B. h. m. b. 

11 4 44.6 M. 11 5 1.1 M. 

39 58.6 A. 40 8 1 A. Mean Hme at 

41 0.2 41 0.2 y Dinwiddle 

42 1.9 41 57.4 Court House. 

2 12 67.8 2 12 42.2 
2 3.3 1 54.8 

3 8 12.7 3 7 41.1 

Dist. of North Limbs (not cor.) 20.89" (cor.) 19.89" 
« Centres " 0.09 «* 0.09 

" South Limbs « 20.71 « 19.21 

Digits eclipsed 11® 45' 39". Point first touched 93° 29'. 

' Borough 0/ Petersburg, in the County of IHnwiddie, Virginia 

Latitude . . 87® 18' 54" N. Latitude Reduced 37<' 2'51"N. 
Longitude in Degrees 77 20 W. Longitude in Time 5h. 9m. 20s. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Formation of the Ring 
Apparent Conjunction 
Nearest Ap. of Centres 
Rupture of the Ring 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Ring 
« « EcUpse 



}. D. not corrected. 


S. D. corrected. 


h. m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


11 5 54.9 M. 


11 6 11.4 M. 


41 3.9 A. 


41 8.4 A. 


42 5.5 


42 5.5 


42 5.7 


42 5.7 


48 7.4 


43 3.0 


2 18 53.3 


2 18 88.2 


2 8.5 


1 54.6 


8 7 58.4 


3 7 26.8 



Mean Time at 
Petersburg. 



* The Latitude and Longitude of Scottsville and Dinwiddle Court House, vretB errooe- 
losly supposed to be those of Richmond and Petersburg. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



jKiki^ss eF.nBininAirr IfivA 



AtthQneaiestrDist. ofNo^hLimbs (not cor.) 21.94'' (cor.) 20.44'^ 

approach of^ *' . Centres « l.ll « l.ll 

the centres ( " South Limbs *" 19.72 «« 18.22 

DigRs edipsed 11<> 46' 88''. Point first touched 93^ 49^. 

The Capitol of <Jte City ofRicnwiomty in the County of Henrico, the 
Metropolis of Virginia, 



Latitude . 37° 32' 26" N. 

Ij09git«de^ Degrees 77 21 24 W. 



Latitude Reduced 37° 21' 20" N. 
Longitude Id Time 6h. 9m. 26.68. W. 



St D. not corrected, 

h. m. f. 

Beghming of the Eclipse 11 6 7.8 M. 

Formation qfthe Ring 41 18.5 A. 

Apparent Conjunction 42 A.8 

Nearest Ap. of Centres 42 7.1 

Bupture qfthe Ring 42 55.7 

End of the Eclipse 2 13 44.4 

Duration of the Ring 1 37.2 

«« « Eclipse 3 7 36.6 

At the nearest ( Dist. of North Limbs (not cor.) 33.75' 

approach of^ " Centres « 12.87 

^ the centres ( " .South Limbs <* 8.01 



S. D. corrected, 
h. m. 8. 

6 24.2 M. 

41 24.3 A. 

42 4.8, 
42 7.1 
42 50.0 

2 13 29.3 
1 25.7 

3 7 5.1 



MeanThne 

the CaiNtol in 
Richmond. 



(cor.) 



82.26" 

12.87 

6.61 



Digits eclipsed 11° 45' 30". Point first touched 94° 19^ 



'ne Capitol of^the City (jf Washington, in the Diatrud qf ColumhiOf 
the Metropolis of the United States. 

Latitude . . 38° 52' 46.3" N. Latitude Reduced 38° 41' 32.7" N. 
Longitude in Degrees 76 65 80 W. Longitude in Time 6h. 7m. 4it* W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



S. D: not corrected, 

h. m. s. 

,11 10 21.7 M. 

45 15.5 A. 

C 45 24.3 

2 16 0.6 

3 5 33.9 



8. D. corrected. 

h. m. 8. 

II 10 37.8 M. 

45 15.5 A. 

45 24.3 

2 15 45.7 

3 5 7.9 



I MeanTifiMat 
I Washington. 



Digits eclipsed 11° 32' 39" on Sun's South Limb. 

Point first touched 97° V from the vertex. 

At Ap.' d > Moon South, 53.64'^ At nearest approach 53.56". 

aty <jf Baltimore, in the County of Baltimore, and State of Maryland. 



Latitude 

Longitude in Degrees 



89° 17' N. 
76 36 W. 



S. D. not corrected, 
h. 01. 8. 
11 12 61.9 M 
47 24.8 A. 
47 34.9 

2 17 44.8 

3 4 52.9 



Latitude Reduced .^9° 5' 45" N. 
Longitude in Time 5h. 6m. 24s. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Digits eclipsed 11° 29' 35" on Sun's South Limb. 

Pomt first touched 98° 2' from the vertex. 

At Ap. (j , Moon South 62.20". At nearest approach 62.11" 



S. D. corrected. 


h. m. s. 


11 13 8.1 M. 


47 24.8 A. 


47 34.9 


2 17 30.0 


3 4 21.9 



] 



Mean Time at 
( Baltimore. 



Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



ECLIPSE OF FEBRUAKT 12tH. 



TbwnqfQmoMQiLTowN, in the County of8ut$ex, and State of JkHO' 

ware. 



Latitude . . 889 42' N. Latitude Reduced 
Longitude in Degrees 75 18 W. Longitude in Time 

S. D. not cerreoted. 
h. m. 1. 
11 20 8.5 M. 
64 28.7 A. 






88° 80' 48" N. 
6h.lm.l2s.W. 



65 9.6 
55 12.1 
55 55.6 
25 6.9 
1 26.9 
4 58.4 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Formation of the Ring 
Apparent Conjunction 
Nearest Ap. of Centres 
Rupture of the Ring 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Ring 

« «» Eclipse 8 
At the nearest C Dist. of North Limbs (not cor.) 
approach of < " Centres " 

the centres ^ " South Limbs " 

Digits eclipsea 11° 44' 57". 
Point first touched by the Moon 98° 17' from the vertex. 



S. D. corrected. 

h. m. 1. 

11 20 25.1 M. 
54 85.4 A. 
65 9.6 
55 12.1 
55 49.0 
2 24 52.2 
1 13.6 
8 4 27.1 

36.44'^ 

15.21 

6.02 



Mean Time at 
Georgetown. 



(cor.) 84.94" 
«« 15.21 
4.52 



C% of PHILADEI.PHIA, in the County of Philadelphia, and State of 
Pennsylvania. 



Latitude . . 89° 56' 55' N. 
Longitude in Degrees 75 11 30 W. 



Latitude Reduced 89° 45' 87" N* 
Longitude in Time 5h. Om. 46s. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 
Dibits eclipsed 11° 30' 



S. D. aot corrected, 

fa. m. 8. 

11 22 9.6 M. 

56 9.7 A. 

56 19.2 

2 25 26.4 

8 8 16.8 



S. D. corrected. 

h. m. B. 

11 22 25.8 M. 

56 9.7 A. 

56 19.2 

2 25 11.8 

3 2 46.0 



I Mean Time at 
I PhUadelphia. 



49" on Sun*s South Limb. 
Point first touched 100° 27' from the vertex. 
At Ap. (5 , Moon South, 58.72". At nearest approaoh 58.63". 



City Hall, in the City of^wr York, in the Covnty and State ofJVew 

York, 



Latitude . . 40<^42' 
Longitude in Degrees 74 1 



40" N. 
W. 



Latitude Reduced 40«> 81' 19" N. 
Longitude in Time 4h. 56m. 48. W. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conj\inction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 
Digits eclipsed 11® 28' 58" on Sun's South Limb. 

P/unf Araf fnii/>ho<1 1A90 AA' frnwn *lio vorfrov 



S D. not corrected, 
h. m. 8. 
11 80 6.5 M. 
1 8 24.6 A. 
1 3 34.4 
• 2 81 40.5 
8 1 34.0 



S. D. corrected, 

h. m. 8. 

11 30 22.7 M. 

1 3 24.6 A. 

1 8 84.4 

2 81 26.1 
8 1 3.4 



!Mean Time at 
New York. 



Point first touched 102® 44' from the vertex. 

At Ap. d » Moon South, 63.48''. At nearest approach 68.89^'. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ECLIPSE ar FEBI^UAET IdxH* 



aty o/Almamt^ in the Qauniy i^jilbmnff, tht Sitd of Chvenmeni qf 

the State qfJVew York, 



Lfttitade 

XoDgHude in Degreef 



429 89' N. Lttttud© Reduced 42® 27' S4" N. 
78 42 W. Longitode in Time 4h. 54b. 48f. W. 

conrected. 



S. D. not eorreeted. S. D. 
h. m. s. h m. i. 

11 88 56.7 M. 11 84 12.7 M 
1 5 86.0 A. 1 5 86.0 A. 

1 5 54.4 1 5 54.4 

2 82 38.4 2 82 24.1 
2 58 41.7 2 58 11.4 

.31" on Sun's South Limb. 
Point first touched lOS^^ 42' from the vertex of the Sun. 
At Ap. d . Moon South, 2' 6.12". At nearest approach 2' 5.97' 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 
Digits eclipsed 11^ 5 



1 



Mean Time at 
Albany. 



City ofS^xv Hatkit, in the County of J^evo Hcxen^ the Semt-metropoUB 
qfthe State of Connecticut, 

Latitude . 41° 18' N. Latitude Reduced 41® 6' 87" N. 

Longitude in Degrees 72 58 W. Longitude in Time 4h. 51m. 528. W. 

S. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected, 
h. m. 1. h. m. s. 

11 87 3.5 M. U 37 19.6 M. 
1 9 46.9 A. 1 9 45.9 A. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 



1 9 56.3 19 56.3 

2 87 10.5 2 86 56.2 
8 7.0 2 59 86.6 

Digits eclipsed \V> 28' 24" on Sun's South Limb. 

P<rtnt first touched 104*^ 32'. 

At Ap. c5 > Moon South, 64.46". At nearest approach 64.36' 



Mean Time at 
New Haven. 



Town qf NEWPoitx, in the County ofJ^evoport^ tht Semi-metropolii of 
the State of Rhode hland. 



LaUtude . . 41° 29' R 
Longitude in Degrees 71 18 W. 

S. D. not corrected. 
h. ra. s. 
Beginning of the Eclipse 11 47 18.8 M. 
Apparent Conjunction 1 19 38.7 A. 

Greatest Obscuration 1 19 44.9 

End of the Eclipse 2 46 8.3 

DuraUon of the Eclipse 2 58 44.6 



Latitude Reduced 41® 17' 87" N. 
Longitude in Time 4h. 45m. 128. W. 



S. D corrected, 
h. m. s. 
11 47 34.9 M. 
1 19 38.7 A 

1 19 44.9 

2 45 49.1 
2 58 14.2 



Mean Time at 
Newport 



Digits eclipsed IV* 88' 1'* on Sun's South Limb. 

Point first touched 106^ 23'. 

At Ap. d • Moon South, 38.79". At nearest approach 38.78". 

The path of the contact of the southern limbs will pass about 28 English 
miles S. E. of Newport. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



u 



B0|iIP8£ OF FEBRUART IdTH. ^ 



Mm SkU9*am$e in ike iXlu efB^BTOH, in thit Chunhf ^ Sh^olk, tiU 
CktpU(dqfm SUiU<^MmB(uhusett$. 



Lafitiide 

Long, in D«greef 



42® 20' 68.4" *N. 
71 4 9 W. 



Latitude Reduced 43P V 9%^'/BL 
Long, ia Time 4h, 44iiu V9M. W« 



1. By the Tables hitherto used, viz. those of Damoiseau and Carlini. 



S. D. not corrected. 

h. IB. 8. 

11 49 25.9 M. 

L 21 1.8 A. 

1 21 11.0 

2 46 58.5 
2 57 32 6 

no 27' 27" 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Digits eclipsed 
Limb. 

Point in the right side of the Sun first touched by the Moon, at the be< 
gfuning of the eclipse, 107° 414' ^^^^ ^^^ vertex. 

4t Ap. d » Moon South, 65.82". At nearest approach 65.73". 



S. D. corrected, 
h. m. 1. 
11 49 41.9 M, 
1 21 1.3A. 

1 21 11.0 

2 46 44.5 
2 67 2.6 
no 27' 54" 



Mean Time at 
Boston. 



on Sun*s South 



2. By the Tables of Burckhardt and Carlini. 



iS. D. not corrected. S. D. corrected. 

Beginning of the Eclipse li 49 30.8 M. 11 49 46.2 M. 
Ap^ent Coigunction 121 2.0 A. 121 2.0 A. 

Greatest Obscuration 1 21 10.5 1 21 10.5 

End of the EcUpse 2 46 55.4 2 46 41.4 

Duration of the Eclipse 2 67 254 2 56 55.2 

Digits eclipsed . 11© 28' 46" 11<> 29' 12" 
Limb. 

Point first touched by the Moon 107° 35' from the vertex. 

At Ap. d » Moon South, 61.80". At nearest approach 61.71", 



}Mean Time at. 
Boston. 

on Sun*8 South 



8. By the Tables of Burg and Carlini. 



S. D. not corrected, 
h* m. 8. 
11 49 25.6 M. 
I 21 8.7 A. 

1 21 14.2 

2 47 4.1 
2 67 38il 

11^26 



Beginning of the Eclipse 

Apparent Conjunction 

Greatest Obscuration 

BB^JofUwtJfclipse 

DurtiBBoflhc Edipae 
Digits eclipsed 

Limb. 
Point first touched by the Moon 107? 48|' from the V6r(ez.r 
At Ap. d , Moon South 70.89". At nearest approach 70.79", 



. corrected. 



11'^ 



S.D 
h 

11 49 41.6 M. 
1 21 3.7 A. 

1 21 14.2 

2 46 50.1 
2 57 8.5 
110 26' 87" 



(Mean Time at 
Boston. 

on Son's Sovlii 



Titwn o/TisBXTRT, in Duke^s County, and Slate of Mi8$aehuutti^ 



Latitude 41«>26'30"N. 

Longitude in Degrees 70 40 SO W. 



latitude Reduced 41* 16' 7" N* 
Longitude in Time 4h. 42m. 42s. W. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



BCLIF8B OF FlB&tTART tSttWU 



b. m. 1. 
11 81 8.0 M. 
1 23 19.8 A. 

1 23 23.2 

2 60 8.0 
2 59 0.0 



h. m. 1. 
11 61 19.0 BL 
1 28 19.8 A. 

1 28 23.8 

2 49 49.0 
2 68 80.0 



1 



MnnTiaieM 
Tltbuiy 



Begiiining of the EcHpse 
Apptieot Coqjupctioii 
Greateft Obscuration 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Digits eclipsed ll^" 43' 9" on Sun's South Limb. 

Fmnt first touched 106<» 60'. 

At Ap. d » Moon South, 26.01''. At nearest approach UM^' 

I^fference of S.D. (corrected) 22.08". 

The path of the contact of the southern Umbs will pass abevt 8 
S. £. of this pUu:e. 



2bt0n of Portland, in the County of Cumberland^ ihe MetropoUi of 
the Sate of Maine, 



Latitude , • 
Longitude in Degrees 



43<>39'N. Latitude Reduced 480 27^^ 62"^ N. 
70 20 W. Longitude in Tune 4h. 41in. 20b. W. 

8.11. not eoRocted. 8. D. oorrMMd. 
h. m. ■. h. m. ■. 

11 64 62.8 M. U 66 8.6 M. 

1 26 16.1 A. I Mean Time at 

1 26 29.1 r Poftiaod. 

2 49 66.4 
2 64 46.8 



Beginning of the Eclipse 
Apparent Conjunction 
Greatest Ob8Curation 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Eclipse 

Digits eclipsed ll^' 16' 89'' on Sun's Soutii Limb. 

Point first touched 109<> 64^. 

At Ap. d > Moon South, 98.47". At nearest approach 98.86". 



1 26 16.1 A. 

1 26 29.1 

2 60 9.2 
2 66 16.4 



Village of SiAucoNBmTy in the 8,E, extremity of the hland of A*afi- 
tucket, and State of Maeeaehueette, 



Latitude . 41o 16' 0" N. 

Longitude in Degrees 69 69 80 W. 



Latitude Reduced 41« V ZT' N. 
Longitude in. Jime 4h. 89m. 58s. W. 



1. By the Tables of Damoiseau and Carlini 



S.D.netoorreetad. 
h. m. ■. 
11 65 4.0 M. 
1 26 19.7 A. 
1 27 19.8 
1 27 20.6 

1 28 21.4 

2 63 4.r 
2 1.7 

2 68 0.7 
At tiie neatest C Dist. of NorOi Limbs (not cor.) 26.48" 
spproach of { ** Centres ** 4.84 

Ae eenties ( " Sooth Limbs <« 17.80 
Digits eclipsed 1 !<> 44' 42". 
Poinrfirst touched 107<> 20' (rom tiie vertex. 



Beginning of the Eelipse 
Formation of the Ring 
Apparent Conjunction 
Nearest Ap. of Centres 
Butptwre of the Ring 
End of the Eclipse 
Duration of the Rii 



8. D. coriectsd. 




h. m. 1. 




11 66 20.2 M. 


* 


1 26 24.0 A. 




1 27 19J 




1 27 20.6 


* 


1 28 17.1 




2 62 60.6 




1 68.1 




2 67 80.4 





Time at 



(cor.) 



24.96'' 
4.84 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



X0LI9SS or VKBrnvAftT Vhm. 



2. BytiieTible8ofBarddi«rdt«ndCtriiiii. 

S.D.DOte«n«eted. 
h. m. t. 
11 65 8.9 M. 

1 26 16.5 A. 

1 27 20.4 

1 28 24.8 

2 58 0.9 
2 7.8 

2 57 52.4 



Beginning of the Eclipse 

I\nrmaHonoftke JRmg 

Ap. d Son centrally ec. 

Muptwre 4>fthe Img 

End of the Eclipse 

Durttion of the Ring 
«« " Ecl5>8e 

At the nearest r Dist of North Limbs (not cor.) 23.14 
approach of< « Centres *< 0.41 

the centres ( *< South Limbs *< 22.32 



8. D. conreeted. 

h. m. 1. 

11 55 24.6 M. 

1 26 20.7 A. 

1 27 20.4 

1 28 20.1 

2 52 46.8 
1 59.4 

2 57 22.2 



Mean Time al 
Siaseonset 



(cor.) 



21.64" 

0.41 

20.82 



Digits edipsed 11<> 44' 15''. Point fot touched 10T> 14'. 



S.D. not corrected. 






h. m. ■. 


h. m. ■. 




86 13.6 A. 


86 29.0 A. 


' 


2 3 66 


2 3 10.9 




2 4 3.7 


2 4 3.7 


Mean Time at 


2 4 4.8 


2 4 48 


' Halifex. 


2 5 3.0 


2 4 58.8 ' 




8 24 49.8 


3 24 36.6 




4 56.4 


1 47.9 




2 48 36.2 


2 48 7.6 





Tmon of Hajawat, in the Coxinty of Halifax^ the Capital of the English 
Province of^ova Scotia, 

Latitude . 440 44' N. Latitude Reduced 44o 3^ 81" N. 

Longitude in Degrees 68 26 W. Longitude in Time 4h. 18m. 44s. W. 

1. By the Tables of Damoiseau and Carlini. 



Beginning of the Eclipse 

Formation of the Hing 

Apparent Conjunction 

Nearest Ap. of Centres 

Rupture of the Ming 

End of the Eclipse 

Duration of the King 
" «« Ecl5>se 

At the nearest CDist. of the North Umbs (not cor.) 31.67" (cor.) 80.17" 

approach of^ «« Centres «* 8.18 " 8.18 

the centres ( ** South Limbs « 15.81 « 18.81 

Digits eclipsed 11^ 43' 41". Point first touched 116^ 28' 

2. By the Tables of Burckhardt and Carilni. 
8. D. not corrected. B. B. corrected. 

Beginning of the Eclipse 6 86 17.6 A. 6 86 83.1 A. 

FarmuOionofiheRing 2 8 1.8 2 3 5.8 

Apparent Conjunction 2 4 8.6 2 4 8.6 I Mean Time at 

Nearest Ap. of Centres 2 4 4.2 2 4 4.2 f Halifax. 

Ruptweqf the Sing 2 5 6.7 2 5 2.7 

End of the Eclipse 8 24 46.4 3 24 33.2 

Duration of the Rfaig 2 4.9 156 9 

«« Eclipse 2 48 28.8 2 48 0.1 

At the nearest^ Dbt of North Limbs (not cor.) 28.21" (cor.) 26.7 V 
approach of ^ *< Centres ** 4.20 " 4.20 

the centres ( " South Limbs «« 19.81 « 18.31, 

Digits eclipsed ll^ 48' 18". Point first touched 116<> 20'. 



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xcLiPSxs oi;iXBMUMr Wm Aso uLveusT 7th. 



II. Qktar&kji Febniaiy 26th, the Moon eclipsed, invisible throughout &b 
United States. 

b. m. 

Begfaminff of the EcHpse 10 20| M. ) 

Gieatest Obscuratioo (8^ ir on the > 1 1 jfis \ ^^^ '^^® ** 

Southern Limb of the Moon) $ ' ** «» / Washington^ 

EndoftheEcl^se . . . ~. 1 16^1 A. ) 

At the above times the Moon will be in the Zenith of the foUowiiur 
places, from which it will be very easy to determine where the Eclipse wiU 
be visible. 

At Beginning in Long. 190^ 46' East. Latitude 9^ 96' North. 

Gr.Obs. «« IW 27 « " . 9 22 " 

End «« 88 8 '• «* .98", 

The latter part of the Eclipse will be visible in Europe. 



III. Sunday, August 7th, the Sim totally eclipsed, invisible throughout the 
United States and the Continent of America. 

h. m. 

JBeg. of the general Eclipse on the Earth at 2 39 A. M. T. at Wash'ton^ 
m Lat. 13° 45' S. Long. 201^ 20' W. 

b. m. 

^ B^g» of total darkness on t?ie Earth at 3 48. A. MeanT. at Washhigton. 
in Lat. 29« 9' S. Long. 218<» 10' W. 

b. m. 

Sun totdUy and centrally ec. on the meridian at 6 22 A. M. T. at Wash, 
in Lat. 26^ 36' S. Long. 1 66® 2' W. 

b. m. 
End ^ total darkness on the Earth at 6 27 A. Mean T. at Washngton. 
in Lat 60« 7' S. Long. lOS® 9' W. 

h. m. 

End of0^ general EeUpee on the Earth at 7 86 A. M. T. at Wash'ton. 
in Lat. 36° 13' S. Long. 111° 89' W. 

Hiis Eclipse will be visible in the greater part of New Holland and in 
the South Pacific Ocean, excepting a portion very near the coast of South 
America. The greatest north latitude attained by the path of the northern 
boundary of the Eclipse witt be 12^^ 89', on the meridian of 178<> 6' W. 

At the Astronomical Observatory in Paramatta, in New Holland, in 
Latitude 939 48' 49.8" S., Longitude l^l^* 1' 84"£., the Sun wiU rise 
eclipsed* 

The greatest obscuration (10) h. m. 

digits) win take place at . . JJ Ji I Biean Time at Paramatta. 
The end of the Eclipse at . 2016)5^^ 



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IV. Tuesday, Augott 23d, the Moon partiaUy eclipsed ; vfiiM in part i> 
<lie portioii of the United States east of the Mississippi, and wholhr 
▼iafiile to the portloB, west thereot 

Ctty of Boston, Long. 7l« 4' d" W, 

Beginnbg of flie Eclipse 8h. 59m. M.) 

Greatest Obscuration . . . . 5 15 (Mean Time al 

Moon sets eclipsed . 6 17 f Boston* 

EndoftheEcUpse 6 81 ) 

Digits eclipsed 5° 48' on the South.Limb of the Moon. 

CUy ofJVlno Torkj Long. 740 V W. 

Beginning of the Eclipse . . 8h. 47m. M. ) 

Greatest Obscuration .... 6 3 f Mean Time il 

Moon sets eclipsed 6 20 / NewYorlE. 

EndoftheEcUpse .... 6 19 ) 

Digits eclipsed 5^^ 48' on the South Limb. of the Moon. 

CUy of Washington, Long. 76^ 66' 30" W. 

Beginning of the Eclipse . . . dh. 36m. M. *) 

Greatest Obscuration .... 4 62 f Mean Time at 

Moon sets eclipsed . . . . 6 26 ( Washington. 

End of the Eclipse .... 6 8 ) 

Digits eclipsed 5^ 48' on the Moon's South Limb. 

City of Charleston^ Long. 79® 48' W. 

Beginning of the Eclipse .... 8h. 24m. M. ) 

CMtest Obscuration .... 4 40 f Mean Time at 

Ifoon sets eclipsed . • . . 5 89 / Charleston. 

EndoftheEcUpse .... 5 66 ) 

Digits ecUpsed 5^ 48' on the Moon's South Limb. 

CUy ofJ^ew Orleans, Long. 90® 9' W. 

gfflrSSLt^o^n^^*^ •.-.•.• f r'^f ^-Timeat 

EndoftheEcUpse .... 5 16 5 ^ew Orleans. 

Digits ecUpsed 5^ 48' on the Moon's South Lhnb. 

At flie Beginning of the Eclipse the > 70 Ay q t nnir i<ino 40/ w 

Moon inn bevertical in Latitude 5 ^ « S. Long. 180 42' W. 

« Greatest Obscuration << 8 67 « 149 6 

«< EndoftheEdipse « 10 13 « 167 80 



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OCCULTATION& IN ISM, 

Vi$mein Bo§ton, and in Other PmrU ofth* VkUed Siate$; tks 
efwhdch are aBpre$$ed in Mean Time for the Meridian efBeekm* 

[TboM marked witli an aateriik will be vislUe in fluroite.] 
OOOULTATION OP A STAR BY A fLANBT. 

March nth. Oet^aHon nfihe mar A l^hythe PlanetMar: 

1. The apparent L«t and Long, bf the star heing deduced from die 
J'ables of the Astronomical Society of lK>Ddon. 

Immeraion ... 6h. 32m. 20s. A. 1.66'' ) North of the 

Emersion . . 6 35 4 1.58 > Centre of ^. 

2. The place of the star being deduced from the Tablet in the Appendik 
to Dr. Pearson's Practical Astronomy. 

Immerrion 6b. 88m. 57s. A. 0.31'' > South of tlia 

Emersion . 6 37 18 0JI4 > Centra. 

S. D. of $ 2.59"; c^arent motion of <f per minute in Long. 1.582^, 
inLaL4.0.0ia". 

This will probably be an occultation throughout a very large part of the 
United States ^ but it is veiy doubtful whether it can be otieerved in any 
place much to the westward of Boston, on account of the proximity of the 
Sun to the horizon. It takes place, howeyer, at a season of the year when 
ih» twilight is about the shojtest, and at a time when the star has greit 
altitude. 

OCOULTATIOI^S OP STARS BY THE MOON IN 1831. 

January Sih, OeeuUoHentfflylti. 
Immersion .. 2h. 28m. IslM. 18' .45" ) North of the Centre 

Emersion , 2 57 6 14.11 > of the Moon. 

> '8 Apparent S. D. at Im. 15' 5ja" ; at Em. 15' 6.8". 

*Jbmiary 21s<. OeeuUaHon off* Ceti, 
Immersion . . 5h. 53m. 37.8s. A. 11' 8" > South of tl^e 

Emersion . 6 46 50.1 13 22 > Centre, t 

> 's Ap. S*.D. at Im. 16' 22.5".; at Em. 16' 22.8". 

February 5th, OeiSuUalianofy^:^ t 

Immersion . . 5h. 20m. 39.48. M. 11' 1" ) South of.tlijp 

Emersion . . 6 26 52.6 7 48 J Centre.^ 

> 's Ap. S. D. at Im. 14' 52.8" ; at Em. 14' 53.7", 

TeJtruary \Wu OecuUaHon of the Planet Vemu. 

h. m. 8. I U 

: Contact nearest Umbs of > fc $ 1 42 56.7 A. : 11 15.8 

I Immersion of 2 's Centre 1 43 17.8 • 11 15.7 

^ Total Immersion of $ 1 43 39.0 11 16.2 I South of the 

^ Contact nearest limbs 2 42 7.1 12 29.4 f Centre. 

! Emersion of S's Centre 2 42 27.6 12 29.8 

[ Total Emersion of $ 2 42 48.1 12 30.2 

> '8 S. D. at Im. 16' 0.7" ; at Em. 16' 0i2". ? 's S. D. 4.99" 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ooovnTATioirt« 

Sh. i(MB. S2.78. A. 8'48''>SoiidioCte 
46 20.7 6 49 5 Ceotw. 

FOntary Wh mnd Mk, OeeyUmHmiifJUeharan* 

m 19di, llh. 48m. 2S.4f. A. 14' 27'') NorOi oT the 

I 20th, 6 45.6 M. 16 21 J Ceotre. 

> 'f 8. D. »t Im. ir 11.6"' ; t Em. 16' 10.4''. 

FehmaryTSik* OeeuUoHon of i yVPJl, 

8h. 2m. Of. A. 

8 80 48.7 r 5'' South of th« Centre. 
>'8S.D.»tEm.l5'7.0'' 



Immenion 
Sisenioa 



fmmenion 
Emenioii 



Stat wts edipsed 



Maarch Idtik. OecuUaHon ofy^ . 

lOh. 81m. 81.6s. A. 2^ 6'' ) South of die C«itt«. 
11 24 12.6 29 jNorth. 

^ *» S. D. at Im. 16" 16.8''; at Em. 16' 1^"\ 

^J^prd lUK OeeuUaHon ofAUtbman, 

\ . lOh. 41m. 44.1s. M. 18' 84" > North of the 

11 24 21.5 10 86 j Centre. 

> »i S. D. at Im. 16' 86.8" ; at Em. 16.88.7". 

Jm/t Vtih tmd ISih. OeeuUaiUm if I y ng. 

17di, llh. 61m. 16.7s. A. 
18tb, 48 M. 

>'a8.I>.atIm.l6'7J0". 



JIffie 2917^. OttvUMxon of the Planet Jupiter and hi$ SateWie; 

Contact nearest Umbs Ih. 41m. 14.6f . M. 9' 44.Y'* 

Immersion of U*« Centre 1 42 29.2 9 48.6 

Total Immersion 1 48 44i> 9 4AA I South of the 

Contact nearest limbs 2 47 18.9 9 86.9 f Centre. 

Emersion of )|.'s Centre 2 48 86.8 9 87.8 

tbtal Emersion 2 48 61.8 9 37.8 . 

B •• S. X). at Im. 16' 20.r ; at Em. 16' 21.4" ^s S. D. 21.60". 

Cbf^^iira^jail. ef iU SateUUe$ at the Jmmermot^ the PkmH heh^ 
ptaeed in the Centre, 

« 4 • O 1 



Immersion 
4tar sets eclipsed 



Mhf I91h. OeeuUaHon ofy sC^ 

Oh. 84m. 27.8s. M. 2" 
48 
B'iS.D.atlm. 14'46.6' 



Oh. 84m. 27.8s. M. 2" 86" Soi^ of the Cmi^ 
48 / 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



oocv&VAVtom* 



n 



Oh. 5m. 12.2f . M. 

1 8 87.8 



6 68 5 



Sooth of the 

C/6lltf6« 



EmciiieB 

B *s S. D. ftt Im. M' lO.O"' ; tt Em. !# 12.7^ 

Jiugmt 29f^ OeeulUOion off B . 

Immeniim . •tii. ISra. 4888. M. 9' 04" > South of the 

Emenuon . 5 15 88.1 12 48 > Centre. 

> 'fl S. D. at Im. 18' 20.4" ; et Em. 16' 20.5''. 

* August TQth and 80^. OeeuUaUon ofy y . 
Immersion . 29th, llh. 56m. 17.09. A. 10' 15" \ North of the 

Emenion 80th, 44 0.8 M. 7 7 3 Centre. 

]> 's S. D, at Im. 16' 11.7" ; at Em. 16' 14.2". 

*Aug;u»t 80^. OeeultaHon ofAldebaran, 

Immersion . . 8fa. 28m. 6.78. M. 0' 58" ) South of the 

EiAersion . . 9 88 47.8 44 > Centre. 

> 'f S. D. at Im. 16' 20.9" ; at Em. 16' 18.4". 

October 2d, Ocetdtation ofBeguhu. 
Immersion • 6h. 6m. 11.88. M. 15' 4" > North of the 

Emersion . 6 84 33.7 14 11 3 Centre. 

]> '8 S. D. at Im. 16' 62.6" ; at Em. 15' 53.4". 

October 14th. OeeuUaHonofvryif. 

Immersion . . 8h. 9m. 55s. A. 7' 6" ) North of the 

Emenion . . 9 24 24 5 40 3 Centre. 

5 '8 S. B. at Im. 15' 7.6" ; at Em. 15' 6.6". 

* October 2\$t and 22d. OeeuUaiion of I ft, Ceti, 

Imnermon . 2l8t, llh. 21m. 82.4s. A. 1' 15^' \ South of the 

Emersion . 22d, 36 4.3 M. 6 21 3 Centre. 

D 's S. D. at Im. 16' 39.9" ; at Em. 16' 40.9". 

* October 2Zd, Oceultation of Aldebaran. 
Star rises . , . Th. 18m« Os. A. 

Immersion . . 7 28 53 6 7' 19" > North of the 

Emersion . . 8 16^ 19.9 493 Centre. 

> 's S. D. at Im. 16' 29.4" ; at Em. 16' 31.8". 

Deembear 9A. OccuUaUtm of the Planet Jupiter imd ofaU his SateJ^ 

JUee. 



Contact neatest fimhs of D II 1|. 
Immersion of 1|.'8 Centre 
Total Immersion . • 
Contact nearest fimbs . 
Emersion of U's^ei^tre . 
Total Emersion 



h. m. f. 






6 88 13.3 A. 


k jte.6 -] 




6 84 0.5 


4 85.4 




6 84 47.7 


4.84.1 


North of the 
' Centre. 


7 47 45.4 


2 86.4 


7 48 27.9 


2 35.4 




7 49 10.5 


2 84.4 , 


' •' 


Em. 16' 1.1. 


U'SS.D. 


17.08". 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



m OfCVIAAXIOBS. 

Ckmfigmatkm ^Hu a mmh§ al the Mamnan. 

4 3 t 1 O 

This occultation will l>e visible throughout the United States, tnd wiD 
be the most interesting in the year. 

* December I5ih. OeeuUaiion of ^ CefL 

Immersion . 9h. 40m. 45.es. A. 0' SI'' ) North of the Centre. 

Emersion . 10 66 17.6 2 44 ) South. 

> 's S. D. at Im. 16' 84.7" ; at Em. 16' 88.9". 



*J)etemher Ylih, OceuUaHon of jildebaran* 



Immersion 
Emersion 



4h. 68m. 86.4s. A. 
5 47 25J& 



0' 6") North of the Centra. 
4 19 5 South. 



> 's S. D. at Im. 16' 44.0" ; at Em. 16' 47.1". 
December 24ih. Occultation of the Planet Saturn, 



r Contact nearest limbs of ]^ & t) 
[ Immersion of f^'s Centre 
[ Total Immersion of Yi 
. Contact nearest limbs 
I Emersion of |^*s Centre 
[ Total Emersion 



9 57 68.6 M. 


1 18.61 




9 68 9.9 


1 18.7 




9 68 26.2 


1 18.8 


South of the 


10 65 81.6 


1 55.0 


' Centre. 


10 66 47.a 


1 55.1 




10 66 2.7 


1 55.8 





> 's S. D. at Im. 15' 49.7" ; at Em. 15' 46.2*'. h*8 S. D. 8.66" 



td^ppulses oftfie Moon to Pkmet$ nnd tStars in 1831, at Boiton; aU, or 
nearly all, oftokUh toiU be Occultations in tome part of the United 
Statee, 





d. 


h. m. 


January 


29, 


7 88|A. 


February 


10, 


8 12 


« 


•18, 


8 12 


June 


14, 


8 15 


«( 


21, 


988 


July 


12, 


6 


Augutt 


h 


2 66iM. 


C< 


•8. 


1 10 


October 


3, 


8 82 


M 


29, 


2 15 A. 


November 11, 


9 45 


December •28, 


2 7¥. 



Nearest Ap. J^ 



toffl 


* 1 « 


Nora. 


9 


9 41 


South. 


f8 


* 8 


(C 


h 


hl6 


NorA. 


n^ 


* 6 


SoUul. 


? 


? " 


North. 


ffCeA 


* 024 


« 


«» 


*. 9h 


u 


• h 


h » 


u 


"fi 


* .8 


u . 


.9 


9 16 


Sooil^ 


«« 


* 84 


M 



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oeciii.TATio«»« 



OCCUIiTATIONS OF THE PLANETS* AND OF TBE STARS REOULUt 
AND AJLDEBARAN, VISIBLE IN 18^31 IN THE CITT OF CHARLX»* 
TON, SOUTH CAROLINA, IN MEAN TIME, FOR THE MERIDIAN Of 
CHARLESTON. 

Febrttary J3th, OcetUtaHon of Vmut. 
Immersion of $ Centre Oh. 55m. 59s. A. 14' 27" 7 South of the Centra 
Emersion •« 1 SO 67 16 24 j of the Moon. 

> '8 S. D. at Im. 16' 2.9' ; at Em. 16' 8.0" $ S. D. 4.99". 



Immersion 
Emersion 



Immersion 
Emersion 



Feknutry 19th, OeeuUation ofAldeharan, 

lOh. 55ro. 67.78. A. S' 39" ) North of the 
11 64 60.2 6 7 { Centre. 

> '0 S. D. at Im. 16' 18.9" ; at Em. 16' 10.d". 

*Jipril Ibth, OeeuUaiion o/Aldebaran. 

9h. 44m. 87.9s. M. 10' 14") North of the 
10 84 68.6 6 21 < Centre. 

5 '8 S. D. at Im. 16' 88.7" ; at Em. 16' 86.8". 



June 29th. OcctiUation of Jupiter and Ma SateUUei, 



h. m. I. 
: Contact nearest limbs ]^ & U 49 68.4 M. 
I Immersion of l|.'s Centre 61 50.2 

^ Total Immersion 53 55.8 

I Contact nearest limbs 1 84 6.7 

[Emersion of the Centre 1 86 11 2 

'ToUl Emersion 1 38 67 

^ *a S. D. at Im. 16' 20.7" ; at Em. 15' 22.2". 



18 88.1^ 
18 81.4 
18 29.6 
12 54.0 
12 62.2 
12 50.6; 
l|.*sS.D.2L60", 



South of the 
Centre. 



August 30th. OeeuUaiion of JMebaran. 
Immersion . 7h. 51m. 61.1s. M. 10' 28" > South of the 

Emersion . 8 51 15.6 10 68 > Centre. 

D 's S. D. at Im. 16' 23.5 " ; at Em. 16' 20.8". 

October '2d. Occultation of Regulus. 

limmersion . . 4h. 67m. 63.8s. M. 7' 10" >North of thd 

Emeraon . 6 4 44.8 4 2 1 Centre. 

> 's S. Di at Im. 16' 60.1" ; at Em. 16' 62.9." 

Deeemher 9th. Oteultation of Jupiter and dU the SateUUes. 



h. m. s. 


1 It 




1 'Contact nearest Umbs ]> II 1|. 6 43 66.7 A. 


i 88.2) 


North of tfao 
Centre. 


. Immersion of the Centre 6 44 48.4 


1 81.6 


( Total Immersion 6 45 40.0 


1 29.8' 


1 ' Contact nearest limbs 7 9 21.1 


1 81.7] 




< ^Emersion of the Centre 7 10 6.2 


1 88.4 


South. 


j' Total Emersion 7 10 61.8 


1 86.0 ' 




^ *8 S. D. at Im. 16' 6.8" ; at Em. 16' 8.9". 


U'8S.D 


. 17.08". 



.» it «M origiaaUyJatAndid to ooofwCa tM the ooeultattmii of i 
tth Bagmtiide. for OhuleMoo tad Wiuhinctoo, ai w«U as for 1 
tioe of tte eettMa of tba ISth of Fabmary ocoapiad m nraeh 



I tM the aaeultattmii orittn, of net leu diAB the 
" as for Boston ; btit the eaknd^ 

, RHiehtime (jMnoBths), t]M» 

wa weft compelled to defw earrjiof oar intention into foil effect, ontil anoUier year. 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



Oi 0OOin*VATIOKS« 

*Deumbtr Ylih. OMt^tattow qfMdehman. 

Star rises ed^Med 4h. 14m. Os. A. 

Emenioa 4 66 62.2 ' 7' 42.r. South of the Ceotro. 

>'sS.D. at£in.l6'48.r. 

December 2Ath, OecuUation of Saturn, 

: Contact nearest limbs D & h ^ ^^ ^-^ ^I* ^ 68.6' 
: Immersion of the Centre 9 39 67.7 7 68.4 



^ Total Immersion 9 40 17.0 7 63.3 

I Contact nearest limbs 10 31 44.6 7 60.6 

[Emersion of the Centre 10 32 2.8 7 60.7 

rToUl Emersion 10 32 21.0 7,60.8 



South of the 
Centre. 



> 's S. D. at Im. 16' 60.7" ; at Em. 16' 47.2'. I^'s S. D. 8.65". 



APPCJLSES OF THE MOON TO THE PLANETS AND THE PRINCIPAJU 
FIXED STARS, AT CHARLESTON, IN 1831. 

Vanuaiy 23. Nearest Ap. > to « ^ at 3h. Im. A. :k 2' 10" North. 
July 12. " «• 2 6 2 2 10 « 

October 29. *« " • ^ 7 16 M. * 7 16 « 



The importance of large eclipses of the Sun and of occultatlons of stats 
and planets by the Moon, for the determination of terrestrial longitude 
(the latitude being always easily ascertained), bas long been known. 
"When thus carefully determined, it will bo as near to the truth as when d6h 
dnced from a very large number of lunar distances, or of transits of the 
Moon and a star ; but where the tables of the Moon are relied on,~ the 
longitude, even thus obtained, is still somewhat uncertain, on account of 
the small error which Is sometimes found in them ; if, however, it is de- 
duced from a corresponding observation of the same eclipse or occultation 
made in one of the observatories of Europe, or in any other place, of which 
geographical position is well determined, it will be free from this as well as 
' other sources of error, if the observations are correctly made in both places. 

On another account, the subject of occultatlons has at all times been 
an interesting and important one, both to the practical and theoreticid 
astronomer; viz. they frequently present some remarliable phenomena widi 
respect to light, when the edge of the Moon comes in contact with the 
star, the star sometimes appearing to be projected on the disc of the Moon. 
This circumstance has lately been veiy particularly attended to, and num^r* 
ous instances are given by members of the Astronomical Society of London, 
who suppose that this appearance is more frequent (or at least more fre- 
quently recorded) as to Ald^baran, than as to any other star, accompanied, 
however, with anomalies, for which it is difficult to account.* 

It is therefore hoped that our astronomers will be induced to look out for 
the oecultationt of this star, not only with a view to ascertain the longitude 
of the place of observation, but to determine whether it does not appear 
projected on the face. of the Moon ; in doing this, particular attention should 
he paid to the following cirt:umstances. 

•aeeapspM Ma4he^Me lli# AstfOBomioil gMJetj of Ltodwi, by Mr. €kwkh, tteir 
Pnndent, in the Uansaetion* of that Society in 1899 ; abo remarlu on the aoonmaM eh* 
■erred ia the oocoltotioofl of Aldobaian of Aofuit Slit, October Uih, and December 9th, 
■anqyear. 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



1. Whether UiaftiflrlittdMfMt My dMN^cflkAit, if color, or of a^ 



tion, on its immediate approiick to t&e edge of the Mooo. 

2. Whether it appears to be piojected on the H eon's disc, and if io» for 
how lotag a time. 

8. Whether the dark Hmb of the Moon bo distinetlj Tisible, and well 
defined, at the time of the phenomenon. 

4. Whether the star, on its emersion, appears on the Moon*s disc, or 
emerges quite dear of the Moon's border. 

Between August 1829 and Juhr 1830 six oeeohations of this star were 
Observed in Boston, and in each of them, when the Immersion or EmenlMi 
took place on the dark side of the Moon, it appeared to be instantaneooi^ 
and when on the enlightened side, the star usualhr became so tremuloos, near 
the Moon's edge, as to cause an uncertainty of one or two seconds in the 
time of its takine place ; but in two instances, tui. on tlie 28th of Marcli 
kst and 16th of July, the star did actually appear projected for the space of 
between one and two seconds on the lunar disc, or as if about to pass be- 
tween the Moon and the Earth ; its red color remained unchanged, but ita 
light was very much more brilliant than usual. 

It will be noticed, that the occultations of the planets and of the stars 

m 3 and m fl (excepting that of « ^ on the 9th of June, or day of new 

Moon) which take place whilst the Sun is above the horizon, only have 

been computed ; the occultations of the other stars have been neglected, aa 

' they will be rendered invisible by the light of the Sun. 

In the computation of the occultations last vear, the diameter of the Moon 
was reduced four seconds for inflexion, according to the theory of Dus^lour ; 
this year, this reduction has been altogether ne^ected. 

The elements of the eclipses, in the Appendix, are given for mean $olar 
time of the meridian of Greenwich, and of the occultations in mean solar 
of that of Berlin, which is Oh. 53m. 33.6s. East of Greenwich, or 6h. Inu 
16.6s. East of Washin^on. When it is desired to convert mean into ap- 
parent time, the equation, in these elements, must be applied with the sign 
prefixed to it ; but when apparent is to be converted into mean, the sign 
must be reversed. 

No sign is prefixed to. the hourly motion of the Moon in Longitude, of 
the Sun in Longitude or Right Ascension (A. R.), or of Sidereal time, aa 
it is always +. 

For the accurate calculation of the time of the phases of a solar eclipse 
Off occukatioo, at any place, the latitude of the place, and the equatorial 
parallax- of the Moon, must be diminished for the ellipticity, or flattening 
at the poles, of the Earth ; which, though not precisely determined, is gen- 
ecally supposed to be about one Uiree-hundredth ; the reductions for this 
qoantity will be found in the 38th table of the sixth stereotype edition ot 
me ** New American Practical Navigator," or they may bd computed by 
the following iormuls. 

Let L be the latitude and R the reduction to the geocentric latitude, then 
lee. cotang. (L— R) == 0,0029001 -f log. cotang. L. 

The reduction of equatorial parallax (67' for example) may be fouQd 
thus,5.7"— 6,r'cos.2L. 

The reduction of the latitude is nothing at the Equator and the Fdes, 
andgreatest in latitude 46^, where it is — IV 28.7". 
» The, reduction of the parallax is. also nothing at the Equator, but greatest 
at the Poles, where it Is one three>hundredth of the whole paraBax ; in 
Lat 46^ it is Mf that quantity. 

r The elements of the eclipses, with the exception of that of February 12^, 
and of the occultations, with the exception of tiie places of the stars, were 
computed fi^m the Berlin jistronomischei Jahrlmeh (Astronomical Vear 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



m 



XCI.IP8SS OF Tax BATMJOJXMB OF JUPITER. 



BMk) for IM, edtted by tk« eoMmM Eneke, t vvofk^ir tupeno^ both 
M to matter and anancemMit^ to any tUog oi tbo kind hitherto puhfisned. 

The plaeei of all me atan, but a ^ md a {I, were computed from 
Mr. Baily's Catalogue of Zodaical Stan, which was taken irom the Cata* 
logue feeendy puMiahed by the AatronoBiical Society of London , and were 
abo carefully compared with their placea in the Catalogue in the Appendix 
to the first volume of Dr. Pearson's Practical Astronomy* The longitude 
and latitude of Aldebaran and Regulus are tilie mean of the determiiutioiis 
at the astronomical observatories of Greenwich and Konigsberg. , 

Prof. Bessel's determtnatioe of the Obliquity of the Ecliptic, and the cof« 
veetion of the mean place of the Sun and Stars for the Abenation of Li|^ 
and Nutation of the Earth's axis, have been invariaUy used. 

The aberration of the planets was calculated by Hi^ formuhi in Vol. III» 
p. 106, of Delambre's Astronomy. 



ECLIPSES OF THE SATELLITES OF JUPITER IN 1881, 

FUible Aroughout, or in some part qf, t?ie UrUied States; the PJuaet 
qf uiMth are expressed in Mean Solar Time for the Meridian of 
WaMngi^t re^coned aceording to the manner qf Astronomers ; who 
begin the Day at the JVoon of the Civil Hay, and count the Hours ifp 
tolAtOr to the succeeding /foon, when another Day is commenced^ , 



d. 


h. 


m. 


1. 




Sat. 




d. 


/ h. 


m. 


f. 


fM 


Feb. 19 


17 


33 


47 


Im. 


1 


May 


26 


17 


22 


43 


Im. 2 


« 19 


18 


11 


51 


« 


2 


« 


29 


11 


66 


69 


Em. 8 


« 23 


17 


50 


19 


Em. 


4 


4« 


81 


14 


82 


27 


Im. 1 


March 7 


15 


49 


42 


Im. 


1 


June 


5 


42 


22 


49 


Era. 8 


« 11 


16 


1 


7 


Em. 


3 


C( 


5 


15 


56 


S3 


Im. S 


c« 14 


17 


43 


19 


Im. 


1 


« 


7 


16 


26 


18 


« 1 


" 16 


1^ 


22 


1 


(C 


2 


M 


12 


16 


22 


14 


" 9 


" 18 


16 


28 


43 


c< 


3 


(( 


13 


11 


60 


84 


« s 


'* 23 


14 


5 


19 


(C 


1 


(/ 


16 


12 


48 


84 


" 1 


«• 23 


17 


58 


45 


« 


2 


« 


20 


14 


25 


87 


« > 


« 30 


15 


58 


63 


« 


1 


<( 


23 


14 


42 


81 


" 1 


April 6 


17 


52 


23 


*e 


1 


C( 


27 


17 





86 


u 2 


'« 15 


14 


14 


16 


cr - 


1 


« 


SO 


16 


as 


35 


1 


« 17 


15 


5 


39 


« 


2 


July 


2 


11 


6 


6 


*« 1 


'• 22 


16 


7 


46 


(C 


1 


M 


7 


14 


18 


12 


•* 4 


". 23 


12 


25 


50 


(( 


8 


<« 


8 


8 


62 


68 


6 S 


« 23 


16 


68 


48 


Em. 


8 


« 


9' 


12 


69 


19 


« 1 


" 24 


17 


41 


66 


Im. 


2 


«< 


11 


11 


66 


4 


Em. 8 


« 29 


18 


1 


16 


« 


1 


« 


15 


11 


27 


46 


Im. S 


«« 80 


16 


24 


51 


t 


8 


C< 


16 


14 


68 


40 


« 1 


my I 


12 


29 


40 


«€ 


1 


« 


18 


12 


22 


64 


« 8 


« 1 


13 


52 


11 


« 


4 


M 


18 


15 


66 


68 


Em. 8 


" 1 


18 


25 


15 


Em. 


4 


«( 


22 


14 


2 


86 


Im. S 


« 8 


14 


28 


13 


Im. 


1 


«( 


28 


16 


46 


10 


« 1 


« 12 


12 


11 


46 


« 


2 


€t 


24 


18 


9 


18 


Em. 4 


" 15 


16 


16 


47 


«« 


1 


« 


25 


a 


16 


60 


Im. 1 


** 18 


12 


83 


18 


Em. 


4 


« 


25 


16 


28 


12 


•' 8 


« 19 


14 


47 


19 


Im. 


2 


Aug. 


1 


18 


11 


81 


" I 


" 22 


18 


10 


24 


«< 


1 


«^ 


8 


7 


40 


10 


•• 1 


- 24 


12 


38 


47 


$r 


1 


('« 


8 


16 


6 


19 


«« 1 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



■CI.IPSXS OF THX SATKLLITSS OF iVTlTEA. 



37 





A. 


h. 


n. 


■• 




8tt. 




d. 


h. 


m. 


1. 




(Ni 


Aug. 


9 


8 


29 


40 


Im. 




Oct 


18 




10 


20 


Em. 




«« 


10 


11 


61 


8 


Em. 




<( 


16 




8 


20 


« 




«« 


10 


7 


20 


12 


«( 




M 


18 


12 


87 


18 


M 




u 


16 


7 


68 


88 


<c 




M 


20 




6 


8 


«< 




M 


16 


13 


55 


6 


M 




«c 


27 




I 


67 


M 




€t 


17 


13 


46 


12 


«C 




« 


80 




7 


10 


M 




*€ 


10 


8 


15 


1 


M 




Not. 


8 


10 


57 


47 


M 




i( 


23 


8 


26 


24 


Jm. 




« 


5 




26 


46 


M 




U 


23 


12 





8 


Em. 




M 


6 




48 


16 


St 




<( 


28 


16 


80 


1 


M 




M 


10 




46 


8 


Im. 




c< 


24 


15 


41 


20- 


«< 




« 


10 




17 


89 


Em. 




« 


26 


10 


10 


11 


M 




•« 


12 




22 


84 


M 




C( 


30 


12 


27 


44 


Im. 




« 


18 


10 


19 


29 


it 




Sept 


. 2 


12 


5 


31 


Em. 




C( 


17 




47 


57 


Im. 




«< 


3 


8 


22 


37 


c< 




<( 


19 




18 


20 


Em. 




<C 


4 


6 


34 


19 


<( 




(C 


28 




42 


56 


« 




<c 


10 


10 


57 


48 


<c 




Dec. 


1 




50 


86 


M 




cc 


11 


8 


29 


47 


«< 




« 


5 




38 


84 


(( 




M 


17 


13 


33 


4 


« 




M 


5 


10 


7 


51 


Im. 




<C 


18 


10 


25 


20 


(( 




«< 


8 




27 


17 


Em. 




M 


26 


12 


20 


58 


« 




« 


12 




34 


8 


u 




M 


27 


6 


49 


55 


« 




« 


15 


10 


4 


2 


« 




«< 


28 


8 


6 


52 


M 




(« 


16 




26 


31 


« 




« 


29 


9 


11 


31 


Im. 




« 


21 




58 


32 


tc 




Oct 


4 


8 


45 


39 


Em, 




c( 


22 




22 


39 


Im. 




<c 


5 


8 


1 


46 


tt 




« 


23 




58 


28 


*( 




c< 


6 


8 


35 


36 


Im. 




<( 


23 


8 


27 


46 


Em. 




(C 


5 


12 


8 


21 


Em. 




(( 


28 


7 


53 


54 


« 




tl' 


11 


10 


41 


25 


<c 




C( 


30 


8 


59 


55 


Im. 


3 


« 


12 


10 


37 


2% 


(( 


2 

















The eclipses before the opposition of Jupiter on the 10th of August will 
take place on the west side or the planet, and afterwards on the east. The 
Immersions only, of the first and second Satellites, will be visible before the 
opposition, and the Emersions only, afterwards ; but both the phenomena 
of the same eclipse of the two outer Satellites can sometimes be seen. 

The eclipses take place farthest from the body of Jupiter when he is in 
quadrature, and nearest when in opposition or conjunction ; but for some 
weeks before and after he is in the latter position, the eclipses cannot be 
observed, the Planet and his Satellites- being rendered invisible by the 
H^t of the Sun. 

Edipses of these Satellites, of the first and second especially, are veiy 
useful for determining to a verv considerable degree of accuracy the longi- 
tude of ^ny place; which, although not so exact as that obtained bv an 
observed occuHation of a star by the Moon, is deduced without the long 
and fatiguing calculation necessary for obtaining it by the latter method* 
Tliey have likewise the additional advantage of bemg of very frequent 
oecurrence. tJntil veiy recently, it was generally supposed, that these 
edipses could not t>e observed at sea on account of the motion of the 
Y0S8e\ ; but an officer in the English N^vy has lately shown this opmion^ 
to he erroneous ; he having succeeded in observing their phenomena firotn • 
a diip, with a very eonsideraMe degree of accuracy. 

To determine the time at which either of the preceding eclipses will take 
pUtoe, on any other meridian than that of Washington,lt is merely neces- 
Miy to add tour midutes for every 4egree of longitude less than 76^ 55' 80^, 
4 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



38 



POSITION AND MAGNITUDE OF THE RINGS OF SATUEN. 



and subtract the same quantity for every degree greater, and in proportion 
for a part of a degree. 

For Boston, add 23m. 25s. ; for New York, 11m. 38s. For Charleston, 
subtract 11m. 30s. ; for Cincinnati, 29m. 463. ; for New Orleans, 52m. 64s. 



Poiition and Magnitude of the Rings of Saturn^ according to Bestd 
and §truve,for every Fortieth Day in the Tear, 



January 
February 
March 
April 
June 
July 
August 
October 
November 16 
• December 26 



— 


6° 


86' 


— 




46 


— 




66 


— 







— 




64 


— 




40 


— 




19 


— 




67 


— 




39 


~"~ 


P' 


83 



— 8° 


46' 


— 10 





— 11 


38 


— 11 


60 


— 11 


8 


— 9 


18 


— 7 


3 


— 4 


49 


— 3 


11 


— 2 


41 


/. 





44.09'' 

46.44 

45.61 

4S.80 

89.97 

87.96 

87.24 

37.93 

39.96 

43.86 

a. 



— 6.80" 

— 8.06 

— 9M 

— 8.80 

— 7.66 

— 6.14 

— 4^67 

— 3.19 
-^2.23 

— 3.00 



p. Angle betwe<^n the semiconjugate axis of the ring ellipse, with ^ 
circle of declination ; positive when east, negative when west. 

I. Angle of elevation of the earth above the plane of the rings, as seen 
from Saturn, positive when north, negative when south. 

a. Seroitransverse axis of the ring ellipse. 

b. Semiconjugate axis ; positive, when the northern surface of the rings 
is visible ; negative, when the southern. 

It has been recently ascertained, that Saturn is not placed exactly in the 
centre of the rings. This singular circumstance was first perceived by 
M. Schwalz, of Dessau ; but for some time was considered an optical iDo- 
sion, occasioned by the shadow of the planet upon the ring. The question 
was settled by Prof. Struve, with the celebrated telescope by^Fraunhofer, 
at Dorpat ; who ascertained that the rings are actually eccentric. This 
eccentricity cannot, however, be perceived but by the assistance of the 
very best telescopes. 



The planet Mercury will set after the Sun until the 27th of January, then 
rise before him until the 5th of April, then set after him until the 25th of 
May, then rise before him until the 20th of July, then set after him until 
the 25th of September, then rise before him until the 13th of November, 
then set after him to the llth of January, 1832. 

This planet cannot be easily seen in any other position than wUen at, or 
very near, its greatest elongation from the Sun, or when apparently pasHng 
over the Sun's disc, a phenomenon of rare occurrence, but which will ac- 
tually take place on the 5th of May, 1832. The elongations take place, this 
year, Januaiy 10th (elong. 18° 58'), February 20th (el. 26® 40'), May 8d 
(el. 21° 3'), June 20th (el. 22° 37'), August 3l8t (el. 27^ 11' J, October 
12th (el. 18^^ 5'), December 25th (el. lO^' 48') ; but, in the present year, 
the following periods will be the most favorable, in the United States, ibr 
observing the planet, as during them it will not only be at or near its great' 
est apparent distance from the Sun, but will be nearer the elevated pole, 
and consequently will remain longer above the horizon. 

Jan. 1st to Jan. 19th, in the evening after sunset, bearing W. 20^ S. 

April 22d to May 16th, •* « " «* " W. 24 N» 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



HEIOHT OF TBE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1831. 39 

Oct. 4th to Oct. 26th, " morning bef. sunrife, *< E. 1 S. 

Dec. 22d to Dec. 3l8t, " evening aiier sunset, " W. 23 8. 

Venus will set after the Sun until the 8th of October, then rise before him 
until the 28th of July, 1832. Its^eatest eastern elongation (elong. 46° 48' ) 
wH] take place on the 80th of July, and its greatest western (469 66') on 
the 19th of December ; but it will be brightest as evening star on the 20th 
of August, and as morning star on the 30th of November, about which 
thnes the planet can be readily seen whilst the Sun is above the horizon. 

Mars will set after the Sun until the 24th of September, then rise before 
bun until November 20th, 1832. 

Vesta will set after the Sun until the Isl of June, then rise before him 
during the remainder of the year. 

PeUlaa will rise before the Sun until the 17th of July, then set after him 
through the year. 

Juno will set after the Sun until the 1st of June, then rise before him 
through the year. 

Ceres will rise before the Sun until the 9th of August, then set after him 
through the year. 

Jupiter wUI set after the Sun until the 20th of January, then rise before 
him until the 10th of August, then set after him until February 24th, 1832. 

Saturn will rise before the Sun until the 17th of February, then set after 
him until the 29th of August, then rise before him until March 2d, 1832. 

Uranus will set after the Sun until the 30th of January, then rise 'before 
him until the 6th of August, then set after him until February 4th, 1832. 

On the 21st of March this planet and Jupiter will come into conjunction ; 
at which time their distance will be very small, Uranus being 6^^ South of 1|. . 
A conjunction of Jupiter and Uranus is a phenomenon of rare occurrence, 
happening only once in about fourteen years. 

The interior planets, or all but Mercury and Venus, will appear brightest 
when nearest to the earth, that is, when in opposition to the Sun. 

The oppositions in 1831 will take place as follows, viz. of Saturn, Feb. 
17th; o( Pallas, July 22d; of Ceres, Aug. 4th; of Uranus, Aug. 6th; of 
Jupiter, Aug. 10th ; but Mars, Vesta, and Juno will not be in opposition this 
year. 

HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1831, 

Computed by the formula of La Place {Meeanique Cileste^ vol, IT. p. 289.) 

New or Fall Height of| New or Full Heiffhtof 



Mooo. h. theXide. 

New Moon Jan. 13th, 8 A. 0.87 

Full " " 27th, 9 A. 0.94 

New « Feb. 12th, A. 0.94 

FuU " « 26th, OA. 0.96 

New « March 14th, IM. 1.07 

Full « " 28th, 3M. 0.91 

New « April 12th, 11 M. 1.10 

Fun " " 26th, 7 A. 0.83 

New " May 11th, 7 A; 1.04 

Full « " 26th, 11 M. 0.78 

New «« June lOth, 2M. 0.87 

FuU « « 25th, 2M. 0.76 



Moon. h. theTide. 

New Moon July 9th, 9 M. 0.96 
Full 

New 
FuU 
New 
FuU 
New 
FuU 
New 
Full 
New 
FuU 



« 


24th, 4 A. 


0.81 


Aug. 


7th, 6 A. 


0.98 


(I 


23d, 6M. 


0.92 


Sept. 


6th, 8M. 


0.99 


(C 


21st, 6 A. 


1.03 


Oct. 


6th, 6 A. 


0.94 


it 


21st, 4M. 


1.09 


Nov 


4th, 9M. 


0.86 


C( 


19th, 2 A. 


1.03 


Dec. 


4th, 3M. 


0.81 


it 


19th, OM. 


1.03 



The unit of altitude, is the altitude of the tide which happens about 
a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, the Sun and Moon 
beinc, at the moment of d or ,9 , at their mean distance from the Earthy 
aod m the pjaoe of the equator. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



40 HXIftBT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRine TIDES IN 1831. 



The unit of altitude of any place, multiplied by the quantities in the above 
table, will ^ve the height of the spring tides at that place, in the present year. 

The unit of aldtude at Boiton, Salem, Marblehead, -Cape Ann, and 
Plymouth, is 11^ feet : 

At JVew Yorkt St. Augustine, Block Island, Elizabeth Town Point, 
Florida Keys, Elizabeth Islands, Hillsborough Inlet, Nantucket Shoals and 
Town, Buzzard's Bay, Martha's Vineyard, Long Island Sound, Rhode 
' Island, and Sandy Hook, 5 feet : • 

At Charleiton, S. C, Monomoy Point, Port Hood, Prince Edward's 
Islands, St. Simon's Bar, and St. Simon's Sound, 6 feet. 

These, multiplied by the preceding numbers, give for the height of the 
greatest tides, this year, in those places. 



Tide of 


BoftOD, 


N.York, 


Charleston, 




&c. 


&c 


&c. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


Jan. 15 


9 9 


4 4 


6 3 


« 29 


10 7 


4 8 


6 8 


Feb. 13 


10 7 


4 8 


6 8 


" 27 


10 8 


4 


6 8 


March 15 


11 10 


6 4 


6 6 


" 29 


10 3 


4 7 


6 6 


April 13 


13 5 


5 6 


6 7 


" 28 


9 4 


4 3 


6 


May 13 


11 8 


5 3 


6 3 


« 26 


8 9 


8 11 


4 8 


June 11 


9 9 


4 4 


6 8 


" 26 


8 7 


3 10 


4 7 



Tide of 


Boston, 


N.York, 


Charleston, 




&c. 


Slc. 


&c. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


.ft. in. 


July 10 


10 10 


4 10 


'ft 


« 26 


9 1 


4 1 


4 10 


Aug. 9 


11 


4 11 


6 11 


** 24 


10 4 


4 7 


6 6 


Sept 7 


11 3 


4 11 


6 11 


« 23 


11 7 


5 3 


6 3 


Oct 7 


10 7 


4 8 


5 8 


« 22 


13 8 


6 6 


6 6 


Nov. 5 


9 8 


4 4 


6 3 


" 20 


11 7 


6 3 


6 3 


Dec. 5 


9 1 


4 1 


4 10 


« 20 


11 7 


6 3 


6 3 



By the preceding Table it appears, that the tides of March 15(h, April 
13tb, May 13th, September 28d, October 22d, November 20th, and Decem- 
ber 20th, will be the most considerable in 1831. The height of the tides, 
however, depends so much on the strength and direction of the wind, that 
it not unfrequently happen? that a tide, which would independently of this 
ha've been small, is higher than one otherwise much greater. But when it 
happens that a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favor- 
able position for producing a great elevation of the sea, is still further in- 
creased by a very strong win£ the rise of the water will be uncommonly 
great, and injury and loss probably thereby occasioned. A remarkable 
instance of this occurred in Boston and generally along the coast of New 
England, on the 26th of March last, when the tide, in itself one of the 
three highest in the year, being further elevated by a violent easterly gaJe, 
actually rose 16 feet 5 inches, and caused very considerable damage. This 
tide was the greatest observed in that city within the last 45 years. 

The following Table contains the unit of altitude of several ports and 
places on Uie American coast, from the best authorities. 

The height of the tides in the Bay of Fundy was ascertained by recent 
observations. 

. ^ feet. 

Advocate Harbour (Bay of Fundy) 50 

Andrews, St 2!^ 

Annapolis (Bay of Fundy) . 80 
Apple River . . . .50 
Augustine, St . . .5 
Basin of Mines (Bay of Fundy) 60 
Bay, Bristed .... 8 

« Broad .... 9 



Bay, Buzzard's . . . . 


5 


«« Casco .... 


9 


** Chicnecto (north part of' 
the Bay of Fundy) < ' 


60 


« St. Mary's 


16 


«' Vert . 


7 


Beaver Harbour 


7 


BeU Island Straits . 


80 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 





TIDK 


TABIJ[. 


41 




feet. 




Ast. 


Block Idand . 


6 


Mary»8, St., Bar 


7 


Bo^Toir . 


114 


Monomoy Point . 


6 


Cape Ann- 


11 


Moose River (Bay of Fundy) 


86 


*' B]omidom(BayofFiindy)66 


« Island (Me.) . 


26 


«« Chat . 


18 


Mount Desert 


12 


"Cod 


6i 


Mouths of the Mississippi 
Nantucket (Shoal and Town) 


li 


- «• D'Or (BayofFundy) 


60 


6 


« Henlopen . 


5 


Nassau (N. P.) 


7 


" Henry . 


4i 


New Bedford . • 


6 


" Look Out . 


9 


Newburyport 


10 


" May . 


6 


New Haven 


8 


«* St. Mary . 


14 


Newport 


6 


« Sable . 


9 


New Yom 


6 


" Split (BayofFundy) 


65 


Partridge Island (Bay of Fundy) 66 


CHARI.K«TOir (S. C.) 


6 


Passamaquoddy River . 


26 


Cumberland (Basin Fort), head ) ^, 


Penobscot River 


10 


of the BayofFundy 
Digby (N. S.) 


5'* 


Pljrmouth 


lli 


. 30 


Portland . 


9 


Eastport . 


26 


Port Homer . 


8 


Elizabeth Isles 


6 


" Hood 


6 


" Town Point 


6 


" Jackson 


8 


Florida Keys . 


: 6 


« Roseway . 


8 


Gay Head (Vmeyard) 


6 


Portsmouth (N. H.) . 


10 




9 


Prince Edward's Islands . 


6 


Georgetown Bar . 


4 


Providence 


6 


Goldsborough 


12 


Rhode Island Harbour . 


6 


Green Islands - • 


16 


Salem (Mass.) 


11 


Gut of Annapolis 


. 30 


Sandwich Bay . 


8 


Gut of Cansor . , 


8 


Sandy Hook . 


6 


Halifax 


8 


Seven Isles Harbour 


81 


HUlsborough Inlet 
Hobnes' Hole 
John's, St. (N.B.) 


5 


Sheepscut River 


9 


6 
30 


Shubenacadie River (B. of Fun.) 70 
Simon's, St., Bar . .6 


" St(N.F.) . 


. 7 


" Sound 


6 


Kennebec 


9 


Townsend Harbour . 


9 


Kennebunk 


9 


Truro (Bay of Fundy) . 


70 


Lone Island Sound 


6 


Vineyard Sound 
Windsor (Bay of Fundy) 
Woods' Hole 


6 


Louuburg (C. B.) . 


H 


60 


Macfaias . 


12 


6 


Marblehead . 


. 11 
TIDE 1 


Yarmouth (N. S.) 
^ABLE. 


12 



The following Table contains the difference between the time of high 
water at Boston, and at a larse number of places on the American coast, from 
which the time at any of mem may be easily ascertahied, by aubtraicUng 
the difference at the place in question from the time at Boston, when the 
the sign — b prefixed to it, and by adding it,^ when the sign is 4-* 

The time of high water, in the calendar pages, is of that tide immediately 
preceding the southing of the moon. 



Albany . 


h. m. 
. 4-4 12 


h. m. 
Bay, Broad . _ o 46 


Andrews, St. 





« Casco . . — 46 


Annapolis 


. —0 80 


« Chebucto . .—40 


Augustine, St. . 


— 4 


« St. Genevieve, and > ti n 
« StBarbe \ \ ^ ^ 


Bay, Biisted . 


. -845 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



TID^E TABI.S. 



B«y» Buzzard's ' 
" Narraganset 
" Pistolet 
« St Mary's 
" Sandwich (N. S.) 
** Schecatica 
Bermuda Inlet 
Cape Ann 
*« Cansor . 
•« Charies 
<« Chat 
" ChurdkiU . 
« Cod 
*' Fear . 
<* Hatteras . 
** Henlopen . 
« Henry . 
'*< Lookout i 
« St Mary 
" May . 
*< Ronudn (S. C.) 
« Sable (N.S.) 
«« Split 
Chahlestoh 
Cumberland (Basin Fort) 
Eastport . . . 
Elizabeth Town Point 
Florida Key . 
Fort St. John 
Fryingpan Shoals . 
Gay Head . 
Georgetown Bar • 
Gouldsborough 
Gut of Annapolis 
Gut of Cansor 
Halifax . 
Hampton Roads . 
Harbour, Amelia 
'• Beaver . 
" Nantucket 

Rhode Island 
'• Seven Isles 
** Townsend 
Hillsborough Inlet . 
Holmes' Hole 
Ice Cove 

Island, Anticosti, W. end 
« Bell, Straits of 
" Block 
" Button . 
« Elizabeth . 
" Fox . 
« Green 
*« Moose . 
« Prince Edward 
** Rhode . 



h. m. 


— S 50 


. -.358 


— 4 45 


. —2 


— 2 80 


. — 30 


— 430 


. 


. —8 


— 3 46 


. +0 30 


— 4 10 





— 3 30 


. — 280 


— 2 45 


. —350 


— 2 30 


. —2 30 


— 2 45 


. —8 30 


— 3 80 


. — 15 


— 4 15 


) +080 





— 2 86 


. —240 


— 2 80 


. —5 


— 8 58 


. —480 


— 80 


. — 1 80 


— 3 80 


. —4 


— 2 63 


. —8 


— 2 46 


. 4. 80 


— 446 


4 —0 80 


— 46 


. —4 


— 1 20 


. — 1 80 


+ 4 


. —2 16 


— 8 68 


. —4 40 


-^2 60 


. —0 46 


— 2 80 


. —0 


— 1 


. —445 



Island, SaMe . 

« Seal . 
Janeiro, Rio . 
John's, St. (N. B.) 
•* St (N. F.) 
Kennebec . 
Kennebunk 
Louisburg • 
Machias . 
Marblehead 



Martha'syineyard(W.Point)— 3 58 



Mary's, St., Bar 
Monomoy Point . 
Mount Desert . 
Nantucket (town) 
«' (shoal) 

Nassau (N. P.) . 
New Bedford . 
Newburyport 
New Haven • 
New London 
Newport . 
New York , 
Nootka Sound 
Ocracock Inlet . 
Philadelphia . 
Plymouth . 
Portland . 
Portsmouth (N. H.) 
Port CampbeU 

" Hood . 

** Howe . 

" Jackson 

" Roseway . 

" Royal . 
Providence 
Quebec 

Race Point . 
River, Apple 
« St Croix 
'* Delaware, entrance 

♦« George's 

*• Penobscot 
** Sheepscut 
Salem . . , 
Salvador, St. . 
Sandy Hook 
Savannah 
St. Simon's Bar . 
** Offing 

*' Sound 

Sunbuiy . 
Tarpaulin Cove . 
Vineyard Sound 
Windsor 
Woods' Hole . 



11.111. 

— 8 

— 3 45 
+ 6 
+ 80 

— 5 

— 45 

— 16 

— 4 15 

— 80 




— 4 


— 80 
+ 080 
+ 44 

— 4 

— 8 58 

— 15 

— 1 14 

— 2 36 

— 8 60 

— 2 86 
+ 50 

— 2 80 
+ 2 57 

O 

— 045 

— 16 

— 2 SO 

— 4 

— 8 

— 3 80 

— 8 16 

— 4 15 

— 8 6 

— 5 80 

— 16 

— 80 


— 2 80 

— 46 

— 46 

— 046 


+ 4 16 

— 4 63 

— 8 16 
^4 

— 4 46 

— 2 30 

— 2 

— 2 88 

— 80 
+ 080 

— 260 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



TABLS OF LArriTUSK AlfO LOireiTIT]>S. 



LATITUDE AND LONOITUDE OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL 
PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES, WITH THEIR DISTANCE 
FROM THE CITY OF WASHINGTON. 

The Longitude* are reekonedfiom Oreenwieh, 

The CkipitdU {seats of OovenimerU) of the States and Terriioriei an 

designated by ScUie Letters, 



Mbany, 
Alexandria, 
AnnapoUsy • 
Auburn, . 
Augusta, 
Auguitay . 
AugoBtine, St 
Bal^nore City, 
Bangor, 
Barnstable, . 
Baton Rouge, 
Beaufort, 
Blakely, 



N.Y. 

D.C. 

Md. 

N.Y. 

Ga. 

Me. 

Fa. 

Md. 

Me. 

Ms. 

La. 

S.C. 

Ala. 



Boston €%, State H. Ms. 
BratUeborough, Vi 

Brunswick, . . Me. 
Burlin^on, • Vt. 
CabaTf^a, • . Ala. 
Cambridge, • Mass. 
Camden, • • S. C. 
Charles, St . M'ri. 
Charleston City, S. C. 
Chillicotbe, . . Ohio* 
Cincinnati, • Ohio. 
Cdtmbia, . . S. C. 
Columbia River, mouth of. 
ColumbtiSy . . Ohio. 
Concord, . . N.H. 
DetroUy • . Mich. 
Donaldsontnliey La. 

Dover^ . • DeL 
Dover, . . . N.H. 
Eastport (most east- 
em point of U. S.) Me. 



Edenton, 
Edwardsville, . 
Exeter, . 

Franl^in, 

Freoericksburg, 

Fredericktown, 



N.C. 

n. 

N.H. 

]/ri. 

Va. 

Md. 



Latitude. 
North. 


Loofi 
iDdegreM: 


in time. 


DiftfWmi 
WMlungtea. 


• 1 II 


• « n 


h.m. ■. 


■lUee. " 


43 89 0eN. 


78 43 00 W. 


464 480) 


806 


88 40 


77 4 


6 8 16 


« 


89 


76 4t 


6 663 


40 


43 66 


76 98 


6 6 60 


866 


88 19 


80 46 


638 4 


660 


44 17 


60 60 


489 30 


613 


39 46 


8180 


636 00 


880 


89 17 


76 8« 


6 634 


87 


44 47 


68 47 


486 8 


676 


41 44 


70 16 


4 41 4 


484 


80 86 


91 16 


6 6 


1860 


83 38 


80 88 


633 13 


iM 


80 43 


88 8 


663 13 


iioe 


43 30 68.4 


71 4 


4 44 16.6 


486 


43 63 


73 37 


4 49 48.0 


437 


48 66 


69 69 


439 66 


681 


44 39 


73 13 


463 46 


601 


33 30 


97 7 


648 40 


960 


43 3160 


71 7 36 


4 44 39.7 


486 


84 17 


80 88 


633 13 


471 


88 47 


89 46 


669 


016 


83 60 


79 48 


6 19 13 


668 


89 18 


83 66 


6 81 44 


407 


89 6 


84 33 


6 87 38 


604 


88ff7 


81 7 


634 39 


607 


46 19 


138 jM 


8 16 36 




89 47 


88 8 


633 13 


418 


48 13 


7130 


446 66 


609 


43 34 


83 68 


6 8163 


666 


80 8 


91 3 


6 4 8 


1360 


89 10 


76 80 


6 3 


186 


48 18 


70 «4 


448 86 


607 


44 64 


06 68 


437 44 


806 


86 


77 7 


638 38 


380 


83 60 


89 66 


669 40 


886 


43 68 


70 66 


448 40 


488 


38 14 


84 40 


688 40 


66i 


38 67 


93 64 


6 11 86 


1000 


88 84 


77 88 


6 10 83 


66 


89 34 


77 18 


6 913 


48 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



44 



TAB^ OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDS* 



Georgetown, 

Georgetown, 

Greenfield, 

Hagerstown, 

HaSfax, 

HalloweU, . . 

Harruburg, 

Haryurd^ 

Hudson, 

Huntsville,^ . 

Indianapolis, 

Jackson, 

Jefferson, . 

E^askaskia, . 

Lancaster, 

Lexington, . 

UMeRock, 

Louis, St 

Louisville, . 

Lowell, 

marietta, . 

Mary's, St . 

Middletown, 

MiUedgevilU, 

Mobile, 

Montpdier, . 

Montreal, . 

Murfreesboro' 

Nantucket, 

JSTashviUe, 

Natchez, . 

Natchitoches, 

Newark, . 

New Bedford, 

Newborn . 

Newburgh, . 

Newburyport, . 

Newcastie, . 

^ew Haven, 

New London, 

New Orleans City, 

^et€port. 

New York City, 

Norfolk, 

Northampton, . 

Pensacola, . 

Philadelphia City, 

Pittsburff, 

Plymoum, 





Letitode. 


Lonfitnde, 


Ditt.ftom 




North. 


in degrees. 


in time. 


WashinfUm- 




e 





h. m. •. 


mUes. 


D.C. 


885460N. 


76 69 00 W. 


5 7 56.0] 8 


s. c. 


83 33 


79 39 


5 17 56 


483 


Mass. 
Md. 


.43 87 


73 86 


450 34 


406 


39 37 


77 85 


5 10 30 


69 


N.S. 


44 44 


68 36 


4 18 44 


986 


Me. 


44 17 


69 50 


489 30 


610 


Pa. 


40 16 


76 50 


5 730 


110 


Conn. 


41 4« 


73 50 


4 51 30 


838 


N.Y. 


43 14 


73 46 


455 4 


886 


Ala. 


34 36 


86 67 


5 47 48 


749 


Ind. 


39ftft 


86 5 


544 30 


680 


M'pi. 


33 38 


90 8 


6 33 




M'ri. 


88 36 


93 8 


6 8 83 


1019 


n. 


37 58 


89 50 


5 59 30 


898 


Pa. 


40 8 


76 10 


5 440 


108 


Ky. 


38 6 


84 18 


5 37 13 


553 


Ark. 


34 34 


93 10 


6 840 


1387 


M'ri. 


38 36 


89 36 


5 58 34 


607 


Ky. 


38 3 


85 30 


543 


on 


Ma«s. 


43 30 


71 19 


4 45 16 


460 


Ohio. 


39 36 


91 19 


5 35 16 


807 


Ga. 


30 48 


81 43 


5 36 63 


790 


Conn. 


41 34 


73 89 


4 50 36 


880 


Ga. 


38 7 


83^ 


5 33 30 


676 


Ala. 


30 40 


88 11 


5 53 44 


1086 


Vt 


44 17 


73 36 


450 34 


534 


L.C. 


45 31 


73 35 


4 54 30 


566 


Ten. 


35 53 


86 37 


5 46 38 


708 


Mass. 


41 17 


70 8 


4 40 33 


681 


Ten. 


36 10 


86 43 


546 48 


737 


M'pi. 


31 34 


91 36 


6 540 


1368 


La. 


31 46 


93 10 


6 13 40 


1448 


N.J. 


41 46 


73 46 


4 55 4 


an 


Mass. 


41 39 


70 56 


4 48 44 


456 


N.C. 


35 30 


77 5 


5 830 


851 


N.Y. 


41 31 


74 1 


456 4 


381 • 


Mass. 


43 49 


70 53 


443 38 


475 


Del. 


39 43 


75 35 


5 330 


lis 


Conn. 


41 18 


73 58 


4 51 53 


804 


Conn. 


41 33 


73 9 


4 48 36 


866 


La. 


39 57 


90 9 


6 086 


1960 


R.L 


41 39 


71 18 


445 13 


419 


N.Y. 


40 43 40 


74 1 


4 56 4 


336 


Va. 


87 13 


76 43 


5 648 


339 


Mass. 


43 16 


73 40 


460 40 


386 


Pa. 


80 38 


87 13 


648 48 


900 


Pa. 


89 56 55 


76 11 80 


6 46 


186 


Pa. 


4033 


80 8 


630 83 


396 


Mass. 


41 57 


70 40 


44S40 


464 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



i^Esern of the lonoxst and. shoetest days. 



4S 



Portland, . . Me. 

Portsmouth, . N. H. 
Poughkeepsie, . N. Y. 

Princeton, . N. J. 
Pravidenccj . . R. I. 

Quebec, . . L. C. 
Raleigh^ . . N.C. 
Richmond City, Va. 

Rochester, . . N.Y. 
Sable(Cape), S.cape 

of United States, Pa. 
Sackett's Harbour, N. Y. 
Saco, . . . Me. 

Salem, . . Mass. 
Savannah, . . Ga. 

Schenectady, . N. Y. 
Shawneetown, . II. 

Springfield, . Mass. 
Stephen's, St . Ala. 

Tallahassee, . Fa. 
Taunton, . . Mass. 

Trenton, . . N.J. 
Troy, . . .N.Y. 

Tuscaloosa, . Ala. 
Utica, . . .N.Y. 

Vandalia, . . II. 
Vevay, . . . Ind. 

Vincennes, . Ind. 
Washington City, D. C. 

Washington, . * M'pi. 
Wheeling, . . Va. 

* Wilmington, . Del. 
WOmrngton, . . N. C. 

Worcester, . Mass. 
York, . . .Pa. 

York, . . U.C: 
Zanesville, . . Ohio. 



Latitude. 
North. 


Loof 

in degreei. 


Uoda, 
in time. 


Dirt.fir(»i 
Washingtoo. 


43 89o6n. 


70 30 obw. 


4 41 30.0 


milet. 
640 


48 4* 


70 46 


448 


600 


41 41 


78 66 


466 40 


299 


40 33 


74 86 


4 66 30 


178 


41 61 


71 16 


446 4 


416 


46 47 80 


71 9 46 


444 39 


740 


86 47 


78 48 


6 16 12 


388 


87 83 36 


77 21 34 


6 9 36.6 


133 


48 16 


77 61 


6 1134 


8M 


34 60 


81 16 


636 




43 66 


76 67 


6 848 


47t 


43 31 


70 36 


4 4144 


681 


43 33 


70 62 


443 38 


461 


33 3 


81 8 


6 34 13 


068 


43 48 


78 66 


466 40 


377 


87 32 


88 6 


662 34 


779 


42 6 


72 86 


460 34 


863 


31 33 


88 8 


6 63 13 


1010 


30 38 


84 36 


6 88 34 


870 


41 64 


71 7 


444 38 


480 


40 13 


76 48 


6 8 13 


167 


42 44 


78 40 


464 40 


873 


33 13 


87 43 


660 48 


900 


43 10 


74 18 


466 63 


893 


88 60 


89 3 


666 8 


808 


38 43 


83 3 


638 8 


663 


40 39 


88 33 


6 68 33 


736 


33 63 46.8 


76 66 30 


6 7 43 




31 36 


91 30 


6 630 


1362 


40 7 


80 43 


6 S3 48 


370 


30 43 


77 34 


6 10 16 


110 


34 11 


78 10 


6 12 40 


433 


42 16 


71 49 


4 47 16 


396 


39 63 


76 40 


6 640 


86 


43 33 


79 30 


6 17 30 


600 


89 69 


83 10 


628 40 


846 



LENGTH OP THE LONGEST AND SHORTEST DAYS IN SOME OP THE 
PRINCIPAL CITIES OP THE UNITED STATES. 



North part of U. States 
Portland . 
Portmonth, N. H. 
Boston and Detroit . 
Providrnce . 
New York 
Philadelphia . 
Baltimore . 
Cincinnati 



L. D. 


S. D. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


16 53.5 


7 6.5 


15 15.7 


8 44.3 


15 11.6 


8 48.5 


15 6.4 


8 53.6 


15 3i) 


8 57.0 


14 65.5 


9 4.5 


14 60.5 


9 9.5 


14 46.8 


9 13.2 


14 45.4 


9 14.6 



Washington 
Richmond . 
Raleigh and Nashville 
Charleston . 
Savannah 
New Orleana . 
St. Augustine 
Cape Sable, south 
point of U.S. 



I- 



L.D. 


8. D. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


14 43.8 


9 16.2 


14 35.5 


9 24JS 


14 18.6 


9 41.4 


14 10.2 


9 49.8 


14 5.8 


9 54.2 


13 55.8 


10 4.2 


13 54.9 


10 5.1 


13 32.1 


10 S7.3 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



46 JANUARY FIRST MONTH. ' [1831.| 


Twilight begiiM and endi. Apparent time. 


USEFUL REMARKS. 

A maxim is aometimefl like the seed of a 
plant, which the soU it is thrown into 
must expand into leaver*, and flowers, and 
fruit i so^hat greia paift of it must some- 
times be writtenf as it were, by the reader. 

No man was ever so much deceived by 
another as by him^^. : '*' 

Very nice scruples are scnnetimes the 
effect of a great mind, but oftener of a lit- 
tle one. 

True delicacy, as true genefosity. is 
more wounded by an o^nce fivm itself,, if 
the expression may be allowed, than to 
itself. 




lit daj 


r. 9th day. 


mh day. 25th day 


Bofton, 
N.York, 
Wailj. 
Charles. 
N. Orl'9, 


h.m.l 
644' 

43 

89 


I. h. U* h. 
f '6 41 7 

39 
• 37 

39 

36 


h. m. h. 
6 37 7 

86 

83 

36 

33 


h. m. h. 
6 81 7 

39 

38 

33 

19 


Moon** 4pogee and Perigee, 
Apogee, Jan. 8tli, 4h. M.— Di«t. 251,500 ma. 
Perigee, "34 2 M. " 238,500 " 


Moon's Loit auarter, 5th day, 5h. 5Q.6m. A.' 
New Moon, 13th « 8 38.3 A. 


First auarter, 3l8t day, 3h. 33.0m. M. 
Full Moon, 27th '« 9 38.0 A. 


1 

a 

1 
■s 

1 


1 

1 

1 


Sun rises and sets. Appareut timo.l 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 






4 


h 
1 


h 

1 


r 


1 


4 


ii 


h 
I ■ 


.6 


Ii 

1 ■ 






h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


s. 


7 sr 6 


7 26 6 


7 30 6 


7 3 6 


6 67 6 


8 32 a. 


8 36,a. 


8 37 a. 


8 36 a. 


8 39 a. ' 


2 


Su. 


7 31 5 


7 36 6 


7 30 6 


7 3 5 


6 67 6 


9 24 a. 


9 36 a. 


9 38 a. 


9 83 a. 


936 0. 


3 


M. 


30 


36 


19 


3 


'67 


10 26. 


^37 J 


;0 38 


10 30 


M31 


4 


Tu. 


30 


35 


19 




67 


ll 27 


11 27 


11 37 


1127 


11 37 


5 

e 


W. 

Th. 


30 
S9 


36 
34 


19 
18 




66 
66 












026 m 


026m 


24m 


22m 


6 2im. 


7 


h\ 


29 


34 


18 




66 


1 24 


1 33 


1 30 


1 16 


lis 


8 


S- 


28 


33 


17 




66 


3 31 


3 19 


3 16 


2 9 


3 6 


9 


Su, 


7 286 


7 386 


7 17 6 


7 5 


6 66 6 


3 17 m 


3 um 


3 iim 


3 im 


3 67m. 


10 


M. 


37 


33 


16 


6 69 6 


64 


4 13 


4 9 


4 6 


863 


349 


11 


Tu. 


27 


33 


16 


69 


64 


6 8 


6 4 


4 69 


446 


442 


12 


W. 


30 


31 


16 


69 


63 


6 1 


6 67 


6 63 


6 39 


684 


13 


Th. 


36 


30 


14 


68 


63 


gets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


14 


F. 


34 


19 


14 


68 


63 


6 46 a. 


6 49 a. 


6 63 a. 


e 6a. 


6 9a. 


15 


S. 


33 


18 


13 


67 


63 


648 


6 63 


6 64 


7 4 


7 8 


16 


,»M. 


7 32 6 


7 17 6 


713 6 


6 87 6 


6 61 6 


7 63 a. 


7 66a. 


7 67 a. 


8 4a. 


8 7a. 


17 


M. 


31 


16 


11 


67 


61 


8 67 


8 69 


9 1 


9 6 


9 7 


18 


Tu. 


30 


16 


10 


66 


60 


10 6 


10 6 


10 6 


10 8 


10 8 


19 


W. 


19 


14 


. 9 


66 


60 


11 18 


11 13 


11 13 - 


11 11 • 


11 10 


20 
21 


Th. 
F. 


18 
17 


18 
13 


8 
7 


65 
64 


49 
49 












23m 


030m 


19m 


16m 


13m. 


22 


8. 


16" 


13 


7 


63 


48 


1 31 


1 38 


1 36 


1 19 


1 16 


23 


Su. 


7 16 6 


7 11 6 


7 66 


6 63 6 


6 47 6 


3 40m 


3 36m 


338m 


233m 


2 19m. 


24 


M. 


14 


10 


6 


63. 


47 


3 48 


344 


3 40 


3 38 


833 


25 


Tu. 


13 


9 


4 


61 


46 


4 66 


4 61 


4 47 


483 


438 


26 


W. 


13 


8 


4 


60 


46 


rieee. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


27 


Th. 


11 


7 


8 


60 


46 


4 54^. 


4 68 a. 


6 3a. 


6 14 a. 


5 18 a: 


28 


F. 


10 . 


6. 


,v 


.« 


.44 


6 


6 8 


6 6 


6 16 


630 


29 


S. 


9 


6 


1 


48 


44 


7 4 


7 6 


7 9 


7 16 


T 19 


SO 


Su. 


7 8 67 467 06 


6 48 66 43 6 


8 8a. 


8 9a. 


8 11 a. 


8 16 a. 


6 17 a. 


»i 


M. 


7 8 6690 


47 42 


9 11 


9 11 


9 13 


9 18 


9 14 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 






\ /<?•-.' 






^ 



3/^ 



^^c/^- 



^fy^p%c^ 






Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



//Y^ 



46 JANUARY FIRST MONTH. ' [1831. 




Twilight begiM and endi. Apparent time. 


USEFUL REMAKKS. 
A maxim is aometimfifi like thd B6od of a 






Ist day. 


9th day. 


17th day. 25th day 


: plant, which the soil it is thrown into 
must expand into leavc5>, and flowers, and 
fruit ; so^that grei^ pfl«t of it must some- 
times be toritten, as it were, by the reader. 
No man was ever so much deceived by 
another as by himt<dlf. 

effect of a great mind, but oftener of a lit- 
tle one. 

True delicacy, as true genetosity. is 
more wounded by an o^nce frcm itself,, if 
the expression may be allowed, than to 
itself. 




BctOD, 

N.Yotk, 
Wa«l^ 
Charles. 
N. Orl's, 


h. m. h. 
6447 

43 

89 


h. i)»i h. 
'6 41 7 

89 

87 

39 

36 


h. m. h. 
6 87 7 

86 

83 

36 

33 


h. m. h. 
6 81 7 

39 

38 

33 

19 




Apogee, Jan. 8th, 4h. M.— Dist. 251,500 ma 
Perigee, " 24 2 M. « 238,500 « 




Moon's toBt Quarter, 5tii day, 5h. 5Q.6m. A. 
New Moon, 13th « 8 38.3 A. 


First auarter, 2l8t day, 2h. 33.0m. M. 
Full Moon, 27th *^ 9 38.0 A. 




1 

s 

1 

■s 

1 


i 

1 

1 


Sun rises and sets. Appareut time. 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 










4 


.1 


1 


!^ 


1. 

1 


i 




« ^ 


is 


1 • 








h.m.h. 


h.mJi. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.ra.h. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 




1 


H. 


7 816 


7 36 6 


7 30 5 


7 3 5 


6 57 6 


8 33a. 


8 35.a. 


8 37 a. 


8 36 a. 


8 39 a. 


- 


2 


Su. 


7 31 5 


7 36 6 


7 30 6 


7 8 6 


6 57 6 


9 34 a. 


9 36 a. 


9 28 a. 


9 83 a. 


9 a6 9U 




8 


M. 


30 


36 


19 


3 


•67 


10 36. 


10 37,: 


;0 38 


10 30 


W 31 




4 


Tu. 


30 


35 


19 


3 


67 


ll 37 


1137 


11 37 


1137 


11 37 




6 
6 


W. 

Til. 


80 
39 


36 
34 


19 
18 


3 
1 


66 
66 














036 m 


036m 


34m 


023m 


6 3im. 




7 


h\ 


39 


34 


18 


1 


66 


1 34 


1 33 


I 30 


1 16 


lis 




8 


8- 


38 


33 


17 





55 


3 31 


3 19 


3 16 


3 9 


3 6 




9 


^. 


7 385 


7 336 


7 17 6 


7 5 


6 65 6 


8 17m 


3 14m 


3 iim 


3 im 


3 67m. 




10 


M. 


37 


33 


16 


6 59 6 


54 


4 13 


4 9 


4 6 


8 68 


3 49 




11 


I'u. 


37 


33 


16 


59 


64 


5 8 


5 4 


4 59 


446 


442 




12 


W. 


36 


31 


16 


69 


63 


6 1 


6 67 


5 68 


6 39 


684 




13 


I'h. 


35 


30 


14 


68 


68 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 




14 


F. 


34 


19 


14 


58 


53 


5 46 a. 


6 49a. 


6 63 a. 


6 6a. 


6 9 a. 




15 


S. 


33 


18 


18 


67 


63 


6 48 


6 63 


654 


7 4 


7 8 




16 


,»u. 


7 336 


7 17 6 


713 6 


6 57 6 


6 61 6 


7 63 a. 


7 55a. 


7 57 a. 


8 4a. 


8 7 a. 




17 


M. 


31 


16 


11 


67 


51 


8 57 


8 59 


9 1 


9 6 


9 7 




18 


Tu. 


30 


16 


10 


56 


50 


10 5 


10 6 


10 6 


10 8 


10 8 




19 


W. 


19 


14 


. 9 


56 


60 


11 18 


11 13 


11 13 - 


11 11 • 


11 10 




20 
21 


Th. 
F. 


18 
17 


18 
13 


8 
7 


55 
54 


49 
49 














33m 


030m 


19m 


15m 


12m. 




22 


8. 


16^ 


13 


7 


53 


48 


1 31 


1 38 


1 36 


1 19 


1 16 




23 


Su. 


7 16 6 


7 11 6 


7 66 


6 63 6 


6 47 6 


3 40m 


3 36 m 


338m 


233m 


3 19m. 




24 


M. 


14 


10 


5 


63. 


47 


3 48 


344 


340 


8 33 


833 




25 


Tu. 


13 


9 


4 


61 


46 


4 56 


4 61 


4 47 


488 


438 




26 


W. 


13 


8 


4 


60 


46 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


'rises. 


rises. 




27 


Th. 


11 


7 


8 


60 


46 


4 54R. 


4 68 a. 


6 3a. 


6 14 a. 


5 18 a; 




28 


F. 


10 . 


6. 


,v 


J» 


.44 


6 


6 8 


6 6 


6 16 


630 




29 


S. 


9 


6 


1 


48 


44 


7 4 


7 6 


7 9 


7 16 


T 19 




SO 


5fM. 


7 86 


7 467 06 


6 486 


6 43 6 


8 8a. 


8 9a. 


sua. 


8 15 a. 


8 17 0. 




31 


M. 


7 


8 6 69 6 


47 


43 


9 11 


9 11 


9 13 


9 18 


9 14 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 






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^^I' ^_ _ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Digitized by LnOOQlC 



1831.] JANUAET HAS 31 DATS. 47 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and DecUoaUon of the Planets. 


ist day. 


7th day. || 


13th day. 1 


19th day. | 


25th day. | 


Souths. Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


O 1 


h.m. 


O 4 


h.m. 


e 1 


h « 86m. -|-1!^"94 


3 11^1.- 


■fl3 30 


346m.- 


"fl3 37 


221m. 


+13 46 


156m. 


-fl2 56 


$ 11 ao 


rt-834 


11 p - 


4-3 32 


10 51 


4-343 


10 35 


-j- 3 57 


1019 


+ 415 


^ 11 34 


—34 60 


1131 • 


—34 54 


11 8 


—34 57 


10 55 


—34 87 


10 43 


—34 55 


? 16a. 


—33 33 


358.- 


—33 46 


34 a.- 


—2136 


43 a. 


—30 1 


049 a. 


—18 4 


U 1 6 


—31 37 


048 • 


—3113 


080 


—30 56 


012 


—30 89 


1158m. 


—30 31 


^ 1 13 


—33 43 


136 ■ 


—30 9 


136 


—17 21 


1 4 


—15 33 


19 a. 


—15 18 


13 a 3 


—18 40 


139 • 


—18 35 


117 


—18 80 


055 


—18 24 


033 


—18 18 


$4 31 


— 9 23 


4 18 - 


— 886 


4 5 


— 743 


853 


— 648 


840 


— 5 51 


Q 6 15 


4- 1 37 


6 56 - 


— 046 


537 


+ 8 


5 19 


+ 1 3 


5 3 


+ 159 


S 9n 


+ 666 


6 5 - 


-f 818 


5 54 


■f 939 


543 


-f 11 


683 


+12 30 


•Month. 

souths. 
I time. 


!»■ O- *t 


High water. Mean time. | 


PHENOMENA AND OBSEBVA- 


A ■ . \ 


^ 


^3 i: 


s 


1. 


§ 


TIONS. 


Days of 

Moon 
^Mean 


III 


1 


%J 


6 


Sundays and other RemarkaMt Days, 


h. m. 


m. Br 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. • 




1 3 31.6m. 


3 41.7 


1 6m. 


11 6a. 


9 37 a. 


Earth nearest the Sun. 

Second Sund. aft. Christmas. (5 J h* 


2 8S3.8m- 


4 10.0 


143m. 


11 45a. 


10 6a. 


3 4 10.8 


37.« 


2 31 


. ... 


10 45 


Battle of Princeton, 1777. 


4 4 6^^ 


5 5.6 


3 


34m. 


11 36 


OccultWion of 1 y njj. 


5 6 40.0 , 


32.7 


8 41 


1 5 


. . '. 


Richmond, Va., destroyed, 1781. 


6 6 29.8 


. 59,6 


4 35 


169 


.0 90m. 


Epiphany.^ c5' ]) 2 IlijJ. - 


7 7 6.6 


6 3&.9 


543 


8 6 


1 37 


Very low. Tides. 


8 7 49.1 


51.8 


6 54 


4 18 


2 39 


61^^:^' Battle N; Oriesis, 181& 
6]>-n:^^ Oph. Ist Sun. aft. Epip. 


9 638.7m. 


7 17.3 


8 10m. 


6 84m. 


8 5Sm. 


10 9^.1 


42.1 


9 7 


6 31 


4 52 


Greatest east. el. 5 . Stamp act, 1766. 


11 10 8.3 


8 6.4 


953 


7 17 


588 


6 U 819 Mayer, d 5 y. .9 6'S. 


12 10 57.8 


30.9 


10 35 


7 69 


620 


Act of partial amnesty in France,1816. 


18 11 48.6 


53.8 


11 11 


8 35 


6 56 


d? U- ?»nft- C. J. Fox b. 1749. 


14 39.8a. 


9 15.8 


1148 


9 12 


733 


dDU- dD?. nOt?. 


16 181.0 


37.6 


33 a. 


9 47 


8 8 


d D 9. ? inAph. Charl. burnt, 1778. 
2d 8. aft. Epip. Bat. of Corun. 1809. 


16 3 31.7 a. 


9 68.8 


1 Oa. 


10 24m. 


8 45m. 


17 3 11.7 


10 19.3 


1 87 


11 1 


933 


d D ^ «fc. 9 8t. Franklin bom, 1706. 


18 4 IJi 


39.1 


3 18 


11 42 


10 3 


5 in Pcrih. Bat. of Cowpens, 1781. 


19 4 51.3 


58.1 


3 3 


36 a. 


10 47 


Congreve died, 1728. 


20 6 43.1 


11 16.3 


3 53 


1 17 


11 88 


d U O d J) <J. O enters •». 


21 6 34.4 


88.S 


5 3 


336 


47 a. 


Oc. of/* Ceti. Louis \6xh beh. 1795. 


22 7 38.6 


50.5 


6 19 


343 


3 4 


d ? 1^. d 9 ?. Byron bom, 1788. 
d D • B 3d Sund. aft. Epiphany. 


23 8 35.4a. 


13 6.3 


7 43a. 


6 7a. 


8 38 a. 


24 9 33.6 


3M 


8 57 


6 31 


443 


D Perigee. 6T> ^X Onon. 


25 10 33.4 


35.'] 


10 


724 


545 


Conversion of St. Paul. 


2611 30.5 


4^.1 


10 53 


6 16 


637 


Inf. d9 0. d? 'Vf- 


27 8 

28 016U)m. 


13 1.1 


11 33 


856 


7 17 


d 1^ 21 Vf . Peter the Groat d. 1726, 


13.< 


. .. . 


933 


763 


d}> *il' d U 833 Mayer. 


29 1 9.9 


34^ 


em 


10 8 


639 


d D h- CJ T>iil' George 3d d. 1820. 
dl^Q. dDr^. Septuag. Sund. 


80 3 O.lm. 


18 34.1 


r 4401. 


10 44a. 


9 6a. 


81 3 47.6 


44.1 


130 


11 16 1 9 37 


X>Dr^. d? iVf. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



48 FEBRUA&T, 8ECOKD MONTH. 18dl.]| 


Twilif ht iMpni and endi. Apfwrant time. 


USEFUL REMARKS. 
Nothing abridges life like false steps, 

Some men talk sensibly and act fooliah- 
ly, some talk foolishly and act sensibly ; 
the first lapgh at the last, the last cheat 
the first. 




4st day 


.9th day. 


17th day. 25th day. 


B<MtOO, 

W.York, 


h.m.h 

ft 34 7 

93 


.h.m.ii. 

6 16 7 

16' 


h.m.b. h.m.h. 

6 67 4668 

6 67 


Wadk. 
OkwlM. 
V. Oil's, 


33 
17 
15 


16 
13 
16 


6 
6 

4 


67 
67 
68 


We are never so ready to praise, u 
when we are inclined to detract ; and often 
has one man, nay one nation, been flatter- 
really meant no more than to fix a stronfer 
censure upon another. 

Some men are like certain stnffi, beaati- 
fttl on one side, hideous on the* other. 


Mocn** Apogu and Perigee* 
Apoffee, Feb. 5th, 3h. M.— Diit. 351,100 ms. 
Parigee, « 18 2 M. « 299,900 «' 


Moon's LartOoar. 4th day, 3h. 19.3m. A. 
New Moon, . 12th « 5.5 A. 


First Ouarter, 19th day, lOh. 5.1m. IL 
Full Moon, 26th " 11 55.3 M. 


1 

1 


i 

% 
1 


Sua rises and sets. Apparent time. 


Moon rises and seU. Mean time. 






4 






r 




4 


525 




1^ 


h 

1 






h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


Tu. 


7 fi6 


7 1 6 


6 67 6 


6466 


6 41.6 


10 13 a. 


10 13 a. 


10 u a. 


10 11 a. 


10 10 a. 


2 


W. 


4 





66 


46 


41 


11 11 


11 9 


11 8 


11 6 


11 3 


8 

4 


Th. 
F., 


3 

1 


6 606 

68 


6ft 

ft4 


4ft 

44 


40 
89 








11 66 


11 ftft 


8m 


6m 


4m 


5 

6 







67 


63 


43 


88 


1 ft 


1 3 


069 


6om 


47m. 


6 696 


6 66 6 


6 63 6 


6 43 6 


6 37 6 


3 im 


1 67m 


1 64m 


1 43m 


1 89m. 


7 


M. 


5S 


66 


61 


41 


37 


366 


3 63 


348 


3 36 


3 81 


8 


Tu. 


fi7 


64 


60 


40 


36 


360 


346 


3 43 


3 28 


833 


9 


W. 


6ft 


63 


49 


39 


36 


443 


4 38 


434 


420 


4 1ft 


10 


Th. 


ft4 


61 


47 


38 


34 


ft 33 


638 


624 


6 11 


ft 6 


11 


h\ 


63 


60 


46 


87 


38 


6 19 


6 16 


6 13 


6 


ftft6 


12 


a 


ft3 


49 


4« 


86 


38 


seta. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


J8 


Sa. 


6 60 6 


6 47 6 


6 446 


6 8ft 6 


6 336 


6 4ft a. 


6 46 a. 


6 49 a. 


6 64 a. 


666 a. 


14 


M. 


49 


46 


48 


84 


31 


7fi8 


764 


7 66 


768 


7 68 


15 


Tu. 


48 


4ft 


43 


33 


30 


9 3 


9 2 


9 3 


9 2 


9 1 


16 


W. 


46 


43 


40 


33 


39 


10 13 


10 13 


10 11 


10 7 ^ 


10 6 


17 


Th. 


46 


43 


89 


31 


38 


1133 


11 31 


11 19 


11 13 


11 9 


18 
19 


F. 

S. 


43 
43 


41 
40 


88 
87 


30 
39 


97 
27 












83 m 


39m 


36m 


16m 


0'l3m. 


20 


SUL. 


6 41 6 


6 396 


6 866 


6 386 


6 366 


1 39m 


1 S6m 


1 8im 


1 19m 


1 16m. 


21 


M. 


30 


37 


3ft 


37 


3ft 


344 


340 


3 36 


333 


3 17 


22 


Tu. 


38 


86 


34 


36 


34 


344 


340 


3 36 


833 


8 17 


28 


W. 


86 


84 


83 


36 


33 


437 


433 


439 


4 17 


4 19 


24 


Th. 


36 


33 


81 


34 


33 


6 94 


630 


ft 17 


6 6 


6 1 


25 


F. 


33 


31 


39 


33 


31 


ri$e». 


rites. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


26 


S. 


83 


30 


38 


38 


31 


6 60a. 


ft ft3a. 


0ft4a. 


669 a. 


6 la. 


27 


Sik. 


6 306 


6 396 


6 37 6 


6 336 


6306 


6 64 a. 


6 06 a. 


6 66 a. 


660 a. 


669 a. 


28 


M. 


39 


38 


36 


91 


19 


767 


767 


7 67 


7 67 


766 


Pleosoie is the business of the yonnf ; business is the pleasure of the old. 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



^r*^ M^rr^^^^ -^*w**- *<^yT<^^ -..•J^ <X fcL 



- f- />»- '»>v«n'>i*^ -_ 4^h3 



a^U *S/k^ ^f'^"^ ^^»**<^ .^^ y& /fe# *M A £^€.m^/^^ 

*' S~- C^c^^^x^rt..,^^^/;^^^^ §i,^ ^-cj "U^^ /fi-' 

/r/A . ,<' . ^, . 3o' 

WL ^*i^y ^<>^v^ c^e^*P ^l^^^frX^X^*-- 
• /P^^^ cf'^u^i^ ^//^X^ -c/^f^^'^^ - ^^i^-.^ i.i:^^Mrcmt<^ 

/^ c//r/_ /^^^f^^/A - \ .- ^/-^ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



1831.] rxMUAmr has ^ days. 49 






lit day. 


Ttbday. 


laihday. 


Ifllhaay. 


kkh<UT. 1 


SiwtU. 


D«j. 


SraOf. 


Dae. 


a^utkB 


. Di^ 


SmMe. 


Jbee. 


tea#. 


Bee. 




lUB. 


e 1 


h.m. 


• « 


h.a. 




h.m. 




h.m. 




h 


IJTm. 


+13 7 


1 IB' 


+13 17 


036m 


.+13 88 


OlOm. 


+13 W 


1141m. 


1 • ' 
+18 6J 


^ 


10 1 


+ 440 


946 


+ 6 6 


990 


+ 634 


9 13 


+ 6 6 


8 67 


+ 640 


? 


10 96 


—34 49 


1013 


—34 43 


960 


—34 36 


946 


—34 96 


9 31 


—34 14 


9 


11 ao 


—16 61 


10 46 


—1816 


10 31 


—19 3 


10 99 


—19 6 


10 33 


—18 22 


U 


ua? 


^90 


1119 


—19 41 


11 1 


—1931 


10 43 


—19 1 


10 94 


— 18 4J 


9 


ea. 


—18 13 


1148 


—18 6 


1136 


—18 


11 3 


—17 66 


10 41 


—17 50 


? 


66 


--16 37 


1 3». 


— 1364 


1 7a 


^1013 


1 11 a. 


— 7 17 


110a. 


— 4 14 


c 


i99 


— 4 41 


3 14 


— 8 39 


3 3 


— 3 36 


9 61 


— 189 


340 


— 030 


fi 


44S 


+ 3 6 


437 


+ 44 


4 11 


+ 6 8 


366 


+ 6 J 


339 


+ 660 


I 


6 91 


+18 60 


613 


+16 6 


6 3 


+1617 


463 


+17 96 


4 43 .+18 8l| 




ii 


lif 

1*1 


High water. Meaatima. 


PHENOMENA AND 0»SBRVA- 
TIONB, 




i 


1' 


§ 


•3 

1 


ll 


J 


!' 


Stmdayt and other RmarkahU Days. 




h. m. 


m. 8. 


h.m. 


km. 


Lm. 




1 


8 3$a)« 


13 03.7 


163m. 


1147a. 


10 8 a* 


Bopaparte defeated at Briewie, 1814. 


^ 


4 19.9 


14 0.4 


333 


. . . 


10 46 


df^UlMay. Puri/.of B.V.Mary. 


s 


6 0.1 


7.4 


3 1 


36m. 


11 38 


Spanish Inquisition abolished, 1813. 


4 


6 43.6 


13.6 


343 


1 7 




Cessation of hostilities, 1783. 


5 


6 3T.6 


18.8 


430 


3 8 


34m. 


Occult, of/ £i:. Galvani died, 1799. 
Sexagetima Bunday. 


9 


7M.0m 


14 33.4 


6 4Bm. 


3 19m. 


183m. 


r 


8 0.1 


97.3 


7 13 


436 


9 67 


5 Stat. cJ? Mt», distance 7'. 


8 


8 48.7 


80.3 


834 


640 


4 9 


Mary Queen of Bcots beheaded, IGSS. 


9 


938.9 


63.4 


933 


640 


6 7 


d ? r and 68 i», distance 16' & 3'. 


10 


10 30.3 


83.8 


10 6 


739 


563 


dp 9 Panil^y murdered. 1667. 


11 


1138.0 


64.4 


10 48 


8ri9 


633 


d J> U- Voltaire bom, 1694. 


12 


18.8A. 


84.3 


11 37 


8 61 


7 13 


ArmtUar ^dipse oftlie Sun in V, 8. 


18 


1 M». 


14 33«4 


6a. 


939m. 


7 6091. 


14 


166.0 


81.7 


043 


10 6 


837 


d ? X "!*. Capt. Cook kUled, 1779. 


15 


3 47.6 


99.3 


131 


10 40 


9 6 


P <y •" V- «8^''^« Tuesday. 


le 


8 8^.1 


08.3 


3 3 


11 36 


9 47 


OcofrX. d?lh«. Ash.}Ved. 


17 


4 31.4 


93.3 


340 


9a- 


10 30 


6Vt\ff. 0D2e&^CeU. ^Q}^. 


18 


6 364) 


17.7 


3 36 


069 


1130 


dj)f B. c31>^. 6$it^^i^- 


19 


6 30.3 


13.3 


437 


3 \ 


39*. 


Oc.offleB-CJ?9t*. J2>U,2^^J. 
9 greatest west. el. IH 8. in Lent. 


20 


7 10.6 a. 


14 6.3 


6 68 a. 


8 3pa. 


148ft. 


21 


8 19.8 


13 00.6 


739 


460 


8 14 


9iny. 


22 
291 


9 10.6 


63.1 


844 





439 


Cj «? U di8t. 34'. Wastogtottb. 1732. 


10 0.0 


44.1 


943 


7 7 


538 


d 864Mayerdtl9Vf dl8t.4'«^3'. 


24 


10 60.4 


86.4 


10 39 


760 


«H 


d^^cp. 0t. mttkioff. 
d)}a&AXi. d5JlVf. dl>h. 


2A 


11 60.3 


36.1 


11 10 


834 


666 


29 


S 


19S 


S146 


f W 


T3I 


> 0c. invis. d ^ e, «, ;jr fi. 9 ]p. 
U 8und. in lenf. d 1|. W Vf <**»*• V- 


a 


38.6m. 


13 6.7 


• f • 


944a. 


8 0ft. 


29 


1 94.9 


13 64.T 


30m. 


1010 


836 


Occultation of | y}ff. 


?eiKOti»t|oajeemaia 


nd ofiqipimion i it eiyet one nn idef of prqidiefy. 1 


Error if often iu>oru^ by fpod MDfe. | 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



50 MARCH, THIRD MONTH* [1831« 


Twilight bef ins and ends. Apparent tim*. 


USEFUL BEMARKS. 

Pleasure is a game for which it wiU be 
in Tain to try ; it must start before yon, or 
you »11 never/wl. 

Nothing so difficult as tracins effijcts into 

ofcauses for effects. 

Study profiteth little, if it does not teach 
us to avoid disputation.^ CAme«e. 

Every character is in some respects xaSk- 
form, and in others inconsistent ; and it is 
only by the study of both, and a compari- 
son of them with each other, that the 
knowledge of man is acquired. ' 
^ Human knowledge is the parent of doabt. 


J 


St day. 


9th day. 17th day. 


25th day. 


■ I 
Boston, 
N.York, 
Wash. 
Charles. 
N.Orl's, 


i.m.h. 
4 608 

61 

63 

64 

64 


h. m. h. h. m. h. 

6897 6377 
41 39 
43 31 

46 87 

47 39 


h. m. h. 
4 14 8 

17 

20 

38 

31 


Moon's Apogee «ii4 Perigee, 
Apogee, 5th day. Oh. M.— DUt. 251,100 ms. 
V^&e\ 16th " 3 A. « 236,900 " 


Moon*s Last aoarter, 6th day, Oh. 15.1m. A. 
New Moon, 14th « 51.0 M. 


First auarter, 20th day, 5h. 17An. A. 
Full Moon, 28th <' 3 19.0 M. 


! ^1 




Aftiooa rises and sets. Mean time. 






1 

1 


1 

1 


i 


1^ 


h 
1 


!^ 


1. 

1 


4 




1 


|jj 








h.m:h. 


h.m.h. 


li.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.in.h. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


Tu. 


6 386 


6 366 


S366 


6 30 6 


6 18 6 


8 68 a. 


8 67 a. 


8 66 a. 


8 64a. 


864 a. 


2 


W. 


27 


36 


34 


19 


17 


966 


9 54 


9 63 


948 


9 47 


8 


Th. 


36 


34 


33 


18 


16 


10 64 


10 51 


10 49 


10 43 


10 40 


4 


F. 


34 


33 


31 


17 


16 


1161 


1147 


1144 


11 86 


11 83 


6 


S. 


23 


31 


19 


16 


14 






















6 


Su, 


6 31 6 


6 30 6 


6 18 6 


6 16 6 


6 13 6 


04618 


043m 


38m 


27 m 


34m. 


7 


M. 


19 


18 


17 


14 


13 


1 39 


186 


1 31 


1 19 


1 16 


8 


Tu. 


18 


17 


16 


13 


11 


i^o 


336 


333 


3\9 


3* 6 


9 


W. 


17 


16 


16 


13 


10 


819 


8 15 


811 


8^66 


364 


10 


Th. 


15 


14 


18 


11 


9 


4 6 


4 1 


8 67 


346 


843 


11 


F. 


13 


13 


12 


9 


8 


448 


444 


4 41 


4 83 


439 


12 
13 


S. 


13 


11 


11 


8 


7 


635 


533 


530 


5 13 


6 10 


Su. 


6 10 6 


6 96 


6 90 


6 76 


6 66 


set*. 


•eta. 


sets. 


sets. 


sett. 


14 


M. 


9 


8 


8 


6 


6 


6 47 a. 


6 47 a. 


6 47 a. 


6 49 a. 


6 61 a. 


15 


Tu. 


8 


7 


7 


6 


4 


769 


758 


757 


766 


766 


16 


W. 


7 


6 


6 


4 


8 


9 11 


9 9 


9 7 


9 3 


9 1 


17 


Th. 


» 


4 


4 


8 


3 


10 33 


10 19 


10 16 


10 8 


10 6 


18 


F. 


4 


3 


8 


3 


2 


11 81 


1137 


11 34 


11 13 


11 10 


19 


S. 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 






















20 


Sa, 


6 1 6 


6 1 6 


6 16 


6 1 


6 06 


87 in 


33m 


39m 


17m 


ism. 


21 


M. 


6697 


669 7 


6 697 


6 697 


6 697 


1 39 


1 36 


181 


1 18 


1 14 


22 


Tu. 


68 


68 


68 


6d 


66 


384 


3 30 


336 


3 14 


3 10 


23 


W. 


66 


67 


57 


67 


67 


8 38 


3 19 


8 16 


8 4 


8 1 


24 


Th. 


66 


66 


66 


66 


66 


4 7 


4 8 


4 


3 61 


848 


25 


F. 


63 


64 


64 


66 


65 


448 


4 41 


486 


433 


439 


26 


8. 


63 


63 ' 


68 


64 


54 


rues. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


HHf. 


27 


Su. 


6 617 


6637 


6 637 


6 637 


6 647 


6 46 a. 


5 47 a. 


6 48 a. 


5 49 a. 


6 61 a. 


28 


M. 


49 


60 


60 


63 


68 


645 


646 


646 


6 43 


64t 


29 To. 


48 


49 


49 


61 


69 


146 


7 44 


743 


788 


7ST 


SOW. 


46 


47 


48 


60 


61 8 44 8 43 


8 89 8 83 


8 81 


11 


|Th. 


46 


46 


47 


49 


60 943 988 


9 86 0J37. 


9 94 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 






Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



1831.] MAKCH HAS SI DATt. 51 






lit day. 1 


Tthday. 1 


13th day. 1 


19th day. 1 


Sethday. 


^tmtk0. 


Dee. 


8nUk$, 


Dee. 


SmUks, 


T)ec 


&»a«. 


Dec. 


Saiaks. 


bee. 




lum. 




h.m. 




h.m. 


. * < 


h.m. 




h.m. 




$ 


8 4ftin. 


4-V4 


838m. 


■f744 


811m. 


4-8 36 


768m. 


4-9*8 


785m. 


4-^9 « 


? 


933 


—34 7 


9 7 


—38 66 


853 


—38 43 


888 


—38 39 


838 


—38 17 


u 


10 13 


—18 38 


965 


—18 8 


936 


—17 48 


9 17 


—17 29 


856 


—17 9 


^ 


10 36 


—17 46 


lfll4 


—17 41 


943 . 


—17 36 


919 


—17 81 


856 


—17 37 


9 


10 88 


—17 37 


10 47 


—15 34 


10 50 


—13 36 


1118 


— 9 


1138 


— 448 


? 


1 17 a. 


— 3 11 


131a. 


-|- 055 


134a. 


4-4 1 


137 a. 


4-7 4 


1 81 a. 


4-10 1 


s 


3 33 


4-0 18 


3 31 


■f 134 


310 


4-339 


3 


4-888 


1 49 


4-487 


a 


329 


-1-737 


3 14 


4-885 


3 59 


4-9 31 


345 


-f-10 36 


380 


-f-11 81 


^ 


4 38 


-1-19-13 


439 


-f-30 10 


4 31 


4-31 3 


418 


4^151 


4 6 


4-83 84 


h 


1134 


4-13 67 


10 68 


4-14 6 


10 88 


4-1415 


10 8 


4-14 28 


948 


4-14 80 




it 


M 


High water. Meantime. 


FHBNOMBNA AND OBSEHVA- 




,5 


•» 


^ 


53 


S "^ 


m 


4 


.M 

s . 


1. 


TIONS. 


1 


ll 


•III 


1 


-!5 


6 


Sunday and other RemariabU Day. 


""" 


h. m. 


m. ■. 


fa. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


- 


1 


^ 9.8ni. 


13 43.1 


51m. 


1045a. 


9 6a. 


dDi/np. (59'Vf. ' 


2 


3 53.7 


31.0 


1 31 


11 17 


9 38 


d U 21 Vy dist. 2'. 9 in Aphelion. 


3 


8 37.4 


18.6 


153 


1150 


10 11 


U. S. dec. war a^inst Algiers, 1816. 


4 


4 31.4 


6.6 


336 


. . . 


10 50 


6 J> '>p^. 22rf Congress begins. 


6 


5 6.3 


11 63.0 


3 5 


29m. 


11 39 


d 9 J Vy- Boston Massacre, 1770. 
6h»Sl' 6 9^H-Sd8.mLeni. 


6 


5 53.3in. 


11 88.1 


344m. 


1 8m. 




7 


6 39.6 


33.9 


4 57 


3 31 


04Sm. 


Frigate Randolph blew up, 1778. 


8 


7 38.6 


9.3 


6 19 


343 


3'4 


d > d,2^&l^ /. d 9 i t». 


9 


8 18.6 


10 64.1 


743 


5 6 


3 37 


David Rizzio assassinated, 1566. 


10 


8 9.7 


38.7 


8 47 


6 11 


483 


Crew of the W. & Ann mtirdered, '29. 


11 


10 1.3 


33.0 


939 


7 3 


524 


d D & U- Toitpiato Tasso b. 1544. 


12 


10 63.3 


7U) 


10 33 


7 47 


6 8 


d U ^]ff,d\at.4\ d D 9. 

mSundinLefU. Md Lent 8und, 


13 


1145.3ni. 


9 50.7 


11 3m. 


8 27m. 


6 48m. 


14 


37.6 a. 


34.0 


1143 


9 7 


728 


Discovery of the Planet Uranus, 1781 . 


15 


1 30.3 


17.9 


23 a. 


9 47 


8 8 


d D ?. Pros. Jackson born, 1767. 


16 


3 34U) 


0.0 


1 3 


10 27 


848 


d D 1 1 Ceti. D in Perigee. 


17 


8 18.9 


8 42.1 


1 47 


11 11 


9 32 


d? 41 May. <j2Ay. OclAS- 


18 


4 15.0 


36.1 


3 31 


11 55 


10 16 


Ocofyy. dJ) J,U,2J,U.2^8. 


19 


6 13.0 


7S 


3 33 


46 a. 


11 7 


d 9 943 Mayer, 3 hand 4 hta.. 
5th 8und. in Lent Essex taken, 1814. 


20 


6 9.4a. 


7 49.4 


4 36a. 


1 50a. 


11 a. 


21 


7 6.1 


3i.a 


5 43 


3 6 


1 27 


d U W- ©enters qj. Spnng begins. 


22 


8 1.3 


13.S 


7 16 


4 39 


3 


D d C C Newton died, 1727. 


23 


8 64.3 


6 64.« 


829 


5 53 


4 14 


Hornet captured the Penguin, 1815. 


24 


9 44.9 


86.C 


924 


6 48 


5 9 


6 9 *H' dj)ii^. Q.Eliz.d.l603. 
dD-^,h- ^2x,ly&,2«8. 


25 


10 33.3 


I7.fl 


10 8 


7 32 


553 . 


26 


11 19.6 


5 58.J 


HO 47 


8 11 


6 32 


d 9 24 K. N. B. ret. to Paris, 1815. 
d Dbnp. GthS.inLent. Paim 8. 


27 


8 


5 40.S 


ill 3la 


8 45 a. 


7 6a. 


28 


AAm. 


31.1 


ni 53 


9 17 


738 


d > 1 y njj. d U 877 Mayer. 


2S 


48.6 


3.{ 


> . . . 


946 


8 7 


Gus.3d assass. byAnkerstroem, 179?. 


8C 


133.3 


4 44.: 


1 33m 


10 15 ! 8 36 


Cath. emanc. bill p. H.Cdmm's, 1829. 


81 


3 16.0 


36.1 


) 51 


10 46 |9 7 


Occultation of y ■^. 



by Google 



59 


APRILi rOURTH MAZVTH. 1831.] 


Twilight bofidt and Odds. Apparent time. 


USEFUL RBMARK8. 

The great faalt of the human under- 
standing, is not the not going well, but the 
iw»t stopping welL 

The sense to conduct sense is worth 
every other part of it } for great abilities 
are more frequently possessed, than ptapwc- 

It is a melancholy eonsideration, that 
the difficulty of gaining reputation or rich- 

itfthem. 

but when they have a good chance of beinf 
contradicted. 




at da, 


.dUiday. 


17th day. 95th day. 


Boston, 
N.York, 

Wash. 
Cliarle*. 
N. Oil's, 


il.m.l] 

4 8G 

7 

11 

31 
. 35 


. h« m. h. 

8 49 

54 

58 

4 ir8 

16 


h. m. h. 

3 859 
41 
46 

4 38 
8 


b. ra. h. 
8 319 

38 

85 

•8 
4 08 


Mo9n*» Apogt and Ptrigee. . 
Apogee, 1st day,4L.A.—Dikt. 351,600 ms. 
Perigee, I3th »^ 6 A. " 923,900 " 
Apogee, 39tli " 1 M. «< 959,100 " 


Moon's Last Ouar. 5tii day, 61i. 58.1m. M. 
Now Moon, . 19Ui « 10 63.6 M. 


First aoarter, 19th day, Ih. 19.0m. M. 
FttUMooo, 96th «^ 7 9.1 A. 


1 

1 


i 

1 

1 


Sun rifees and sets. Apparent time. 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 






{ 


I- 


r 


1- 




4 


'i 

i 




h 


6S 
1 






li.m.h. 


haa.h. 


hun.li. 


li.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


F. 


6 437 


5 447 


5 45 7 


5 48 7 


5487 


10 88 a. 


10 34 a. 


10 31a. 


10 30 a. 


10 17 a. 


2 


S. 


43 


43 


44 


47 


48 


11 33 


11 38 


11 34 


11 13 


11 8 


3 

4 


M. 


5 41 7 
39 


5 437 
40 


543 7 
48 


5467 
45 


5 47 7 
46 










11 69 a. 

• • • 


34 m 


90m 


016m 


8m 


5 


Tu. 


38 


39 


41 


44 


46 


1 18 


1 09 


1 5 


53 


48m 


6 


W. 


87 


83 


40 


43 


45 


1 59 


1 56 


151 


1 89 


1 86 


7 


Th. 


35 


88 


38 


43 


44 


340 


3 36 


388 


333 


3 19 


6 


F. 


34 


86 


37 


41 


48 


3 19 


8 16 


8 13 


8 4 


8 3 


^ 


S. 


33 


88 


86 


40 


43 


856 


353 


8 53 


846 


844 


10 


Su. 


5 31 7 


5 33 7 


6 34 7 


5 39 7 


5437 


4 8im 


4 80m 


4 39m 


4 36m 


4 35m 


11 


M. 


30 


31 


33 


38 


41 


sets. 


sete. 


sees. 


sets. 


sete. 


12 


Tu. 


38 


39 


33 


87 


40 


6 47 a. 


6 46 a. 


6 44 a. 


6 41 a. 


643 a. 


13 


W. 


37 


38 


81 


86 


89 


8 3 


8 


757 


7 51 


749 


14 


Th. 


35 


37 


39 


85 


88 


9 15. 


9 11 


9 8 


859 


856 


16 


F. 


34 


38 


18 


35 


87 


10 36 


10 31 


10 18 


10 6 


10 8 


16 


S. 


38 


35 


37 


84 


87 


11 33 


11 39 


11 36 


11 11 


11 8 


17 
18 


M. 


5 31 7 
30 


5 387 
33 


5 357 
34 


5 33 7 
83 


5 367 
35 








^ 




8om 


36m 


33m 


9m 


5m 


19 


Tu. 


18 


90 


33 


81 


84 


1 83 


1 le 


1 14 


1 3 


58 


20 


W. 


17 


10 


93 


80 


88 


3 6 


3 3 


1 59 


1 48 


1 45 


21 


Th. 


15 


)8 


31 


39 


88 


344 


3 41 


338 


3 81 


3 38 


22 


F. 


14 


17 


19 


38 


83 


8 17 


3 15 


8 18 


8 8 


8 7 


23 


S. 


18 


16 


18 


37 


81 


8 47 


3 46 


3 45 


848 


848 


24 


^. 


5 13 7 


5 15 T 


5 17 7 


5 9T7 


5 807 


4 17m 


4 nm 


4 nnL 


4 17m 


4 nm 


2ii 


M. 


10 


13 


16 


36 


39 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


26 


Tu. 




13 


IB 


35 


38 


636 a. 


6 84 a. 


6 33 a. 


637 a. 


636 a. 


27 


W. 




11 


14 


34 


37 


7 83 


780 


737 


730 


7 17 


28 


Th. 




10 


13 


33 


37 


8 39 


836 


833 


^18 


8 9 


^ 


F. 




8 


13 


33 


36 


9 35 


930 


9 17 


9 5 


9 3 




8. 




7 


ll 


31 


35 


10 19 


10 18 


10 11 


958 


954 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 









^- y^ ^.^r>^ ^^ ^i^^^ 7^ ^^ ^^ 






Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



1831.] APKII. HAS 30 DATS. 53 


Punge of the Haridiaii (msaa time) and Declioatioo of the PlueU. 




Istdaj. 1 


7th day. 


13th day. 1 


19th day. | 


95th day. 


80mtk». 


Dec. 


Soutiu, 


l>ec. 


Souiiu. 


Dec. 


S^nUhs: 


Deo. 


SmUkt. Her. 




]i.m. 


• < 


h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


e 


h.m. 




h. m. 




« 


713m. 


+•10 47 


6 64m. 


-f-11 86 


6»tm 


.+13 26 


6 14m. 


+13 14 


664m. 


+1-4 Z 


J 


6 4 


—38 4 


748 


—33 63 


7 33 


—33 43 


7 16 


—33 86 


668 


—33 39 


w 


880 • 


—17 33 


6 7 


—17 19 


744 


—17 16 


7 21 


—17 13 


668 


—17 11 


% 


8 86 


—16 48 


8 17 


—16 30 


7 67 


—16 14 


737 


—16 68 


717 


—16 48 


9 


11 49 


4- 1 10 


6a. 


+ 641 


81a 


. +13 16 


68a. 


+17 9 


116a. 


+20 63 


5 


180 a. 


+ 649 


1 36 


+ 648 


1 17 


+ 746 


1 7 


+ 841 


068 


+ 938 


? 


1 86 


-1-18 17 


1 41 


+16 63 


1 46 


+18 16 


1 63 


+30 30 


168 


+•23 6 


a 


3 14 


4-13 38 


3 


-|-J8 13 


147 


+14 3 


183 


4-14 60 


130 


4-16 86 


s 


866 


4-38 IS 


8 48 


+23 48 


3 41 


-f-34 13 


884 


4-34 30 


326 


4-34 41 


h 


9 14 


.-14 87 


849 


-i-14 41 


836 


4-14 44 


8 1 


4-14 46 


787 


4-14 46 


i 


U 


'*!i 


High wster. Mean time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA^ 




o 


« M 


S 


«i5 


Jl 


% 


§ 


•noNs. 


1 


Jl 




1 


r 


14 






h. m. 


m. 1. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 




1 


8 0.6ia 


4 7.4 


134m. 


1130 a. 


«4la. 


C5 D «£2:. Good Friday. 


2 


8 46.3 


8 49.0 


1 66 


11 69 


10 30 

11 3 a. 


6 J) ^Oph. Bat of the Baltic, 1801. 
Easter Day. [dethiwDed, 1814. 


8 


4S3.8ia 


8 80.6 


386m. 


. • . 


4 


6 30.6 


12.8 


8 18 


43m. 


. « . 


9 in^. Easter Bionday, Bonaparte 


6 


6 9.4' 


364.9 


430 


144 


6m. 


Easter Tuesday. Bet. of Blaipo, 1818. 


6 


6 69.1 


87.3 


686 


2 69 


130 


Sup. 6 ^. 6 $ 179Mayer- 


7 


7 49.8 


19.8 


6 69 


433 


344 


C5 ^ & U- Dr. H. Blair b. 1718. 


8 


8 4(U> 


3.6 


8 11 


636 


866 


C5 D r «!.. French entered Spain, 1823. 


9 


9 81.1 


146.7 


9 6 


^2Xi 


4 61 


D.De Foe d. 1731. J- Opie d, 1807. 

IstSund. after EasUr, Low Sunday. 


10 


10 Xl^au 


139.0 


9 64m. 


7 18m. 


6 89m. 


11 


11 16.6 


13.6 


10 86 


8 


6 31 


d 9 > SP. George Canning b. 1770. 


12 


9.7a. 


66JI 


11 19 


843 


7 4 


CJ D 9. Rodney's victory, 1782. 


13 


1 6.6 


40.6 


3a. 


936 


7 47 


d D 2 ^ and ^ Celt. 


14 


3 3.1 


34.9 


046 


10 9 


880 


d D 9. Battle of Almaoza, 1707. 


16 
16 


8 3.0 

4 1.6 


9.7 


131 
3 19 


10 66 

11 43 


9 16 
4 


Occultation of a ^ . 

9 inPerih. d D ^,2;^ Orion. 

2d Sunday after Easter. 


—0 5.2 


17 


6 0.3a. 


19.7 


8 11 a. 


86a.] 


66m. 


18 


6 67.1 


884) 


4 11 


186 ] 


1 66 


d 9 •• <Tp. Lord Camden died, 1794. 


19 


6 61.4 


47.8 


637 


3 61 


1 13a. 


Bat LenngtoD, 1776. Byron d. 1824. 


20 


743.8 


1 1.3 


660 


4 14 


3 86 


d 9 2 f c)p. enters 8 . 


21 


8 81.4 


14.8 


8 8 


697 


8 48 


d D h» Occultation of #i^. 


22 


9 17.7 


36.9 


868 


633 


4 43 


d9lA,2A8. 9^4' ^'^. 


28 


10 3.8 


39.1 


943 


7 6 


6 27 


d 9 2 r c)p. Shakspeare b. 1664. 
Sd Sund. after Easter, d 9 66 cp. 
d ,? 132 8 • Cowper died. 1800. 


24 


10 46.0 a. 


160.9 


10 33 a. 


7 46 a. 


6 7a. 


26 


1139.4 


3 3.3 


10 66 


8 19 


6 40 


26 


a '■ 


18.1 


1197 


8 61 


7 13 


d91»>29&2«8. 


27 


013.9in. 


38.4 


1167 


9 31 


7 43 


York (U. C.) taken, Pike kiUed, 1813. 


28 


67.0 


88.8 


• . . 


960 


8 11 


d 5«l 8. Oc.of y:Ci^ l^stat 


29 


1 43.3 


43.6 


36m. 


10 33 


8 48 


Capture of Uie Epervier, 1814. 


80 


338.6 


61.6 


068 


10 66 


9 17 


Washington inaug. first Pres. 1789. 



6* 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



[Si MAT, FIFTH MONTH. [1831, 


Twilight iMfins ami «nda. A|»p«irent Hme. 


USfiFUL REMARKS. 

A man mast be a foci indeed, if I think 
hina one at the time he is applauding me. 

The oak, which is generally oonaidered 
as the king of troes, is that also wiiieh 
arrivea latest ^«t perfection } and perhaps, 
in some sense, the same observation may 
be true with respect to mankind. 

The use of cenvorsation is the poroeiT* 
i«g, perhaps adopting, the ideas of othezs ; 
the end. tlie displaying our own. 

Who is the tnie hero? He who has the 

' We confess our faults in the plural, aad 
' deny them in the smgahir. 




litdaj 


. 9th 4a7.|]7th d«y.|35th day. 


Az^oii 


h.M.fa 

3 tot 
17 
36 
46 
64 


. h. B. h. 
3 66 10 
8 5 9 

14 

37 

46 


h.m fa. 
3 43 10 

53 
3 3 9 

38 

38 


h. m. h. 
8 38 10 

89 

60 
3 30 9 

31 


Mocn*a Apogee and PerigM. 
Perigee, iSth d«y, 3h. M.— Dist. 2S5,80Dmi. 
Apogee, 38th " 7 M. « 252,400 " 


Moon'i Lait Ooarter, 4th day, lOh. 23.8di. A. 
Qtoir Mooa, 11th «^ 6 49^ A. 


1 First Quarter, Mth day, llh. 1.0m. M. 
iFnIlMaan, 96th " M 49.6 M. 


a u8 1 


Son riMt and aets. Apparent time.j 


Mom rises and sets. Mean tine. 


g 
1 

f 


1 
1 

1 






i 




1' 


is 


1. 

1 


4 


I* 


i. 

r 


!' 


h 

is; 






h.mJi. 


h.m.h. 


h.mJi. 


honJu 


iuawb. 


l>.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


ium. 


h.m. 


1 


5tt. 


5 37 


6 77 


5 10 7 


6 307 


6347 


11 9 a. 


11 6 a. 


11 1 a. 


19 47 a. 


10 48 a. 


2 


M. 


, a 


6 




19 


98 


11 66 


11 63 


1146 


11 86 


1131 


4 


Tu. 


4MB 


4 
3 




16 
17 


33 
33 












089 m 


36111 


31XD 


9 30m 


• lem. 


6 


I^ 


63 ! 


« 




n 


31 


118 


114 


1 11 


1 3 


099 


« 


F. 


m 


1 




16 


30 


1«3 


li60 


148 


141 


1S9 


7 


S. 


«6 ! 







18 


90 


937 


8 36 


334 


3^_ 


9 19 ' 


8 


Su. 


4 568 


4 696 


6 37 


« f 6 7 


5 19 7 


3 3m 


3 im 


8 on 


3 59m 


8 om. 


9 


M. 


64 


'66 




14 


16 


336 


3 86 


334 


338 


840 


I» 


Tu. 


«3 


57 




13 


18 


4 9 


4 10 


4 11 


4 17 


420 


11 


W. 


63 


U 




U 


17 


»ets. 


sets. 


Mto. 


aeto. 


sate. 


la 


Th. 


«l 


«6 


4498 


IS 


17 


9 4ia. 


8 oa. 


imtL 


7 45a. 


743 a. 


13 


F. 


4» 


64 


56 


13 


16 


9 16 


9 13 


9 8 


8 66 


6 91 


14 


S. 


49 


IS t 


617 


11 


16 


19 90 


19 16 


10 11 


9 68 


964 


llr 


;su. 


11469 


4 53 8 


4 66 8 


5 14 7 


6167 


11 wa. 


11 13a. 


11 8a. 


lOASa. 


10 91a. 


16 


M. 


47 


61 


66 


W 


U 


... 


... 


11166 


1146 


11 43 


17 


Tn. 


46 


^ 


164 ' 




18 


4m 


om 


. . . 


. . . ' 


• • • 


18 


W. 


45 


49 


M 




18 


916 


'Ottl 


89m 


30fB 


oiTm. 


1ft 


*lk, 


44 


.48 


63 . 




13 


1 31 


1 19 


116 


1 10 • 


1 « 


^ 


*'. . 


>48 1 


4n • 


iO • 




11 


1 63 


193 


340 


1 4a . 


146 


21 


S. 


43 , 


46 


61 : 




H 


4133 


9 83 


««1 


3 31 


«9i : 


22 


£^. 


4.41 • 


«>«(« 


4 90 6 


6 -f? 


6 19 7 


^ 5im 


36im 


3«3m 


354m 


3B6m.' 


29^ 


M. 


4» i 


•45 ; 


69 




19 


8 16 


3 19 


91M) 


8 35 


397 ' 


2J 


Tu. 


89 


44 


49 






^46 . 


3 48 


9«0 


366 


4 1 : 


2ft 


W. 


38 


48 


48 






TtSW. 


TiMS. 


rites. 


lises. 


^ieee. 


26 


TkL, 


«1^ 


43 


47 ! 




9 - 


7 90 a. 


■7 16a. 


9 lam^ 


7 la. 


4 19 a. 


27 


F. 


87 i 


«3 


4V 






9 15 


9 11 


9 n ■ 


764 


760 


28 


S. 


N 1 


41 


«• 






9 1 


9 ^ 


«C8 


641 ' 


«41 


29 


iSb^ 


486 6 


4 408 


4 46 6 


ill 


6 6 7 


'9 e4a. 


9 80ia. 


9 46 a. 


933 a. 


999 a. 


80 


M.» 


84 ' 


1» 


45 






10 88 


^34 


10^ 


10 IB 


10 14 


8t 


Tu. 


83 


88 


44 






11 18 


11 14 


11 11 


11 


1997 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



'/ — ' 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



1831.] MAT HAS 31 DATS. 55 


P«M«f« of the Meridian ^mean time) and Declinatioa of the Planets. 




latday. | 


7th day. 


Idth day. 1 


19th day. | 


SSthday. \ 


SmUks. 


J>ee. 


South*, 


Dee. 


Soutkg. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 




km. 


^ 


h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


e s 


h.m. 


e 


h.m. 




$ 


6 32m.- 


-14 62 


610m. 


-1-16 40 


447m. 


-1-16 36 


424m. 


+17 10 


4 Om. 


-1-17 69 


¥ 


635 - 


-17 10 


6 11 


—17 8 


648 


—17 8 


624 


—17 8 


6 1 


—17 8 


? 


640 - 


-23 96 


632 


—22 96 


6 3 


—22 29 


543 


—33 86 


623 


—^46 


u 


666 - 


-15 80 


6 86 


—16 18 


6 14 


—16 9 


5 52 


—16 1 


680 


—14 66 


s 


47a. - 


-10 21 


38 a. 


-1-11 6 


28a. 


-1-1147 


019a. 


-f-13 26 


9a. 


+18 67 


a 


16- 


-16 17 


068 


-I-I6 68 


40' 


-1-17 86 


027 


-I-1811 


014 


+18 44 


9 


1 19 - 


H» ^ 


117 


-1-33 46 


1 3 


-1-23 15 


87 


4-3144 


8 


4-19 33 


? 


2 5 - 


-28 29 


2 13 


-1-24 30 


2 21 


-f25 7 


228 


-H6 18 


236 


+36 8 


s 


890 - 


-94 47 


813 


-1-24 45 


3 4 


-i-24 87 


2 57 


4-24 24 


260 


+34 3 


h 


7 16 - 


-14 46 


6 61 


-j-14 43 


627 


4-14 40 


6 4 


-j-14 86 


641 


+14 39 




11 


m 


High water. Meantime. 


^ PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 
TIONS. 




s 


if 


|i 


1 


i-H 




1^ 


Sundays and other Remarkable Daf$, 




h. m. 


m. B. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 




1 


8 16.8m. 


2 69.7 


133m. 


11 d4a. 


9 66a. 


4th aund. ajt. East. Addison b. 1672. 


2 


4 4.1 


8 lA 


3 10 


... 


10 39 


d ? 179 May. Bat of Lutzen,- 1813. 


3 


4 62.8 


14.6 


264 


18m. 


11 81 


6 $ & U' Greatest elong. of jS?, 


4 


6 41.8 


31.9 


846 


1 10 


. . . 


Senngapatam taken, 1799. 


6 


6 30.9 


27.3 


466 


2 19 


40m. 


C5 D U- La Place died, 1827. 


6 


7 20.3 


32.7 


6 14 


888 


169 


Q O ¥• BatUe of Prague, 17fi7. 


7 


8 10.3 


37.6 


7 39 


466 


3 17 


9 in Perihelion. 

d D 27. 29 H. RogaHon Sunday, 


fi 


9 l.lm 


8 41.8 


8 34m. 


668m. 


4 19m. 


9 


9 63.6 


46.6 


9 25 


649 


6 10 


Columbus' fourth Voyage, 1601. 


10 


10 48.0 


48.6 


10 12 


7 36 


5 67 


Ticouderoga taken, 1776. 


11 


11 46.0 


61.1 


10 68 


822 


648 


Lord Chatham died, 1778. 


12 


44.411 


63.0 


11 44 


9 8 


729 


D U- C5 ? 132 8 . D 9 . -Ajc. Day. 


18 


1 45.6 


64JI 


80a. 


9 64 


8 16 


Jamestown, Virginia, settled, 1607. 


14 


2 47.1 


66.1 


1 18 


10 42 


.» » 


d J) ? and ^. 9 stationary, 
d <J • n« Sunday after Ascension. 


U 


«47Ji«. 


4 66.8 


3 6a. 


1180m. 


9 6lm. 


16 


4 44.6 


66.0 


3 66 


19 a. 


10 40 


OhQ' BaUle of Albuera, 181L 


17 


6 88.6 


64.1 


3 48 


1 12 


11 88 


Holland acknowl. indep. U. S. 1782. 


18 


63&9 


62.7 


4 63 


2 16 


87 a. 


dDh»¥stat. d D «&gfi. 


19 


7 16.4 


60.7 


6 7 


8 81 


163 


d D r ^. Dark day in N. Eng. 1780. 


20 


9 lJ6 


48.9 


194 


448 


8 9 


d D * njj. Columbus, d. (O.S.) 1606. 


21 


8 46.8 


46.9 


826 


660 


4 11 


d D 1 7 nj. © enters U- 

d i>2/nD.dJi«'n. Whit s. 

d ? « n- Battle of RamUlies, 1706. 


22 


9 38.4 A. 


8 41.7 


9 14a 


6 88 a. 


4 69a. 


28 


10 llWl 


87.C 


966 


7 19 


640 


24 


10 66.1 


88.1 


10 80 


764 


6 16 


Copernicus d. 1643. Linnaus b. 1707. 


21^ 


1139.8 


28.0 


11 4 


828 


649 


6}>yp^' Convention at Phil. 1787. 


26 


e 


33.3 


1186 


869 


790 


Inf. d $• Bowery theat. burnt, 1828. 


27 


96.7m 


16.8 


. . . 


9 81 


7 63 


Fort George (U. C.) taken, 1813. 


28 


1 12.9 


9.8 


7m. 


10 4 


836 


d ?mn. William Pitt bom, 1769. 
djrf/. Trinity Sunday, 


29 


3 0.9 


8 2.7 


040m 


10 87 a. 


8 66 a. 


SO 


3 49.6 


366.S 


1 18 


11 16 


986 


d 1> 2e. le/, ^inAphelioiL 


81|8 88.3 


47.J 


161 


11 56 


10 16 


d ? ^. ?48'Northof^. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



56 


JUNE, SIXTH MONTH. [1831.1 


Twilifht begiiu and andi. Apparent time. 


USBFCJL REMARKS. 
The general harmony of the phynoal 
world is maintained by a particular quality 
in each body, by which it attracts every 

same in the moral. 

Virtue pleases more as nature thaa aa 
virtue ; but let it be added, that virtue is 
the first beauty of nature. 

A fool has often the contrivanee of the 
man of sense, and a man of sense the preju- 
dice of the foul. *^ •* 

We are often governed by people not 
only weaker than ourselves, but even whom 
we think so. 




1st day. 9th day. 


17th day. 35th day. 


Boiton, 
N.York, 
Wash. 
Charle*. 
N. Orl»«, 


h.in.t 
3301 

33 

44 
3 16 ( 

37 


. h. m. h. 
3 13 10 

35 

88 
» 8 11 9 

34 


h. m. b. h. m. h. 

3 7 10 3 7 10 
21 21 
84 84 

8 9 9 8 9 9 
81 81 


Moim^s Perigee and Apogee. 
Perigee, 9ih dav, Ih. A.— DUt. 225,900 aw. 
Apogee, 22d ^'^ 2 A. " 258,100 " 


Moon*i Last Ouar. 3d day, lOh. 10. Im. M. 
New Moon, 10th <^ 1 42.5 M. 


First auarter, 16th day, lOh. 53.1m. A. 
Full Moon, S5th » 1 54.4 M. 


.s 

1 


t 

1 
•s 

1 


San rises and sets. Appcuent time. 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 






4 




1^ 


s 




4 


i 

i 


f' 


h 


1 






h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


w. 


4 83 8 


4 38 8 


4448 


4 59 8 


5 67 


1164 a. 


11 51 a. 


11 48 a. 


1189 a. 


11 87 a. 


2 


Th. 


33 


37 


43 


69 


6 


. . • 


. . . 


• • . 


• • . 


• • • 


8 


F. 


33 


37 


48 


59 


5 


39 m 


37m 


036m 


19m 


onm 


4 


S. 


31 


37 


43. 


■ ,53 


5 < 


1 3 


1 1 


1 


067 


064 


5 


Su. 


4 31 8 


4 37 8 


4 43 8 


4 58 8 


5 6 7 


133 m 


1 33m 


1 83m 


1 33m 


1 33m 


6 


M. 


30 


36 


. 41 


58 


4 


3 6 


3 7 


3 8 


3 11 


3 18 


7 


Tu. 


30 


36 


41 


58 


4 


3 41 


343 


3 45 


353 


366 


8 


W. 


30 


36 


41 


58 


4 


830 


333 


336 


3 86 


840 


9 


Th. 


39 


36 


40 


57 


4 


eeta: 


eeta. 


eets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 


h\ 


39 


86 


40 


57 


8 


8 oa. 


765 a. 


7 51 a. 


7 88 a. 


784 a. 


11 


S. 


39 


34 


40 


67 


3 


9 3 


8 67 


8 58 


840 


8 36 


12 


5ii. 


4 288 


4 348 


4 398 


4 57 8 


6 8 7 


9 56a. 


9 53 a. 


9 48 a. 


36 a. 


9 83 a. 


13 


M. 


28 


34 


39 


56 


3 


10 43 


10 39 


10 36 


10 36 


10 38 


14 


Tu. 


28 


34 


89 


56 


8 


11 33 


11 19 


11 17 


11 10 


11 7 


15 


W. 


38 


az 


39 


56 


8 


11 55 


1164 


11 51 


1147 


11 46 


16 


Th. 


38 


83 


89 


56 


3 


... 


. • • 


. . . 


• J . 


. . • 


17 


F. 


27 


83 


38 


55 


3 


36m 


34m 


33m 


31m 


33m 


18 


S. 


27 


33 


38 


55 


2 


64 


054 


064 


066 


066 


19 


Su. 


4 37 8 


4 33 8 


4 38 8 


4 55 8 


5 2 7 


133m 


1 38m 


1 34m 


138m 


1 8om 


20 


M. 


27 


33 


8? 


55 


2 


160 


1 53 


1 54 


3 


3 8 


21 


Tu. 


27 


83 


38 


65 


2 


330 


3 33 


336 


334 


388 


22 


W. 


27 


83 


38 


55 


3 


363 


366 


350 


8 10 


8 16 


23 


Th. 


27 


33 


88 


55 


3 


838 


3 83 


836 


849 


864 


24 


F. 


27 


33 


88 


66 


3 


rieee. 


rieea. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


26 


S. 


27 


33 


38 


65 


3 


763 a. 


7 47 a. 


7 48 a. 


7 80 a. 


796 a. 


26 


^. 


4 37 8 


4 388 


4 38 8 


4568 


6 27 


687 a. 


883 a. 


8 30 a. 


8 i«a. 


8 13 a. 


27 


M. 


27 


33 


38 


55 


3 


9 19 


9 16 


9 11 





8 57 


28 


Tu. 


28 


33 


89 


56 


8 


958 


964 


9 61 


943 


989 


29 


W. 


28 


83 


39 


56 


3 


10 83 


10 80 


10 37 


10 31 


10 19 


30 


Th. 


28 


33 


39 


66 


8 


11 4 


11 3 


11 1 


10 67 


10 66 



Digitized by CjOOgrC 












-2, 






^^^y-xt^ ^<y 









'' ^'Tx^^f^'f^ — - Di9i,,zsd by Google 



^4 ^€y<fL,^.y^ 



V- ^ M^,.^ ,^e^£.^ ^^^ ^'i- 

Digitized by (jOOQle 



1831.] JUNE HAS 30'DATS. 87 


PafMga of tlw Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. 




1st day. 1 


7th day. | 


13th day. 1 


10th day. 1 


Sethday. 1 


Souths. 


Dec. 


SomtAt. 


Dec. 


SouOu. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dee. 




h. m. 


e 


h. m; 




h.m. 


e 1 


h.ro. 


« 


b.m. 




$ 


3 32m. - 


hl8 82 


3 6m. 


+19 8 


340m.- 


4-19 27 


^ISm. 


-1-19 46 


146m. 


+19 66 


^ 


488 - 


-17 9 


4 9 


—1711 


346' ■ 


—17 18 


3 31 


—17 15 


356 


—17 18 


? 


4 W - 


-33 3 


437 


—23 24 


414 • 


-38 48 


3 61 


—34 17 


837 


—34 48 


u 


6 3- 


-14 61 


440 


—14 60 


4 17 ■ 


—14 61 


363 


—14 64 


838 


—16 


5 


U 22 ^ 


^17 12 


10 63 


-1-1612 


108« - 


4-16 36 


10 38 


+17 43 


10 80 


-I-19 86 


fi 


Oa.- 


^19 19 


1148 


4-19 45 


1136 ' 


4-90 9 


1138 


4-30 80 


11 10 


-H»47 


s 


0- 


43 29 


1160 


-j-18 53 


1141 - 


4-1413 


1181 


4-14 35 


1133 


-hU84 


^ 


3 41 ^ 


^30 


3 84a. 


-1-22 66 


3 36 a.- 


4-33 16 


3 18a. 


•4-2181 


3 10 a. 


-H»40 


? 


2U - 


^24 17 


360 


4-23 8 


366 • 


4-3140 


8 


-i-19 89 


8 8 


4-n4» 


h 


4 16 - 


-14 21 


468 


4-14 12 


4 81 


4-14 3 


4 9 


4-13 63 


848 


4-13 49 


1 


ii. 




High water. Mean time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 




. 


•• 


^ 


& 


2 '^ 


td S e 


4 


1 


1' 


TIONS. , .N,. 


1 


II 


If 


1 


i^ 


Sundays and other Remarkable Da^. 




h. m. 


m. 8. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 




1 


4 26.9m. 


3 38.9 


2 31m. 


. . . 


11 3 a. 


d D U;^ Vf- Chesapeake tak. 1818. 


2 


6 15.2 


30.0 


3 18 


42m. 


. . . 


Peace signed at Paris, 1814. 


8 


6 3.6 


30.8 


4 18 


1 42 


8m. 


d 1> X «t. Last transit of ? 1769. 


4 


52.2 


11.1 


639 


2 63 


1 14 


Peace betw. U. S. and TripoU, 1806. 
Ist Sunday after Trinity, 


5 


7 42.0m 


3 1.0 


6 48m. 


4 1201. 


3 33m. 


6 


8 33.6 


1 60.6 


8 1 


6 25 


846 . 


6 $ 309 May. Sev.frost in N.E. 1816. 


7 


9 27.7 


89.9 


9 


634 


445 


6 1> CT- Wash. ap. C. in Chief. 1775. 


8 


10 24.9 


38.8 


958 


7 17 


6 38 


d 1> 5 . 9 Stat. Black Prince d. 1376-. 


9 


11 25.1 


17.4 


10 42 


8 6 


637 


Oc.of « y . 7 bish. sent to tower, 1688. 


10 


27.2a 


6.7 


11 30 


864 


7 16 


War dec. by U. S. aga. Tripoli, 1801. 


11 


1 29.6 


63.8 


17 a. 


9 41 


8 3 


IJ. stationary, 30' South of ^ \jf. 
61>$,i^ USund.afi.Trmky. 


12 


2 30.6a 


41.7 


1 3a. 


10 36m. 


8 47m. 


IS 


3 28.1 


39.4 


1 48 


11 13 


9 83 


d > ? . Jos. B. dec. K. Spain, 1808. 


14 


4 21.9 


16.9 


2 32 


11 66 


10 17 


d 1> h. « SI' Bat. of Naseby, 1646. 


15 
16 


6 11.9 
6 68^. 


4.8 


3 19 

4 9 


43 a. 

1 33 


11 4 
11 64 


d ? y G. John D. of Marl. d. n». 


+0 8.4 


IT 


6 43.7 


31.3 


6 11 


3 86 


66 a. 


Occult. of i/irp. 6h»Sl'. 


18 


7 37.1 


84.0 


624 


848 


3 9 


Battle of Waterioo, 1816. 
d^Srfy. ?388M. Zd8.aft.Tr, 


19 


8 10.3 a. 


46.9 


7 37 a. 


6 la. 


3 32 a. 


20 


8 63.6 


69..8 


887 


6 1 


422 


9 greatest west, elong. d 9 i 8 • 


21 


9 37.7 


1 13.8 


9 25 


649 


6 10 


d D y, ^ ^. Bat. of Vittoria, 1813. 


22 


10 23.1 


36.7 


10 6 


730 


5 61 


d D -s^ :^, ^ Oph. Chesa. att. by the 


23 


11 9.8 


88.6 


10 44 


8 8 


629 


Akenside d. 1770. [Leopard, 1807. 


24 


11 67.8 


61J) 


11 18 


8 43 


7 3 


Newfoundland discovered, 1494, 


26 


a 


3 4.0 


11 61 


9 16 


7 86 


d Drf.^/. G.IV.d.l330. 4ai.8und, 


26 


46.6m 


3 16.6 


... 


9 48 a. 


8 9 a. 


27 


186.7 


39.1 


24m. 


10 23 


844 


Charles XII. bom, 1602. [a^ TV. 


28 


3 24.6 


41.4 


59 


10 69 


9 20 


d D y. ^ 359. 362 May. Wm. IV. 


29 


3 13.1 


63.6 


1 36 


11 87 


958 


Occultalion of IJ. . [proclaimed. 


80 


4 1.1 


8 6.7 


2 18 


. . . llO 41 lid (? J G. Surrend. of Silistria, 1829.J 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



58 JULY, SEVENTH MOUTH. [1831.] 




Twilight beffins and eodt. Apparent time. 


USEFUL REMARKS. 

We aboold aak those who are well, how 
we ought to die ; and those who are dying, 
how we ought to liire.~Ctei«««. 

What nice distinctions are to be mode 
in the characters of mankind ! contempt 
for money and profusion have the same 
line of separation between thorn that virtue 
and vice have. 

Some men are seldom oat of humor, be- 
cause they are seldom in humor. 

The desire to please often frustrates it- 
self; but in this case the desire to please 
will generally be found to proceed rather 
from a selfbh than a social motive. 




lit day 


9thday. I7thday.,25thday. 


BoatOD} 

N.Yofk, 

Waah. 

Charlea. 

N.Orl'i, 


h. m. h 
3 9K 

23 

36 
S 10 9 

93 


h. ni h. 
3 17 10 

30 

43 
3 14 9 

36 


h. m h. h.m. h. 

8 36 10 3 88 10 
88 48 
49 60 

8 19 9 3 36 9 
80 36 


Mo9n*a Perige* and Jtpogu, 
Perigee, 7th day, 9h. A— Dif t. 234,000 n». 
Ap<J»e, 90th "9 M. «» 251,,'W)0 " 


Moon'i Uut auartor, 9d day, 6h. 36.6m. A. | First Uaarter, 16th day, Ih. 0.8in. A. 
New Moon, 9th " 8 44.4 M. | Full Moon, 24th *f 4 3.2 A. 


1 

'a 

1 


i 

1 


Sun rise* and sets. Apparent time. 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 










{ 




f^ 


1 


1 . 
5 


i 

i 
1 


f 

s 


B O 

r 


1*4 


li 








h.m.h. h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 




1 


F. 


43884 33 84 39 8 


4 668 


6 3 7 


11 86 a. 


11 86a. 


11 34 a. 


11 34a. 


U 34 a. 




2 


S. 


39 34 


40 


66 


8 


























8 


51*. 


4 39 84348 


4 40 8 


4 668 


6 87 


sm 


8m 


om 


oiim 


13m. 




4 


M. 


39 


34 


40 


66 


8 


41 


043 


043 


049 


069 




5 


Tu. 


30 


36 


41 


67 


4 


1 16 


1 19 


1 31 


1 99 


133 




6 


W. 


30 


36 


41 


67 


4 


1 66 


3 


3 8 


9 14 


9 19 




7 


Th. 


80 


36 


41 


67 


4 


3 43. 


346 


360 


3 4 


3 




8 


F. 


81 


36 


43 


63 


6 


t$ts. 


ada. 


atta. 


Mto. 


aetM, 




9 


S. 


81 


86 


43 


68 


6 


7 43 a. 


7 39 a. 


7 86a 


7 93a. 


7 18 a. 




10 


Su. 


4 338 


4 37 8 


4 438 


4 63 b 


6 6 7 


8 88a. 


8 99 a. 


8 36a. 


8 14a. 


8 11 a. 




11 


M. 


33 


37 


43 


69 


6 


9 16 


9 13 


9 10 


9 1 


868 




.12 


Tu. 


33 


38 


44 


69 


6 


963 


9 61 


9 49 


943 


9 41 




13 


W. 


84 


39 


46 


8 07 


7 


10 35 


10 34 


10 38 


10 30 


10 19 




14 


Th. 


84 


39 


46 





7 


10 56 


10 66 


10 64 


10 64 


10 64 




15 


F. 


8fi 


40 


46 


1 


8 


11 26 


11 36 


11 26 


11 39 


11 30 




16 


S. 


36 


41 


46 


1 


8 


11 64 


11 66 


11 67 


. . . 


. . • 




17 
18 


Su, 
M. 


4 87 8 ^ AS 8 


4 47 8 
47 


5 1 7 
3 


6 37 
9 








3m 

036 


6IIL 
040 




87 


43 


098 m 


36m 


38m 




19 


Tu. 


38 


43 


43 


3 


9 


64 


6 68 


1 


1 11 


1 W 


< 


20 


W. 


39 


44 


49 


3 


10 


1 38 


1 83 


1 85 


1 43 


1 68 




21 


Th. 


40 


46 


60 


3 


10 


3 6 


3 10 


3 14 


3 38 


934 




22 


F. 


41 


46 


61 


4 


11 


348 


363 


3 66 


8 13 


3 18 




23 


S. 


43 


47 


61 


4 


11 


ruM, 


riaea. 


riata. 


riaea. 


riaoa. 




24 


Su, 


4 43 8 


4 48 8^4 63 8 


6 61 


6 13 7 


7 18 a. 


7 14 a. 


7 10 a. 


668 a. 


6 64 a. 




25 


M. 


44 


48 


63 


6 


13 


7 67 


7 63 


760 


740 


7 37 




26 


Tu. 


46 


49 


64 


7 


13 


834 


8 81 


8 99 


8 31 


8 19 




27 


W. 


46 


60 


66 


^8 


14 


9 8 


9 7 


9 4 


9 


969 




28 


Th. 


47 


61 


66 


9 


14 


940 


939 


9 38 


9 86 


937 




29 


F. 


48 


63 


67 


9 


16 


10 11 


10 11 


10 U 


10 13 


10 18 




80 


S. 


49 


63 


67 


10 


16 


10 43 


10 44 


10 46 


10 49 


10 61 




81 


Su. 


4 60 8 4 64 8 4 68 8'6 11 76 16 7 


11 17 a. 


11 19 a. 


11 31 a. 


11 38a. 


11 31 & 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 






'i ^-^^.^^ — .*»'**..^ _ -9^4 .>!^ /% OJb. 92.'— 

1 _____•' - - *■ 3X3.- 83° 



'^'^/JU.^J-Vy -, . 










%5^Z i^ 0^^p^^^x^. uy 

_________ d2— P3 



Digitized by (jOOQle 



183L] JUI.T HAS 31 PATS. 59 


Paange of the Meridian (mean time) and Deelioatioo of the Planet.. 




Irtday. [ 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19ih day. 


3'th day. 


Stmths. 


Dec 


SouHu, 


Dec. 


South* 


. Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


OUtht.\ TWn. 1 




h. m. 


» 1 


h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


o . 


h.m. 




h. m. 




* 


118m.- 


t-19 66 


60m. 


4-19 48 


022m 


. -1-19 31 


il48a. 


4-18 69 


1120 a. 


1 • * 
4-18 91 


¥ 


233 - 


-17 21 


2 8 


—17 24 


148 


—17 28 


119m. 


—17 82 


064m. 


— 17 !• 


? 


8 2 - 


-26 26 


286 


—26 6 


2 9 


—26 46 


1 41 


—27 28 


113 


—28 8 


u 


3 4 - 


-16 8 


288 


—15 17 


2 12 


—16 28 


146 


—15 41 


ISO 


— 16 56 


9 


10 4S - 


fai 40 


11 8 


tH3 16 


1188 


+33 41 


6a. 


4-22 31 


0S4a. 


4-19 64 


fi 


10 68 - 


f21 1 


10 45 


4-21 14 


10 83 


4^123 


lOlom. 


4-2129 


10 7m- 


4^1 8S 


S 


11 13 - 


fl4 38 


11 8 


4-14 37 


10 68 


4-14 82 


10 43 


4-14 22 


10 88 


4-u 7 


S 


2 2a.- 


fl9 44 


1 63a. 


-1-18 44 


146a 


4-17 39 


1 86a. 


4-W80 


1 27a. 


4-1417 


? 


3 « - 


fl6 31 


3 7 


4-18 1 


3 7 


4-W93 


3 6 


4-788 


3 4 


4-449 


h 


326 - 


-13 29 


9 6 


4-13 17 


244 


4-18 3 


228 


4-12 49 


2 2 


4-19 U 


i 


s o 


*2 i *t 


High water. Moan time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 




s 


iT 


^ 


s 


s - 


2=a 


•§ 


1 


TIONS. 


1 


1^ 




1 


Xi 


U 






^'^ 


J_ 


55 


g 






h. m. 


m. 8. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 




1 


4 48.9m 


3 17.6 


266m. 


20m. 


11 30 a. 


Massacre at Wyoming^, 1778. 


2 


6 37U) 


29.1 


346 


1 9 


. . . 


[furthest from the Sun. 
5th Sunday afier Trinity. Earth 


3 


26.2m 


3 40.6 


4 48m. 


2 12m. 


88m. 


4 


7 17.4 


61.6 


6 7 


3 31 


1 62 


U. S. declared Independent, 1776. 


5 


8 11.3 


4 2.4 


729 


468 


8 14 


6i mSl' Siirren. of Algiers, 1830. 


6 


9 8.1 


18.0 


839 


6 8 


424 


Ticonderoga lak. by Burgoyne, 1777. 


7 


10 7.9 


23.2 


938 


7 2 


523 


d ? h- h 12' N. Sheridan d. 1816. 


8 


11 9.6 


33.1 


10 81 


766 


6 16 


d D ^. La Fontaine bom, 1621. 


9 
10 


11.5a 


42.6 


11 21 


8 45 


7 6 


Defeat of Braddock n. Pittsburg, 1756. 
6th S. afi. Tnn. Columbus bom, 1447. 


1 11.6a. 


4 61.7 


7a. 


9 81ra. 


7 62m. 


11 


2 8.6 


6 0.8 


060 


10 14 


886 


d J) J". Easlport taken, 1814. 


12 


3 1.S 


8.6 


129 


10 53 


9 14 


C5D a^, h, ?. 9 in Perihelion. . 


13 


3 61.5 


16.4 


2 7 


11 31 


9 62 


Washington ap. Com.-in- Chief, 1798. 


14 


4 38.4 


23.6 


245 


9a. 


10 30 


Bastile desl. 1789. Beg. of F. Revel. 


15 


6 23.3 


30.4 


326 


050 


11 11 


Bonap. sur. to Capt. Maitland, 1815. 


16 


6 7.1 


36.7 


4 16 


1 89 


Oa. 


Stony Point taken by Wayne, 1779. 
7th Sunday after Trinity. 


17 


6 60.6 a. 


6 42.6 


6 19a. 


2 43 a. 


1 4a. 


18 


7 34.6 


47.7 


6 33 


3 67 


2 18 


Occullation of y £b. 


19 


8 19.6 


62.4 


749 


6 13 


3 84 


Inf. d i?. Bat. of Halidon Hill, 1383. 


20 


9 6.6 


66.6 


8 61 


6 16 


486 


d9 2^2:5; dist.20'. dDg>Opb. 


21 


9 63.2 


6 0.1 


939 


7 3 


5 24 


Ferd. VII. re-est. Inquis. in Sp. 18U. 


22 


10 42.1 


3.1 


10 21 


746 


6 6 


d 9 «C Uu. betw. E. & Scot. 1706. 


28 


11 81.4 


6.6 


10 69 


8 23 


644 


^$,<JinAph. Gibraltar tak. 1704. 
&/» Sunday afier Trinity, 


24 


<? 


6 7.8 


11 83a. 


8 67 a. 


7 18a. 


25 


20.9m. 


8.6 


. . . 


9 31 


7 62 


Revolution in France, 1830. 


26 


1 10.2 


0.S 


7m. 


10 6 


827 


d J) U. 9t^5 distance 2^. 


27 


1 68.9 


9.8 


042 


10 42 


9 3 


d I> -^ «».. U ' Vf 5 diitance 18^. 


28 


2 47.8 


8.8 


1 18 


11 19 


9 40 


d J) f «.. [France. 1880. 


29 


3 86.4 


7.7 


1 65 


. . . ] 


21 


d D 29 H- Counter-Iilevolutioii an 


80 


4 98.8 


6.1 


286 


Om. ] 


1108 


$ at greatest eastern elengatioii. 
Wi Sunday afier Trinity. 


31 


»18.8in. 


6 3.9 


833ra. 


47m. 





Digitized by LjOOQIC 



60 AUOUST, EIGHTH MONTH. [I831.{ 




USEFUL RBMARK8. 

Bom men mistake talldng about seMe, 
for Uikinir sense. 

Oomplamt againet fortme, ii often a 
masked apology Ibr indolence. 

Disasreeabfe qaalities are often heifhft- 
eoed by restraint, as the power of a spring 
is increased by drawing it bock. 

As luve will often moke a wise man act 
like a fool, so will interest often make a 
fool act like a wise man. 

We see many minds which are, if we 
may bo allowed the figure, well seated, bat 
we see hardly any that have any eIbow< 
room. 




Iftday. 


9th day. 


17th day. 25th day. 


Boftoa, 
ILTork, 

Wub. 
Chartet. 
N. Oil»i, 


h.m.h. 
3 4910 

88 
8 89 

88 

43 


h. m. h. 
8 49 

13 

30 

43 

61 


h. m. h. 
8 18 9 

36 

83 

61 

69 


h.m. h. 
8 839 

88 

44 

4 8 
6 


FtoriffMi, 4thda7,10K.A.--Oiat. 937,000 ms 
Apogee, 16th « 6 A. « 251,100 " 
P^ee.31«t " 8 M. « 229,800 « 


Now Moon, 7th " 5 0.8 A. 
First auarter, 15th " 5 21.1 M. 


Last Onarter, 30th ♦♦ 5 4L0 M. 


1 

1 
1 


i 

1 

1 


Sua liMf and seta. Apparaai time. 


Moon rises and sets. Meantime. 






5 

1 


1' 


^6 


6 


i 


1 
1 


i 

i 


1 




1 






b.m.b. 


h.m.h. 


h.iii.h. 


h.ID.h. 


h.iii.k 


ki. m. 


Lm. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


M. 


4 61 S 


4 66 8 


4 69 8 


6 13 7 


6 17 7 


1163 a. 


11 66a. 


1169 a. 


• • . 


• • . 


? 


Tu. 
W. 


53 


66 


6 7 


18 


17 








9m 

066 


14m 

1 1 


8 


•8 


67 


1 


18 


18 


86 m 


39m 


048m 


4 


Th. 


64 


68 


3 


14 


18 


134 


1 38 


139 


1 47 


1 68 


5 


P. 


66 


69 


8 


16 


19 


990 


336 


998 


944 


360 


6 


a 


66 


6 07 


4 


16 


90 


8 99 


396 


3 30 


346 


8 61 


7 


Su. 


4 67 8 


6 1 7 


6 67 


6 16 7 


6 31 7 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


8 


M. 


68 


3 


6 


17 


33 


7 48 a. 


746 a. 


7 43 a. 


7 86 a. 


738 a. 


9 


Tu. 


69 


8 


7 


17 


33 


833 


821 


8 10 


8 16 


8 14 


Id 


W. 


6 07 


4 


8 


18 


38 


866 


864 


868 


863 


8 63 


11 


Th. 


3 


6 


9 


19 


34 


936 


9 96 


996 


937 


938 


12 


P. 


8 


8 


Mo 


90 


96 


964 


966 


066 


10 


10 9 


13 


S. 


4 


7 


11 


30 


36 


10 33 


10 36 


10 97 


10 84 


10 87 


14 


S«. 


6 67 


6 8 7 


6 13 7 


6 21 7 


6 387 


10 63 a. 


10 66a. 


10 63 a. 


11 9 a. 


11 13 a. 


15 


M. 


7 


10 


13 


39 


37 


11 36 


11 30 


U 33 


11 46 


11 60 


T6 


Til. 


8 


11 


14 


33 


38 




, 


• 






17 


W. 


9 


13 


16 


93 


38 


3m 


6m 


lom 


0S4m 


99m 


18 


Th. 


10 


13 


18 


94 


39 


043 V 


47 


61 


1 6 


1 19 


19 


F. 


13 


16 


18 


36 


80 


130 


134 


139 


1 64 


9 8 


20 


S. 


18 


16 


19 


98 


81 


990 


394 


320 


3U 


960 


21 


Su. 


6,14 7 


6 17 7 


5 307 


6 377 


6 837 


3 16m 


3 19m 


8 33m 


8 87m 


3 43m 


22 


M. 


16 


18 


31 


38 


33 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


28 


Tu. 


17 


19 


33 


90 


88 


7 9a. 


7 7a. 


7 6a. 


69 a. 


6 67 a. 


24 


W. 


18 


30 


38 


80 


84 


7 40 


739 


788 


734 


734 


25 


Th. 


30 


93 


34 


81 


U 


8 13 


8 13 


8 13 


8 13 


8 13 


26 


P. 


91 


S3 


36 


83 


86 


846 


848 


8 47 


860 


863 


27 


S. 


38 


96 


37 


83 


87 


9 19 


9 91 


933 


39 


933 


?» 


Su. 


6 34 7 


6 367 


6 387 


6^47 


5 88 7 


9 66 a. 


9 69 a. 


10 la. 


10 10 a. 


10 16a. 


29 


M. 


36 


97 


30 


86 


88 


10 86 


10 48 


10 43 


10 66 


11 


80 


Tu. 


97 


99 


81 


86 


89 


1131 


11 96 


1139 


1144 


1160 


81 


W. 


38 


nn 


8^ 


87 


40 


















___ 


' 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



J'. ^*Ly ^.^.^ ^//^^ ^ 



//_ 
/3 












I. 







^C/^Q/ ^4?^.i;=^ L/^'^^^co ,C^' ^ffuoa^ 






/t.'D •., •''^- >VV«»T V ' 



^*'?*«*»-«- *</='<^^^^ ^^Atx ,^^73 ?XU.7^^/- 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



-. * 


\, * *^ 


- . t 


H V \. 


.<•. 














1831.] AuauiT HAS 31 dat». 61 


PMMfe of tlM Meridian (mean time) and DecUnatioa of the Planets. 




1ft day. 1 


7th day. 


lathday. 1 


19th day. i 


asthday. 1 


fhmtk§. 


Deo. 


amuht. 


Dee. 


Souths. 


DeeT 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Stmtks. 


Dec. 




k.m. 




lum. 


• 1 


h.m. 


• 


h.m. 


• 


h.m. 


• I 


W 


0S6m.- 


-17 41 


im. 


—17 45 


1133 a. 


—17 60 


11 7 a. 


—17 54 


10 43 a. 


—17 67 


i 


040 - 


-38 63 


Oil 


—39 38 


1137 


—30 1 


11 8 


—80 35 


10 39 


—30 43 


u 


49 - 


-16 13 


033 


—16 38 


1151 


—16 45 


1135 


—17 


10 58 


—17 18 


fl 


9 59 - 


h3183 


989 


-1-3139 


9 36m. 


+3134 


913m. 


+3117 


850m 


-Ml 8 


5 


10 ai - 


hit 46 


1011 


4-18 33 


10 


-1-13 56 


949 


+13 34 


988 


+11 61 


'9 


1 la.- 


hl6 4l 


117 a. 


4-1186 


138a. 


-1-733 


136a. 


+ 814 


138a. 


— 039 


i 


1 n - 


hl8 48 


1 8 


4-13 37 


059 


+11 4 


49 


+ 938 


040 


+ 818 


h 


1 87 - 


1-13 16 


116 


4-13 1 


056 


+1145 


35 


+1139 


14 


+1110 


? 


3 0- 


hl30 


366 


— 118 


3 49 


— 4 8 


343 


— 640 


333 


— 9 7 


$ 


10 4T - 


-17 38 


10 19 


4-16 88 


953 


+16 84 


935 


+14 39 


859 


-^18 30 


^ 


|j 


lit 

« <_ 


High water. Mean Umo. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 
TION8. 


' ' 


1 


t 


i 


1 


1 

1 


1^ 


1 


is 


|5 


Sundays and other RemarkahU Days. 


h; m. 
6 4.9m. 


m. ■. 

6 1.1 


h.m. 
4 31in. 


h.m. 
145m. 


h.m. 
6m. 


CoDtinent of America discov. 1498. 


9 


6 69M 


6 47.6 


6 36 


359 


1 30 


CJ J np. Bon. Isl Con. for Ufe, 1802. 


3 


7 M.6 


63.7 


7 6 


430 


3 51 


CJ ^« ^, J) - 8 • Arkwright d. 1792. 


4 


8«4.7 


49.1 


8 34 


5 48 


4 9 


d9 «<n. ^ ^0• 


5 


9 M.0 


44.0 


937 


6 61 


5 13 


d 9 <J. (J 9' South, ^o^. 

Francis 11. abd. throne of Germ. 1806. 


6 


10 94.9 


88.3 


10 31 


745 


6 6 


7 


U 63.1m 


6 83^ 


11 7m. 


8 3im. 


6 63m. 


8 


48.14. 


36.1 


11 48 


9 13 


783 


(j ]) 11 ^, ^. G. Canning d. 1827. 


9 


140.0 


17.6 


37 ft. 


9 51 


8 13 


d D h. 5 .;r ^- Louis (Philip Ist) 


10 


3 39.3 


9.6 


1 4 


10 38 


849 


(9UO- d>*np. [K.ofFr.l830. 


11 


3 16.9 


0.9 


136 


11 3 


933 


d D ?. Attack on Terccira. 1829. 


12 


4 0.9 


4 61.6 


3 13 


1136 


9 67 


dSh' Louw XVI. dethroned, ITJJ. 
d ? 508 Mayer, dist. 2'. 
nth Sunday aJUr Trinity. 


13 


4 4S.3 


41.8 


348 


13 a. 


10 83 


14 


5 30.6 a. 


4 31.4 


3 38 ft. 


53a. 


U 13m. 


15 


ft 14.3 


30.5 


488 


147 


8a. 


d J) ^ :^- N. Bonap. bom, 1769. 


1^ 


6 50.9 


94) 


688 


3 57 


I IS 


Bat. Benning. 1777. Bat.Camden, *80. 


17 


7 46J) 


866.9 


6 67 


4 81 


348 


Battle'of Smolensko, 1812. 


18 


8 86.0 


44.3 


8 11 


586 


856 


d 9 r fl. dist. 10'. 


19 


9 34.1 


31.3 


9 8 


683 


463 


d D d> 2 e / • Capt. of Gueirier, 1812, 


20 


10 13.8 


17.6 


964 


7 18 


5 89 


Venus most brilliant as evening star. 
nt3iS,aft.Tr. Wm. IV. bom, 1765. 


21 


11 3.7 a. 


3 3.6 


10 84ft. 


7 58a. 


6 19 ft- 


^ 


U63.4 


9 4»J0 


U 11 


885 


666 


d )> U- Brit, landed on L. Isl. 1776. 


23 


S 


33.9 


1148 


10 


7 81 


]) eclipsed, partly visible. c5 J)X t». 


24 


43.7m. 


18.4 


. • . 


946 


8 6 


Bat. of Bladensburg, 1814. 


25 


1 tl.7 ' 


iJi 


31m. 


10 31 


8 43 


dD27H. ? ^n- 


20 


3 30.9 


I 46.3 


67 


11 1 


933 


6$xSi' 9 in Aphelion. 


27 


8 10.8 


39.6 


187 


1143 


10 8 


(j D » H • Bat. on Long Island, 1776. 
2 in Aph. Oc. 2 1 Ccti. l^th 8. a. Tr. 


28 


4 1.9m. 


1 13.6 


318m. 


... 


10 61ft. 


29 


4 6<a> 


66.1 


3 6 


lOm. 


U49 


Oc. f y . d h- Bat. on R. Isl. 1778. 


30 
81 


^48.9 


37.3 


4 4 


138 


« • • 


Oc.r^'^S' dDl^2J.U.2^8- 


6 47i) 


19.8 


6 31 


3 45 


1 6m. 





Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



62 SEPTEMBEK, NIWTH MOlfTH. [1831. 




USEFUL RBMAKK8. 
Many men would have more wisdoa, if 
they had less wit. 

a new truth that lay rery deep, when per- 
haps we have only a lively sense of som^ 
thiuf which others feel in a less degree. 




Irt daj. 


9th day. 17th day. 


25th day. 


Boston, 

N.York, 

Wuh. 


Ii. m. h. 
3 44 9 

49 

04 


h. m. h. h. m. h. 

3 67 9 4 10 8 

4 18 18 
6 17 


h. m. h. 
434 8 

36 

39 


Charles. 
N.Orl'8, 


4 88 
14 


17 
31 


36 
39 


86 
88 


the senses. 

We are not slow at discovering the setf- 
ishness of others for this plain reason, 
because it clashes with our own. 

Some men do by their sense, as fkrmen 
by their corn,— pass off a «ood deal of bad, 
by the help of a little good. 


Apogee, 13thdaj,lh. A.-Dist. 251,100 ms. 
Perilee. 25th " 2 A. " 228,300 " 


New Moon, 6th day, 3h. 23.8m. M. 
Fiwtauarter, 13th " 11 30.3 A, 


Full Moon, Slstday, 4h. 4l.0m.^A. 
Last Quarter, 26th '* 11 11.7 M. 


1 

i 


i 
1 

•s 

1 


Sun rises and sets. Apparent time. 


Moon rises and sets. Meantime. 






{ 




h 
1. 


1' 


1. 


4 


(' 


r 


!' 


ii 
1 






h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


Th. 


5 307 


6 83 7 


5 337 


6 89 7 


6 407 


13 m 


17m 


3im 


086m 


43Bi. 


2 


F. 


81 


88 


84 


40 


41 


1 10 


1 ;5 


1 19 


1 34 


1 40 


8 


S. 


83 


84 


86 


41 


43 


3 18 


3 17 


3 31 


336 


3 41 


4 


Sa. 


6 33 7 


6 36 7 


5 86 7 


6 437 


6 437 


8 30ni 


834m 


3 37m 


840m 


3 46m. 


5 


M. 


36 


36 


88 


48 


44 


Mts. 


seta. 


aets. 


aeta. 


ssfo. 


6 


Tu. 


36 


37 


89 


44 


46 


6 63 a. 


6 63 a. 


6 61 a. 


6 48 a. 


6 47 a. 


7 


W. 


37 


38 


40 


46 


46 


733 


733 


733 


738 


738 


8 


Th. 


89 


40 


41 


46 


47 


7 68 


764 


764 


768 


769 


9 


P. 


40 


41 


43 


47 


48 


833 


834 


836 


8 33 


884 


10 


s. . 


43 


43 


44 


48 


40 


8 63 


8 66 


8 67 


9 6 


10 


11 


Su. 


6 43 7 


6 44 7 


6 467 


6 49 7 


6 607 


34 a. 


9 38 a. 


9 30a. 


9 41a. 


946 a. 


12 


M. 


44 


46 


46 


60 


60 


9 68 


10 8 


10 6 


10 19 


10 34 


13 


Tu. 


46 


47 


47 


61 


61 


10 88 


10 43 


10 46 


11 1 


11 • 


14 


W. 


47 


48 


48 


63 


63 


11 33 


11 37 


1131 


1146 


11 «l 


16 
16 


Th. 
F. 


49 
60 


60 
61 


60 
61 


68 
64 


68 
64 










. . . 


13m 


17m 


3im 


osom 


043m. 


17 


S. 


63 


63 


68 


66 


66 


1 7 


1 11 


1 16 


1 80 


186 


18 


Su. 


6 63 7 


6 637 


6 54 7 


6 667 


6 667 


3 4m 


3 8m 


3 iim 


336m 


380in. 


19 


M. 


64 


64 


66 


66 


67 


8 3 


8 6 


8 8 


8 19 


S3S 


20 


Tu. 


66 . 


66 


67 


67 


68 


met. 


riaet. 


riaear 


riaea. 


riaat. 


21 


W. 


67 


67 


68 


68 


*68 


6 13 a. 


6 11 a. 


6 11 a. 


6 loa. 


6 10 a. 


22 


Th. 


69 


69 


69 


69 


50 


646 


646 


646 


648 


660 


23 


F. 


6 06 


6 06 


6 06 


6 a6 


6 6 


7 19 


730 


733 


737 


780 


24 


S. 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


7 66 


7 67 


8 


8 8 


8 13 


25 


So. 


6 86 


6' 8*6 


6 36 


9 36 


6 36 


B83a< 


8 87 a. 


a4oa. 


8 61 a. 


8 60 a. 


2€ 


M. 


6 


6 


4 






9 16 


930 


034 


938 


944 


27 


Tu, 


6 


6 


K 






10 7 


10 11 


10 16 


10 31 


10 87 


28 W. 

29 Th 


7 
8 
10 


7 
8 
10 


6 

7 

9 






11 4 


11 8 


11 13 


1138 


UU 


8( 


)|P. 




4m 


8m 


13m 


0S7m 


onm. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 






I ^^ ^^ ii^Yvy /^^4^ yi^ J'^Y'^m^ J/^fc^ti^Jh^nry^ 



<>- 



Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



1831.] 8EPTEMBSK HAS 30 DAT». 63 


Panage of the Meridian (iiK»n time) and DMltnation of the Ptanett, 




lat day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


25th day. 1 


SnAk8, 


Dec. 


Snika 


. Dec. 


SmUkt 


. Dec 


SautkB. 


Dec. 


8otUk$. 


Dec. 




h.m. 


. , 


h.m. 


• t 


h.m. 


^ 


h.m. 




h.m. 




fl 


8 43in. 


-fsO 66 


8 39m 


-f30 42 


816m 


.+30 37 


8 im. 


+20 13 


7 47m. 


+19 66 


S 


9 36 


4-n 9 


9 13 


-j-10 39 


9 1 


+ 947 


849 


+ 94 


836 


+ 8 19 


h 


11 61 


4-10 64 


1183 


-1-10 87 


1113 


+10 31 


10 61 


+10 6 


10 30 


+ 966 


(f 


39 a. 


+ 634 


19a 


-i-4 63 


10 a. 


-^3 19 


la. 


+ 146 


11 63 


+ 10 


^ 


1 36 


— 433 


136 


— 7 3 


1 6 


— 8 14 


033 


— 735 


11 56 


— 4 13 


? 


3 18 


—11 39 


3 3 


—18 38 


148 


—14 61 


119 


—15 38 


50a> 


— 16 89 


$ 


830 


■fll 68 


8 6 


-1-10 46 


7 43 


+ 9 86 


7 19 


+ 836 


656 


+ 7 17 


4^ 


10 7 


—30 64 


9 40 


—30 67 


9 14 


—80 66 


849 


—30 49 


834 


—80 36 


¥ 


10 14 


—18 I 


960 


-18 4 


936 


—18 7 


9 1 


—18 10 


837 


— 18 13 


A 


10 37 


—17 38 


10 1 


—17 38 


986 


—17 47 


910 


—17 64 


846 


—17 69 


1 

1 




'ill 

S-sS 

Ml 


High water. Mean time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 
TIONfl. 

Sundayt ofid other Remarkable Days. 




i 


!^ 






h. m. 


in. 8. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 




1 


7 46.4in 


+0 0.9 


6 63m. 


4 17m. 


3 88m. 


Eng. took Copen. & Dan. fleet, 1807. 


2 


8 43.9 


— 17.7 


8 14 


638 


8 69 


C5 D ^C French expell. Egypt, 180l. 


3 


9 41.3 


86.6 


9 16 


6 89 


6 


6J^4]ff. O. Cromwcfl died, 1658. 
lith Sunday after Tnnity. 


4 


10 36.4m. 


66.7 


10 6m. 


7 80m. 


6 51m. 


6 


1139.0 


1 16.3 


10 49 


8 18 


684 


Ut Cong. (52tnem.) metatPhil. 1774. 


6 


19 JO m. 


34.8 


11 37 


8 61 


7 13 


F. Grisw. talc & garrison murd. 1781. 


7 


I 6.8 


64.7 


3a. 


936 


7 47 


Battle of Borodino, 1812, Russ. def. 


8 


1 63.9 


3 14.7 


036 


9 69 


8 30 


C5 D ? , ^ . Ariosto born, 1474. 


9 


3 38.0 


36.0 


1 6 


10 30 


8 61 


Battle of Eutaw Springs, 1781. 


10 


3 33.8 


66.4 


1 88 11 3 


938 


Gregorian Calendar resto. in Fr. 1806. 
6}> y :^. I5th Sunday after 7Vw«. 


11 


4 7.7 a. 


3 16.0 


3 13 a. 11 3am. 


9 67m. 


12 


4 63.3 


36.7 


3 61 


16 a. 


10 86 


6 D fOph. Bat. ofNorth Point, 1814. 


18 


6 39.6 


67.6 


3 41 


1 6 


1136 


5 Stat. BatUe before Quebec, 1759. 


14 


6 37.1 


4 18.6 


446 


3 10 


81 a. 


d <y /3 nj. Moscow burnt, 1812. 


^ 


7 16.6 


39.6 


6 8 


3 83 


158 


Surrender of New York, 1776. 


8 4.0 


6 0.6 


730 


464 


3 16 


d D rf/ . Dark day at Quebec, 1786. 


r/ 


8 64.1 


31.8 


886 


6 69 


430 


? stationary near 63 HJ. 

d D U. 16^ Sufuiay after Trimty. 


18 


9 43.8 a. 


6 43U) 


9 34 a. 


6 48 a. 


6 9a. 


19 


10 33.4 


6 4.1 


10 6 


780 


6 61 


d D /«• Vf • 1st Bat. of Stillwater, 1777. 


20 


1138.1 


36.3 


10 46 


8 9 


630 


d D g> «.. New Fr. Cal. adopt. 1798. 


21 


8 


46.4 


1133 


846 


7 7 


Royalty abolished in France, 1792. 


22 


013.301. 


7 7.4 


• . . 


934 


746 


French bombarded Cadiz, 1823. 


28 


1 4.1 


38.3 


Om. 


10 s 


834 


Andr^ taken, 1780. Autumn begins. 
(iQ$' d D^CeU. 
nth Sunday after Trinity, 


24 


1 66.1 


49.1 


89 


10 43 


9 4 


25 


3 49.8m. 


8 9.8 


119m. 


11 38a. 


9 49 a. 


2« 


3 46.3 


30.3 


3 4 


. . . 1 


40 


Inf. d9. ?53np. Phil. tak. 177^ 


27 


443.4 


60.6 


366 


19m.] 


140 


Revol. in Spain, Cortes dissolv. 1823. 


28 


6 40.6 


9 104) 


366 


1 19 


. . . 


d D 2 / Orion. Detroit retak. 1818. 


29 


6 38.6 


30.4 


6 13 


386 


otsnm. 


d I> i; n. Lord Nelson bom, 1758. 


10 7tfU 1 


60.0 


6 41 


4 6 


3 36 


d D ^ C Treaty with France. 1800. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



64 OCTOBKR, TENTH MONTH. [1831. 




USEFUL REMARKS. 




Istday. 


9th day. 


17th day. 25th day 


We need wisdom most, when we deal 
: with those who have least.— C«ii««. 

There are few men but have more con- 
ning than we, suspect ihem of, and less 
than they suspect thems< Ives of. 

We ure oftener deceived by being told 
some truth than no truth. 

There are faults which, as they bocome 
greater, displease less. , 

Every man loves virtue better than vice ; 
- bat then he loves himself better than either, 
and in hia ovon way, 

A proud man never shows hb pride so 
nmch as when he is civil. 


Boston, 
N.York 
Wash. 
Charles. 
N. Oil's 


h.mrE: 

483 8 
, 86 

87 

43 
> 44 


h.m.h. 
4468 

46 

47 

60 

61 


h. m. h. 
4 66 8 

66 

67 

58 

63 


h. ». h. 
6 67 


Moon's Apogee and Perigee, 
Apogee, lUhday, 8h.M.—Dist. 351,100 ms 
Perigee, 23d " 6 M. « 225,000 « 


Now Moon, 5th day, 4h. 25.0m. A. | Full Moon, 21st day, 3h. QlSim. M. 
First auarter, 13th " 6 38.2 A. | Lastaaarter, 27th « 6 38.9 A. 


1 

1 


1 

1 

1 




Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 






4 




is 
1 


|i 


si 


4 


i 


i' 


6 


J.- 

1 






h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.mJi. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


s. 


6 13 6 


6 11 6 


6 11 6 


6 6 


6 76 


1 911 


I 1 13m 


1 17 m 


1 80m 


1 86m 


2 


^. 


6 13 6 


6 13 6 


6 13 6 


6 10 6 


6 8 6 


2 leiE 


I 3 19m 


233m 


3 33m 


2 87m 


3 


M. 


16 


14 


13 


11 


9 


8 21 


3 33 


8 36 


883 


3 36 


4 


Tu. 


16 


15 


14 


12 


10 


426 


4 37 


4 38 


4 83 


484 


5 


W. 


17 


16 


16 


13 


11 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


6 


Th. 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


6 21 a. 


6 22 a. 


6 33 a. 


628 a. 


6 86 a. 


7 


h\ 


20 


10 


17 


15' 


13 


6 61 


153 


666 


7 8 


7 6 


8 


S. 


21 


20 


18 


16 


14 


723 


726 


729 


789 


746 


9 


Su, 


6 S3 6 


6 31 6 


6 30 6 


6 17 6 


6 16 6 


7 56 a. 


8 oa. 


8 4a. 


8 16a. 


8 21 a. 


10 


M. 


34 


23 


31 


18 


16 


8 33 


8 37 


8 41 


8 66 


9 1 


11 


Tu. 


26 


34 


33 


19 


16 


»1« 


920 


9 38 


9 89 


946 


12 


W. 


27 


36 


34 


20 


17 


10 1 


10 6 


10 10 


10 26 


10 82 


13 


Th. 


38 


36 


26 


21 


18 


10 61 


10 65 


16 69 


11 16 


11 21 


14 


P. 


80 


28 


36 


23 


19 


11 46 


11 49 


11 63 




. . • 


16 


S. 


81 


30 


37 


22 


20 








7m 


18m 








16 


.S^. 


6 33 6 


6 306 


6 386 


6 23 6 


6 31 6 


44 m 


48m 


6im 


1 8m 


1 8m 


17 


M. 


84 


32 


80 


24 


33 


1 47 


1 50 


1 63 


2 1 


2 6 


18 


Tu. 


86 


33 


31 


25 


33 


2 62 


2 55 


3 66 


8 2 


3 6 


19 


W. 


37 


36 


83 


26 


33 


4 


4 1 


4 1 


4 4 


4 6 


20 


Th. 


38 


36 


34 


37 


34 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


21 


F. 


40 


38 


36 


38 


25 


6 51 a. 


6 58 a. 


6 66 a. 


6 2a. 


6 6 a. 


22 


S. 


41 


39 


86 


39 


26 


628 


6 81 


684 


6 46 


6 49 


23 


Su. 


S 43 6 


6 40 6 


6 37 6 


6 306 


6 276 


7 11 a. 


7 16 a. 


7 19 a. 


7 89 a. 


7 37 a. 


24 


M. 


43 


41 


38 


30 


38 


8 


8 4 


8 8 


823 


829 


25 


Tu. 


46 


43 


39 


81 


39 


856 


9 


9 4 


920 


926 


26 


W. 


47 


44 


41 


32 


30 


9 56 


10 1 


10 6 


10 20 


10 26 


27 


Th. 


48 


'46 


43 


88 


80 


11 1 


11 6 


11 9 


11 38 


11 28 


28 
29 


P. 

S. 


60 
61 


47 
48 


48 
44 


84 

36 


81 
33 












7in 


iim 


urn 


36m 


03om 


80 


Su, 


S63 6 


49 6 


8 456 


B866 


S33 6 


1 13m 


1 16m 


1 18m 


1 26m 


1 80m 


»1 


M. 


64 60 1 


46 


87 


84 


2 18 


3 19 


3 21 


227 


239 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Ocf. /. 1. 3 



iU'n^ /^/51 ^^^*;, -2^ ,^-»,^ ^ ^^M^i^- ( 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



1831.] OCTOftKK HAS 31 DATS. 65| 


Puaage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planeta. 




Istday. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


95th day. 




SnUk*, 


Dee. 


80Mtk$. 


Dee. 


SautJU 


.{ Dee. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


SniMf. 


Dee. 




h. m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


* ' 


h.m. 


. . 


h.m. 




h.m. 






fi 7 Sim. 


■4-19 89 


716m. 


+19 3S 


I 7 0m.|+l9 6 


644m. 


+18 60 


6 37m. 


+iM 


S 8SS 


+ 784 


8 9 


4- 6 41 


755 


+ 6 


7 41 


+ 618 


736 


+ 43T 


hio 9 


4-084 


948 


+ »is 


► 937 


+ 9 6 


9 6 


+ 8 61 


844 


+ 889 


9 U 13 


— 9 


10 47 


+ 15t 


10 43 


+ 069 


10 50 


— 3 4 


11 3 


— 6 i 


1 


^ 11 43 


— 136 


11 84 


— 8 C 


1135 


— 484 


1116 


— 6 8 


11 7 


— 741 


¥ 16ft. 


—14 48 


11 40 


^13 i 


11 5 


—10 57 


10 33 


— 839 


10 4 


— 640 


^ 685 


-f-6 13 


6 14 a. 


+ 6H 


6 53a.|+4 18| 


5 83 a. 


+ 8 19 


5 14a. 


+ 380 


J 8 1 


—80 31 


7 39 


—30 1 


717 


—39 89 


666 


—39 13 


6 86 


—28 46 


]^ 8 13 


—18 13 


749 


— I8 1fi 


725 


—18 15 


7 1 


—18 15 


688 


— 18M 




U 8 31 


—18 3 


767 


—18 a 


733 


—18 3 7 10 


—17 59 


648 


— 17« 




1 Is 




High water. Mean time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBBERVA- 


■ 






(g 5 9 


i 

1 


•» 


^ 




DayiofM 

Moon 101 
MeanUi 


ill 


l^ 


Is 

6 


TIONS. 
Sitndayt emd other RemarkabU Days, 




1 h. m. 


m. ■. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m.. 






1 8 80.1m 


.10 9.9 


8 Im. 


5 35m. 


3 46m. 


Ferd. VIX. annulM acts of Cortes, 13. 
Oc.mSl. 6}^*^. WhS.aft.Tnn. 




2 33.4m 


.10 38.8 


9 Om. 


6 34m. 


4 46m. 




3 10 13.3 


47.0 


9 47 


7 11 


5 83 


d J h- Baltic of Jena, 1806. 




4 11 0.0 


11 6.3 


10 37 


7 51 


6 13 






5 11 46.3 


33.3 


U 3 


837 


648 


C^ 1> <f^ ?• 9 staUonary. 




6 OSMa^ 


40.9 


11 36 


8 59 


730 


Bon. first distinguished himself, 1796. 




7 1 16.3 


68.3 


6a. 


9 SO 


7 51 


Second battle of Stillwater, 1777. 




8 3 1.3 


13 16.1 


37 


10 1 


833 


Inf. cj of J . d D / :^. 

9 in Periherion. I9th Sund. aft, Tr. 




9 3 46.7a. 


13 8ia» 


1 8a. 


10 33m. 


8 53m. 




10 3 33.9 


47.6 


141 


11 5 


936 


H. stationary. 




11 4 304> 


13 3.3 


3 31 


1145 


10 


Discovery of America, 149J, O. S. 




12 6 7.8 


18.8 


3 7 


31 a. 


10 63 


9 at greatest western elongation. 




13 6 66.0 


83.9 


4 6 


139 


1150 






14 6 44.6 


47.1 


6 31 


345 


1 6a. 


d 5 n TIJ. Wm. Penn bom, 1644. 




15 7 33.3 


14 0.7 


646 


4 9 


3 30 


d J) U- Virgil bom, B.C. 70. 
d^?. 20th aunday a/Ur Tnmiy. 




16 8 23.1a. 


14 18.8 


7 65 a. 


5 19 a. 


8 40 a. 




17 11.3 


36.3 


860 


6 14 


4 86 


Burgoyne surrendered, 1777. 




1810 0.9 


38.3 


984 


66S 


6 19 


d9 lynp. J/nj. I>27H. 




19 10 51A 


49.7 


10 16 


740 


6 1 


d D 29 H- ComwaUis surren. 1781. 




201148.7 


16 0.6 


10 66 


800 


6 41 


6yfH. 9 88TI5. [1827. 




21 ^ 


10.7 


1187 


9 1 


7 33 


d J) 2 ^ Ceti, ]^ St. Battle of Navarin, 




22 88.1ni. 


30.3 


. . . 


944 


8 6 


Oc. of ^ Ceu. Bat. Red Bank, 1777. 
21st Sund. c^. Trm. Oc. of • y . 




23 lS4.7m. 


16 394) 


OSOm. 


10 80a. 


8 61 a. 




24 SSS.3 


87.1 


1 6 


1 17 


9 88 


[dl>u.2#8. 9^np. 




26 SSS.1 


44.6 


163 


. . . 1 


80 


Capture of the Macedonian, 1812. 




26 4S3.9 


61.3 


946 


9m. 1 


139 


c5 9 ^. d > cn. 




27 6SI.8 


67.3 


8 44 


1 8 




M. Senrelus bumt at Geneva, 1563. 




28 6 37.0 


16 3.8 


4 67 


9 31 


43m. 


dJ)J& l>9mnB. Bat of Whit* 




29 7 19.8 


6.7 


6 31 


8 46 


i 6 


6^mSl. ? Stat. [Plains, 1776. 
dj) h*eil' ^d Sund. aft. Trm, 




80 8 0.7m. 


10 10.8 


788ni. 


6 3m. 


138m. 




81 8 67.3 


13.3 


8 86 


6 


131 


d I> r i2. ^rig. Philad. capt. 1803-I 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



66 NOYEMBEK, ELEVENTH. MONTH. [1831.] 


Twilight bofliiM and end.. Appawnt time. 


USEFUL R]3MARK6. 
No two things can be ab conUttditStoiy, 
so much at variance, as trnth and- false- 
hood, and y^t none are so mixad and 




Irtday 


.9th day. 


17th day. 


36th day. 




li.m.h 


h.m.h. 


h. m. b. 


h.m.h. 


Boston, 
N.York, 
Wash. 
CbarlM. 
N. Oil's, 


• 147 
18 
18 
10 

f 


6337 
93 

31 
16 
14 


6807 
39 
97 
31 
18 


•6^ 7' 
84 

36 
33 


unked. 

so well in the world is^ th^t true ones arr 
s<r^seldora near to compare ihem with. 

Some men have ^ust sense eooogb to 
prove their want of it. 

The merriest people are not always 
those whose hearts are most susceptible of 

Thoy that seldom Uke pleasure, seldom 
give pleasure. 


• Moon's Jjpogee and Perigee, 
Apogee, 8th day, 3h. M.—Dist. 353,300 ids. 
Ftori«ee,90th « A. " 333,400 " 


Now Moon, 4th day, 8h. 14.1m. M. 
Fijretauaiter, ISth ♦^ 1 33.3 A. 


i Full Moon, 19th day, Ih. 35.3tn. A. 
1 Lastauarter, 36th « 5 7.4 M. 


i 

1 


1 

1 

•s 

1 


9oB riiee and sets. . Apparent time, i 


Moon rises and seu. Mean tune. 






i 


!■ 


h 
1 


!' 


s 

ii 
5* 


i 


1 

I. 


r 




1. 






h.m.b. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


Tu. 


6 666 


6 63 a 


6 486 


6 886 


6 34 6 


3 Sim 


8 33m 


3 32m 


3S5m 


8 37Ba 


2 


W, 


66 


68 


49 


89 


35 


433 


433 


4 31 


496 


4 97 


8 


Th. 


67 


64 


60 


40 


86 


seta. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


seu. 


4 


F. 


68 


66 


61 


41 


36 


6 33a. 


636 a. 


6 97 a. 


6 36 a. 


1^41 a. 


6 


S. 


60 


66 


63 


43 


87 


654 


5 68 


6 1 


6 13 


6 18 


6 


Su. 


7 1 6 


6 67 6 


6 646 


6 43 6 


6 38 6 


6 30 a. 


6 34 a. 


6 38a. 


6 63 a. 


6 57 a. 


7 


M. 


3 


68 


66 


44 


88 


7 10 


7 14 


7 18 


7 84 


7 40 


8 


Tu. 


3 


60 


66 


46 


39 


764 


769 


-8 a 


8 19 


836 


9 


W. 


4 


7 06 


67 


46 


40 


843 


848 


8 53 


9 8 


9 14 


10 


Th. 


6 


1 


68 


46 


41 


986 


940 


943 


9 69 


10 4 


11 


if\ 


6 


9 


69 


47 


41 


10 81 


10 86 


K>38 


10 63 


10 67 


12 


H. 


7 


8 


7 06 


4T 


43 


11 80 


11 84 


11 86 


11 47 


11 63 


18 


Su. 


7 86 


7 46 


7 16 


6 48 6 


6 43 6 


. 


• • • 


... 




. .. . 


14 


M. 


9 


6 


3 


49 


44 


033 m 


86m 


87m 


45m 


49m 


16 


'Vu. 


10 


6 


8 


49 


44 


1 39 


140 


141 


146 


148 


1$ 


W. 


11 


7 


4 


60 


46 


3 47 


9 47 


3 47 


949 


360 


17 


Th. 


13 


8 


4 


61 


45 


866 


866 


864 


363 


863 


18 


J*'. 


18 


9 


6 


61 


46 


ri»ee. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


19 


a 


14 


10 


6 


63 


47 


6 la. 


6 6a. 


6 8a. 


5 19a. 


694 a. 


20 


^. 


7 16 6 


7 116 


7 76 


6 63 6 


6 47 6 


6 47 a. 


5 61 a. 


555 a. 


6 9a. 


6 16 a. 


21 


M. 


16 


13 


8 


68 


48 


6 41 


646 


660 


7 6 


7 13 


22 


Tu. 


17 


18 


9 


64 


49 


748 


748 


7 68 


a 8 


8 14 


2? 


W. 


18 


14 





66 


49 


860 


864 


868 


91» 


9 19 


U 


Th. 


19 


14 


10 


66 


60 


967 


16 1 


10 4 


10 17 


M33 


25 


F, 


0» 


16 


11 


66 


61 


n » 


11 6 


n 9 


11 HO 


1133 


26 


S. 


91 


16 


13 


67 


61 






















27 


iS^. 


7936 


7 17 6 


7 18 6 


6686 


6 636 


9m 


oiim 


oiam 


3om 


033m 


^ 


M. 


38 


18 


18 


68 


63 


1 18 


1 14 


1 16 


I 19 


130 


29 


Tu. 


S4 


10 


14 


60 


68 


3 16 


3W 


'^W 


3 16 


an 


80 


|w. 


[ 9i I 90 


U 


60 


68 


817 


8 16 


8 16 


[»Mr ' 


8 IS 



Digitized by CjO.OQ IC 



^^^^ ^£^ /^/- 



'3 -^- ^-~ . 



f'Z^€k/rt 



f^ . 1^^ JZ/^^UfU-ni^^^^ /^aI^< A^ 









B'- ^s^^j^ ^ /%." ^k^. 2o 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



1831.] I^OITEMBE* HA8 f30 »AT». 07 


Puaage of ike Meridian (mean time) and DeeUaatiMi ef the Plaoela. 




1st day. 


7lhday. 1 


13th day. | 


IQihday. I 


J 95thda,. 1 


Souths. Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths 


^Deo. 


Stutko. 


Dee. 


Soutko. 


Dec. 




h.m. 




lun. 




h.m. 




h.m. 


^ ^ 


h.m. 




fi 


e 7m. r- 


-18 31 


6 49m.- 


4*^19 


680m.- 


fl8 6 


611m. 


-f 18 9 


461m. 


+W*4 


S 


T 9 H 


-886 


663 ' 


f 961 


6 36 - 


f 210 


619 


-f 181 


6 9 


-faM 


h 


8 19 H 


h896 


7 67 - 


+.816 


7 86 ■ 


f 86 


7 13 


+ 766 


6 61 


4-iio 


? 


943 - 


-6 6 


926 - 


— 429 


919 - 


— 428 


9 9 


— 4 63 


*&66 


^d6» 


^ 


10 67 - 


-997 


10 48 • 


—10 66 


10 40 • 


-1991 


10 89 


—13 46 


10 94 


-16 6 


5 


11 18 - 


-10 66 


1181 - 


—14 43 


1146 • 


-18 9 


1169 


—21 9 


16 a. 


— 9t IS 


$ 


4 62 a.- 


hl38 


4 34 a.- 


4-0 68 


4 16a. ■ 


4-093 


368 a. 


— 8 


340 


— 0»» 


V 


6 10 - 


-18 14 


6 47 ■ 


—18 12 


624 - 


—18 10 


6 1 


—1810 


488 


—18 6 


? 


6 18 - 


-28 9 


666 ' 


—37 86 


637 - 


—27 


6 19 


—96 23 


6 9 


—99 41 


u 


633 > 


-17 46 


6 • 


-17 86 


6 89 ' 


—17 94 


618 


—17 11 


468 


—16 66 


. 




1.^ 


High water. Mean Ume. 




1 


1 s 


•si £ 




PHENOMENA AND OBSEBTA- 


o 


^ 


« 


s 


ll 


Vi 


M, 


9 . 


J 


TIONS. 


1 


1 


I' 




Stmdayt and other Remarkable Day9. 




h. m. 


m. 8. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 




1 


9 43.9m. 


16 16.2 


9 23m. 


6 47m. 


6 8m. 


(j ^ $ . Lisbon dest. by eart&quake. 


2 


10 97.7 


16.4 


10 8 


797 


648 


Bat. of French Creek, 1813. [1766. 


3 


11 12.1 


16.8 


10 88 


8 3 


623 


<5 > J, 9. ao^. 


4 


11 iff.? 


16.4 


11 10 


884 


666 


Union of Sweden and Norway, 1814. 


5 


41.9 a 


16.1 


11 41 


9 6 


726 


Battle of Jemappe, 1792. 

DUO- 23rf Sunday after Trimiy. 


6 


1 27^a 


16 13.1 


12a. 


9 36m. 


7 57m. 


7 


2 14.7 


10.9 


044 


10 8 


829 


CJ ? /np. Pensacola talien, 1814: 


8 


8 3.1 


6.6 


1 13 


10 43 


9 8 


d 5 1 •, 2 • sCi:, distance 1' and y. 


9 


3 60.0 


1.S 


1 66 


11 19 


940 


Cj J rf /. Montreal taken, 1776. 


10 


4 38.0 


16 66.11 


2 37 


la. 


10 22 


Bonaparte, First Consul, 1799. 


11 


6 35.8 


60.8 


8 28 


62 


11 13 


d > 1^, ^ Vf • Lafayette escaped, '94. 


12 


e 13.4 


48.8 


4 82 


1 66 


Ha. 


dl>U,MVf- [Inf. d^Q. 9ec. 
2ith8.aft.Tr. Fr. ent. Vienn. '(M^- 


la 


7 1.0a 


16 36.4 


6 61 a. 


3 16 a. 


1 86a. 


14 


7 48.9 


26.1 


7 8 


4 32 


268 


d J X 15. Leibnitz died, 1716. 


15 


8 87.7 


i7.a 


8 11 


6 36 


866 


? in a. Lord Chalhambora, 1708. 


16 


9 28.9 


6.S 


9 2 


626 


4 47 


d^x^iz, 3. Ferguson died, 1776. 


17 


19 71J0 


14 66.1 


948 


7 12 


633 


CJ D 1 i Ceti. LeSage died, 1747. 


18 


11 16.7 


48.1 


10 83 


767 


6 18 


d > 2 { Ceti, d 9 i =2:. [1809. 


19 


9 


80.fl 


1190 


644 


7 6 


d U 'Vy» CJ 5 > ni. Bat. of Ocana, 
d 1> 1,2.1, 1,2 ^.•y. 26^ fir. 0. TV. 


20 


16.6m 


. 14 17.S 


. . . 


9 81a. 


7 62 a. 


21 


1 HJO 


9.S 


7m. 


10 19 


840 


Cape of Good Hope doubled, 1497. 


22 


3 19.7 


18 47.C 


066 


11 9 


930 


5 in Aph. d D » n, ? ^ nj. 


28 


S31.3 


81.« 


146 


1168 


10 19 


Batde of Tudela, in Spain, 1808. 


24 


4»iJ 


14,fi 


934 


'• • • 


11 10 


d >> G- Peace signed m Gben^ 


26 


• 16.7 


12 66.S 


396 


049m. 


. . . 


New York evacuated, 1783. [1814. 


$^ 


• 7.6 


88.1 


r4 96 


1 60 


llm. 


d ^ 1 •, 2 • £i:, distance 1' luidj'. 
d > h» ' a- ^^^ Sunday,. 


27 


6 66.1m 


. 12 19.S 


I 6 89m. 


8 8m. 


124m. 


28 


7 42.6 


11 69.5 


I 666 


4 19 


240 


An Earthquake in N. England, 1814. 


29 


896.9 


9$U 


i 8 9 


696 


S47 


d > 2. Savannah taken, im 
$ brightest as Morning Star. 


80 


9 10.7 


17. 


l| 8 66 


690 


4 41 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



68 DEOSMBSE, TWELFTH MOUTH. [1831.| 


TwiUf ht begiiM ud eiMb. A|i|Mr«iit.tiiiM. 


USEFUL REMARKS. 

We often see characters in tbewwld, 
which we shoald call ridicoloasly extrava- 
gant in a book. 

Unjust^ aocuMitiont leldom affect na 
much, bat from havinf tome iuftice in 
them. 

takai moof te make them agreeable, than 

There is among friends a neglect that is 
flattering, and an attenUon that is morU- 

firom ignorance than impudence. 




It day 


.9th day. 


I7ih day. 25th day. 


Boiton, 
N.Tork, 

WMb. 

OfaarlM. 
N.Ori»f, 


h.«.h 

• 40 7 

S8 

86 
98 
34 


.h.m.h. 
6447 
43 
89 
81 
37 


h.m.h. b.m.h. 

546 7 546 7 
44 44 
41 41 
83 33 
38 38 


Apoxee, 5th day, Oh. A.— Dbt. 253,600 ms. 
piriKe! 19th «'* M. " 221,500 « 


New Moon, 4lh day, 2h. d0.5m. M. 1 Full Moon, 19th day, llh. 59.9in. A. 
Fint Quarter, 13th <* 6 8.1 M. | Last Quarter, S5th *« 7 3.0 A. 


1 

1 


1 

i 

1 


San risei and lOts. Apparent time. 


Moon rises and sets. Mean time. 1 






{ 


!^ 


1^ 


s ^ 

¥ 


h 

s 


s 




h 
1 


h 


1 




h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h.m.h. 


h. ra. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


Th. 


7 265 


7 31 6 


7 15 5 


7 5 


6 54 6 


4 18m 


4 16m 


4 um 


4 9m 


4 sm. 


2 


F. 


27 


31 


16 





54 


5 15 


6 13 


5 9 


5 3 


4 69 


3 
4 


S. 


27 


33 


16 





54 


sets. 


seta. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


Su. 


7 28 5 


7 236 


7 17 5 


7 1 5 


6 55 6 


5 7a. 


5 11 a. 


5 15 a. 


6 80 a. 


586 a. 


6 


M. 


28 


22 


17 


1 


55 


6 51 


556 


6 


6 16 


633 


6 


Til 


29 


33 


18 


1 


55 


6 38 


643 


6 47 


7 3 


7 10 


7 


W. 


29 


24 


18 


1 


55 


728 


7 33 


736 


752 


7.50 


8 


Th. 


30 


24 


19 


3 


56 


8 22 


826 


^80 


8 44 . 


849^, 


9 


F. 


80 


26 


19 


3 


56 


9 30 


924 


927 


9 38 


943 


la 


S. 


81 


25 


30 


3 


56 


10 21 


10 25 


10 26 


10 35 « 


10 39 . . 


11 


Su. 


7 31 6 


7 265 


7 20 5 


7 3 5 


6 56 6 


11 24 a. 


11 37 a. 


11 288,. 


11 34a. 


U 87 a. 


12 
13 


M. 

Tu. 


31 
83 


36 


20 


3 


56 












26 


31 




67 


29 m 


30m 


3im 


034m 


86m. 


14 


W. 


33 


37 


31 




67 


1 85 


1 35 


1 34 


1 34 


186 


15 


Th- 


83 


37 


21 




67 


2 43 


3 43 


2 40 


2 37 


936 


16 


F. 


32 


27 


21 




57 


8 55 


358 


850 


344 


343 


17 


S. 


38 


38 


23 




57 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


18 


ST 


7 38 6 


7 285 


7 325 


7 4 5 


6 58 6 


4 34 a. 


4 38 a. 


4 83 a. 


4 47 a. 


4 58 a. 


19 


M. 


38 


28 


33 




58 


534 


539 


5 88 


548 


566 


20 


Tu. 


88 


38 


33 




58 


636 


633 


685 


650 


666 


21 


W. 


83 


28 


23 




68 


733 


7 87 


7 41 


754 


8 


22 


Th. 


88 


38 


33 




58 


845 


848 


8 51 


9 9 


7 


28 


F. 


88 


28 


33 




58 


955 


9 57 


059 


10 7 


10 11 


24 
25 

26 


S. 


83 


38 


33 




58 


11 3 


11 4 


11 6 * 


11 10 


11 13 


ST 

M. 


7 336 
33 


7 385 
38 


7 33 5 


7 4 5 


6566 
57 












33 




8m 


em 


9in 


(Tiom 


13m. 


27 


Tu. 


33 


37 


31 




67 


1 10 


1 


1 9 


1 8 


1 8 


23 


W. 


83 


37 


91 




57 


3 10 


3 9 


3 7 


3 8 


3 3 


29 


Th. 


83 


« 


31 




67 


3 9 


8 7 


8 4 


366 


366 


80 


F. 


33 


37 


31 




57 4 7 


4 4 . 


4 


369 


849 


8l|S. 


81 


96 


90 




57 6 4 


5 6t 


4 66« 


4 46 


4 41 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






<•*»■••«- «— c? 



/4. iiif ft*' /-/ y, /-v 






Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



1 ■. 


1831.] DECEMBER HAS 31 DATS. 69 




Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the PlaneU. 






Ist day. I 


lik day. 


ISUiday. 


19lh Hy. 


25th day. 




SomUu. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths 


. Dec. 


Souths. 


Dee. 


Souths: 


Dec. 






h.m. 


• 


h.m. 


- ^ J 


h.m. 




h.m. 


e 


h.m. 






fi 


4 30m.- 


f 18 


4 8in. 


-1-18 91 


3 46m 


.+181^ 


8 91m. 


4-18 69 


3 66m. 


4-19 38 




S 


6 44 - 


f-033 


6 26 


— 06 


6 6 


— 038 


444 


— 046 


438 


— 066 




■h 


6i9 - 


f 746 


6 6 


-1-741 


648 


-1-788 


630 


-1-787 


466 


4-T88 




? 


850 - 


~7 10 


8 47 


— 840 


846 


—10 19 


846 


—13 4 


846 


—18 49 




i 


10 17 - 


—16 31 


10 9 


—17 83 


10 3 


—18 89 


066 


—19 41 


960 


—90 87 




9 


89a.. 


-34 62 


049 a. 


—36 89 


1 6a 


—36 32 


130 a. 


—34 83 


137 a. 


—93 47 




$ 


S34 - 


-0 67 


3 7 


— 1 16 


360 


— 129 


383 


— 189 


3 17 


— 146 




« 


4 15 - 


—18 2 


3 63 


—17 68 


339 


—17 64 


3 6 


—17 60 


344 


—17 46 




U 


4 88 - 


—16 40 


4 18 


—16 33 


8 59 


—16 3 


880 


— 16 41 


830 


—16 18 




i 


4 46 - 


—26 2 


438 


—34 19 


4 13 


—33 86 


366 


—33 49 


340 


—33 1 






U 


J5 H 


High water. Mean time 
















-i^. 


s 


1 


1 


TIONS. 




1 


U 




1 


1^ 


r 






km. 


m. «. 


h.m 


km. 


h. m. 






1 


9 64.6m 


10 64.9 


9 38m. 


7 3m. 


6 33m. 


d (7 ]> . 9 / Oph. Leo X. died, 1521. 




2 


10 89.1 


32.] 


10 16 


7 40 


6 1 


6 9 B Oph. ? m np, dist. 2'. 




8 


11 34.6 


• 8.7 


10 61 


8 16 


686 


Revohition in England, 1688. 
^ Sunday in Advent. 




4 


ll.Oa 


9 44.7 


1133m. 


6 47in. 


7 8m. 




6 


68.4 


20.1 


11 66 


9 19 


740 


d>9.lA*.2/«/. 




6 


146.8 


8 64.9 


037 a. 


9 61 


8 13 


d J^i]ff,di8U6'. 6^ ^ t* 




7 


3 34.8 


39.3 


1 1 


10 35 


646 


DOh. dJ28^. 




8 


8 314^ 


3.0 


1 86 


10 69 


930 


Rhode Island taken, 17T6. 




9 


4 9.1 


7 36.8 


3 13 


11 87 


9 68 


d D 1^. OcciUtation of Jupiter. 




10 


4 63.7 


9.2 


3 67 


31 a. 


10 43 


d 5 r ta , Wilna retaken by the Rus- 
M Sunday in Advent, [sians, 1812. 




11 


6 43.1 a. 


6 41.8 3 48a. 


1 13 a. 


1133m. 




12 


6 38.7 


13 9 4 63 


3 17 


38a. 


d 1> 27, 29 H . Gay died, 1782. 




18 


7 16.4 


6 46.6 6 10 


834 


1 66 


d (J 41 :£i:, distance i'. 




14 


8 6.1 


17.1 


737 


4 61 


3 13 


6l>fH, S^:Oz. WashUon d. 1799. 




15 


8 68.7 


4 48.4 


8 30 


664 


4 16 


Oc. of ^ Ceti, d D 2 5 Ceti, 9 r /. 




16 


9 64.7 


19.4 


9 36 


660 


6 11 


Oc. of/ y . Tea dest. at Bost. 1778. 




17 


10 64.6 


3 60.1 


10 17 


7 41 


6 3 


Oe. of Aldebaran, d D » ^ 2 / y . 
d <y K:Ciz. ^^^. 4tk S.in Advent. 
d^^ X*^% Orion. $ greatest el. 




18 


11-67.3 a. 


20.7 


11 8a. 


8 82 a. 


B63a. 




19 


<9 


3 61.1 


11 66 


930 


7 41 




M 


1 l.lm 


91.4 


... 


10 8 


639 


d D Cn. Landii»gratPIyinottth,1620. 




21 


9 8.9 


1 61.6 


044in. 


10 66 


9 16 


d ^2:23. Escape of Lavalette, 1816. 




22 


8 8.6 


31.6 


181 


1140 


10 1 


d > • i^« Wittttr begins. 




28 


3 69.3 


61.7 


3 16 


. . . 


10 46 


d Jl,2^,1,2oira.'^ 'SI- 




24 


4 60.9 


—31.8 


3 


34m. 


11 31 


Oc. of h, d D ;t «n- h Btauonao'. 
9 gr. el. d D * W- Christmas Day. 




25 


6 39.8m. 


4- 8.3 


3 46m. 


1 10m 


. . . 




26 


6 36.3 


38.1 


4 44 


3 8 


39m. 


BatUe of Trenton, N. Jersey, 1776. 




27 


7 0.6 


1 7.9 


6 64 


8 18 


1 39 


Destructive fire at Augusta, Ga. 1810. 




28 


7 68.6 


37.6 


7 8 


489 


368 


Ist def. of English at N. Orleans, 1814. 




29 


8 87.6 


3 7.3 


8 If 


639 


4 


d ]> ?.«»:i^- Capt.ofthe Java, 1812. 




80 


933.8 


86.6 


9 10 


684 


466 


d]> ^=2:, d]> J. 9 in ft. 




81 


10 8.3 


8 6.7 


968 


7 17 


688 


d ? 4 ^ ^. Earth nearest the Sun. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. 

FROM 18^ TO 1900. 



•tf Catalogue o/aU the Eclipses of the Surif hetioeen 1822 and 1900, 
FisibU in the City of Bostony in Lot. 42o 20' 58'' Abrffc, and 
Long. 7P 4' 9" West from Greentoich, in Mean Time for the 
Meridian of Boston^ reckoned •^strononUcaUy, 

This catalogue was carefully calculated, in the years 1822 and 1828, by 
die editor of this part of the Almanac ; but as the lunar tables used are not 
now considered the most accurate, the phases of the eclipses are to b« 
considered near approximations only ; excepting, however, the eclipses of 
1824, *26, '32, '64, and '76, which have since been recomputed. 

The Semidiameters of the Sun and Moon were diminished according to 
die theory of Dus^jour. ^ 

[Those marked with an asterisk will probaUj be visible in some paH of Europe.] 

1824. June 26th. 
Beginning . . . . . . 7h. 27m. 6«. 

Sun sat eclipsed . . . . 7 86 

^ Digits eclipsed at Sunset 1<> 8'. 

The beginning of this eclipse was observed from a hill in the vicinity of 
Boston, at . . . . . . 7h. 27m. 18s. 

Tills eclipse was the first return of the eclipse of June 16th, 1806, when 
the Sun was totally obscured at Boston, about five minutet. 

1825. December 9th. 
Beginning . • . • . 8h. 68m. lU. 

Sun sat eclipsed . . . . 4 23 

Digits oclipsed at Sunset 4** 60'. 
A very small cloud passed over the Sun exactly at the time of tho be- 
ginning of the eclipse, and prevented the same from being observed ; but 
at 86 seconds after the computed time of the beginning, the part eclipsed 
was very perceptible. 
This eclipse was total in the south extremity of Florida. 

1831. February 11th & 12th. 
See pages 6-^26. 



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CATALOeUS OF ECLIP8BS OF TBS SUN. 7| 

♦1832. Julyaeth. 
BegiiiDing . • , . . ^19h. 16iii« 4iS9 

Apparent (j • • • 19 69 8 

Greatest Obicuration • . . . 20 6 84 

End . . . • 21 6 

Digits eclipsed 4^ 49^ on Sun's South Limb. 
In ttie city of St Jago, in the S. E. extremity of Cuba, in Lat. 19^ 57' K. 
Ltong. 76® 5' W., the eclipse will be total, and very nearly central. 
Beginning of Total Darkness 19h. 20m. 88s. > «._ rp. . 
Nearest Approach of Centres 19 22 41 > MwjnTimeat 
End of Total Darkness 19 24 48 3 ^^ ^*S^' 

At nearest C Distance of North Limbf • • . 88.45" 
approach of < " Centres .... 6.89 

centres ( '' South Limbs . 72.28 

The city of Kingston in Jamaica, in Lat IS9 V N., Long. 76® 51' W., it 
situate south of the southern boundary of the total eclipse. The Ap. 'c5 at 
Kingston (M. T. at K.) will take place at . . 19h. 18m. 488. 
Greatest ObscuraUon (IP 44' on Sun's North Limb) 19 18 15 

The path of the southern boundary of the total eclipse will probably pais 
OTer the N. W. extremity of JiBimatca, near Montego Bay. 

At the southern extremity of the United States, the obscuration will be 
about eleven digits, on the South Limb. 

Thiis ecHpse, taking place at -a time when the Sun is nearly at hb great- 
est possible distance, and the Moon at nearly her least possible distance, 
ftom the Earth, the width of the Moon's shadow on the Earth witt bs 
much greater than usual ; so that where the sun is centrally eclipsed near 
the nonagesimal and the zenith (in Africa), the duration of total darknesf 
win rather exceed six minutes. 
A fuller account of this eclipse will be given in our Almanac for 1882. 

1834. November 30th. 
Beginning ..... Ih. 21m. 588. 

Greatest Obscuration • . . 2 41 10 

Apparent cj . . . . • 2 41 59 

End 8 54 11 

Digits eclipsed 10^ 81' on Sun's South Limb. 
Hm Sun will be totally eclipsed in South Carolina and Geoi|;ia. 

♦1836. MayJ4th. 
Beginning . . . . . 19h.25m.298. 

Apparent c5 • • • • 20 80 81 

. Greatest Obscuration . . . 20 88 14 

End 21 59 54 

Digits eclipsed 8^ 7' on Sun's South Limb, 
nds ecfipse will be annular in the West Indies, in the north part of 
England and Ireland, in the soi^ part of Scotland, and the north part of 
Germany and Denmark. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC* 



92 eATA£Oons of xeLivsxi of ts» «to. 

1838. September 18th. 
Beginning ..... 81i. 27m.<M«* 

Greatest Obscuration . . . . 4 44 56 

Apparent (j • • • • • 4 46 85 

End 5 66 27 

Digits eclipsed 10^ 6^ on Sun's South Limb ; at the greatest obscuration. 
Moon's Lower Limb, 38" South. 

This eclipse will be nearly central at Washington, where the ring will 
last about six minutes. The Sun will be annularly eclipsed in three fifths of 
the States of the Union, the Moon at the time of the eclipse being at her 
greatest possible distance from the Earth. 

1844. December 9th. 
Beginning . . , • . 8h. 46m. SSs. 

Greatest Obscuration . . ». 4 19 49 

Sun sets eclipsed • • • . 4 28 

Digits oclipsed at Sunset 2^ (T i at Greatest Obscuration 2^ 9^ on Sun*9 
North Limb. The Sun will not be eclipsed in the Southern States, or 
centrally in any place. 

♦1845. May 5th. 
Sun rites ecfipaed • . . . 16h.66m. Os. 

Endoftheectipse . . 17 18 10 

Digits eclipsed at sunrise 4^ 26'. 
This is the third notum of the eclipse of April 2d, 1791, which was anna* 
.ar in Boston. 

«1846. April 24th & 25th. 
Beginning .... 24th, 28h.l4m.36f. 

Apparent (j • • • • 26th, 33 81 

Qfeatest Obscuration . . . 34 6 

End . . . ... 1 62 10 

Digits eclipsed 6^ 43' on Sun's South Limb. 
The ecllpae will probably be total in the island of Jamaica 

«1848. March 4th. 

Beginning 19h. 49m. Sli. 

Apparent d . . . . 19 66 28 

Greatest Obscuration . . . . 20 27 

Epd 20 12 46 

Part eclipsed 0® lOjl' on Sun's North Limb. 
The Sun will not be eclipsed, in any part of the United States south of 
Connecticut, pr ceptrfil|y in apy part of the Earth. 

♦1851. July 27th. 

Beginning 19h.48m.24i. 

Greatest Obscuration . 20 88 44 



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CATALOeUX OP XCLIPtXt OF THK SUM. 11 

Apparent (^ • • ... 20h. 45iii. Sit. 

End 21 80 18 

Digits eclipsed 3<> 42' on Sub*s North Limb. 

1854. Mayaeth. 

Beginning of the Eclipse 4h. 26m. 27s. 

' Formation of the Hing 6 40 27 

Apparent d • 6 40 52 

Nearest Approach of Centres . • . . 6 40 65 

Rupture of the Ring * . 6 41 26 

End of the Eclipse 6 46 49 

Digits eclipsed 11^ 20'. ]) *s Ap. Lat at Nearest Ap. 50'' North. 
This Eclipse will probably be anasilar in Boston, and in some part of 
New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. 

*1858. March 14th. 
Sun rises eclipsed .... 18h. 14m. Os. 

Apparent d • • • • 18 48 27 

Greatest Obscuration . . . . 1^ 46 42 

End 19 48 87 

Digits eclipsed at Sunrise l^' 39' ; at Greatest Obs. 5<* 81' on Sun's South 
Limb. 

1859. July 29th.. 
Beginning . . . • . 5h. 82m. Ss. 

Apparent d • • • • • 5 66 ^81 

Greatest Obscuration . . .640 

End • . . 6 86 68 

Digits eclipsed 2^ 84' on Sun's North Limb. 
The eclipse will not extend to the Southern States, and win not be 
central in any place. 

*1860. July 17th. 
Beginning ..... 19h.22m.46f. 

Apparent d > • • • 90 21 21 

Greatest Obscuration . . . . 20 22 86 

End 21 28 40 

Digits eclipsed O^* 12' on Sun's North Limb. 
This is the third return of die total eclipse of Jime 16(fa, 1806. 

n86L December dOth. 
Sun rises eclipsed .... 19h. 80m. Of. 

Greatest Obscuration . • 20 8 56 

Apparent d . .... . 20 9 

End 21 6 82 

Digits ecUpsed at S«nrisel<' 61'; at Gxmtest Obiearation 4<' 22' on 8an'f 

South Limb. 

7 



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74 CATALO«nX OF XCJUPSSS OF T»B tUV. 

n865. October 18th and 19th. 
Beginnfaig .... 18th, 21h. Om.SSs. 

GiMteat ObKutition . << 22 44 58 

Apparent 6 . << 22 46 4 

End 19th, 26 7 

Digits eclipfed B^ 18' on Sun's South Limb. 
This.ecUpse will be annular in the States of North and South Carolina ; 
at Charleston the ring will last 6| minutes. 

This is the third return of the Eclipse of September, 1811, which was 
annular in Virginia. 

^1866. October 7th and 8th. 
Beginning . . .7th, 23h. 11m. SSs. 

Apparent d * • • • " 23 33 50 

Greatest Obscuratbn . *< 28 41 25 

End . . . . . 8th, 10 84 

Part eclipsed 0^ 81' on Sun*8 North Limb. 
South of Connecticut there will be no eclipse, and no central eclipse in 
any part of the Earth. 

1869. August 7th. 
Beginning ... . . 5h. 21m. 179. 

Apparent cJ . . . . 6 16 7 

Greatest Obscuration . . 6 16 40 

End 7. 7 28 

Digits eclipsed 10<^ 14' on Sun's South Limb. 
This eclipse will be total in North Carolina and Virginia. 

*1873. May 25th. 
The Sun and Moon will be in contact at Sunrise ; but the Sun will be 
eclipsed to places at a greater distance from the Equator, and in less longi- 
tude from Greenwich. 



*1875. September 28th. 








Sun rises eclipsed .... 


17h 


.56m 


. Os, 


Formation of 1M Bing 


18 


20 


21 


Apparent c5 • • * . 


18 


21 


28 


Nearest Approach of Centres 


18 


21 


37 


Ru^reoftheRing . . 


18 


22 


52 


End of the Eclipse .... 


19 


30 


43 



Ap. Lat of the Moon at N. Ap. 29" North. 
Digits eclipsed at Sunrise 7® 14' at N. Ap. 11° 25' 
This eclipse will be annular in Boston and in some part of Maine, New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. 



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CATALOGUE OF XCLIP8E8 OF THS SUIT. 75 

1876. March 25th. 

Bagfamfaig 4h. 11m. Mil 

Greatest Obfcuratioii 6 2 M 

i^paient (5 • . 6 7 4S 

End 6 48 24 

Digitf eeUpsed 8^ ^7' on Sim*0 North limb. 

187a My 29th. 

Beginoing • 4h. 66m. lOf . 

Greatest Obscuration . . 6 60 1 

A^^arent (5 • . 6 68 67 

End ... . . 6 89 8 

Digits eclipsed 7<> 28' on Son's South Limb. 
This ecHpse will not be total in any part of the United States, but probi^ 
Uy will be so, in the island of Cuba. 
This is the fourth return of the total eclipse of June 16th, 1806. 

, *1880. December 30th. 
Sun rises eclipsed .... 19h. 80m. Os. 

Greatest Obscuration . . . 20 12 60 

Apparent d . . . . 20 12 68 

End 21 11 87 

Digits eclipsed at Sunrise 2? 46' \ at Greatest Obscuration 6^ 29^ on Sun's 
North Limb. This eclipse cannot be central in any place. 

At tiie time of this eclipse the Sun and Moon are Teiy nearly at their 
least possible distance from the Earth. 

1885. March 16th. 
Begfaming . • .Oh. 85m. Os. 

Greatest Obscuration . • 1 65 66 

Apparent c5 • • • • . 1 67 22 

End 8 10 49 

Digits eeUpeed 6<> 27' on Sun's NorOi limb. 

«1886. August 28th. 
Beginning ..... 18h.80nu22t. 

Apparent (5 . • • • 18 88 16 

Greatest Obscuration . 18 40 1 

End. . . • 18 51 62 

Part ecfipsed 0^ 18' on Son's South Limb. 
North of Massachusetts there win be no eclipse. 



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96 



CATALOdUS OF SCLIP8ES OF THE MW. 



18d2. October aoth. ' 






Beginning .... 


. Oh 


.18m. 398. 


A|iparnitc5 .... 


1 


46 


11 


OfMteit Obicuratioii 


. 1 


61 


8 


End 


8 


20 


a 


Digits ecIipMd 80. 11' on jSun's 


North Limb. 






e Sim wiU prdtmbly be eentraHy eclipsed io 


the Canadas and ] 


Labnu 


*1897. July 28th 








Beginning .... 


. 21h: 


7m. 35s. 


Greatest Obsctuation 


22 


16 


36 


Apparent d • • • • 


. 22 


24 


66 


EDd . 


23 


23 


69 


Digits eclipsed 4P 26' on Sun*8 


South Limb. 






*1900. May 27th 








Beginning . . ^ . 


. 20h 


8m 


.418. 


Apparent d • 


21 


22 


60 


Greatest Obscuration . . . 


. 21 


23 


6 


End 


22 


46 


'32 


Digits ecUpsed 11° 1' on Sun's 


South Limb. 






The Sun will be totally eclipsed in the State of Yii^nia 





It is sapposed tliat tlie only similar Catalogue now extant is the one com- 
puted for Paris, from the old lunar tables of Mayer, by M. Vaucel, at the request 
of Louis XV, and published in the fifth Vol. of the *< Mimoirea de MatMmatique 
Hde Physique. Paris, 1768." 

Vaueel's Catalogue commences with 1767, and ends with 1900. By this it ap- 
pears, that the only eclipse nearly central at Paris, in all this term of years, is the 
annular eclipse of Oct. 9th, 1847, which is also the only one of the magnitude of 
.eleven digits. But in Boston, between 1791 and 1900, seven of this magnitude 
take place, three of which are annular, one total, and two annular within the 
distance of eighty English miles. 

The following are the solar eclipses at Paris, according to M. Vaucel, in ths 
remainder of the present century. 



1832, July 27, 


Obscuration, 6 45 


1868, Feb. 23, 


Obscuration, 


(f b 


1833, July 17, 


« 7 47 


1870, Dec. 22, 


u 


10 8 


1836, May 15, 


«« 9 4Q 


1873, May 26, 


<• 


3 6 


1841, July 18, 


« 30 


1874, Oct. 10, 


Ci 


3 36 


1849, July 8, 


« 10 9 


1875, Sept. 29, 
1379, July 19, 


(( 


2 7 


1845, May 6, 


«« 5 12 


IC 


4 8 


1846, April 25, 


«« 3 42 


1880, Dec. 31, 


(C 


4 2B 


1847, Oct. 9, 


** Annular. 


1889, May 17, 


(( 


3 19 


1851, July 33, 


" 9 15 


1887, Aug. 19, 


(( 


3 13 


1858, M'chlS, 


« 10 45 


1890, June 17, 


it 


5 46 


1860, July 18, 


u 9 38 


1891, June 6, 


u 


340 


1861, Dec. 31, 


« 6 13 


1895, March 26, 


cc 


1 6 


1863, May 17, 


«« 3 58 


1896, Aug. 9, 


C( 


15 


1865, Oct. 19, 


« 5 62 


1899, June 8, 


(( 


295 


1866, Oct, 8, 


" 3 58 


1900 May 28, 


cc 


7S9 


1867, M'oh 6, 


«« «(K 









k 



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n. METEOROLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION. 



1. NATURAL HISTORY OP THE WEATHER. 

[From the CompuuoD Wthe Britiih Almanao fi» 1830.] 

Axm yoa weather-wise ? is a question often anxiously asked, when all 
the i^pointments and arrangements for the out-door happiness of a large 
party have been made, and eyery desirable object anticipated or secured, 
except the certainty of fine weather, or even a continuation of it, iC it al- 
ready exist. The tone of the uiswers to this Important query is in general 
expressive of hope of what it might, rather ^an of confidence as to what 
It will, be. The same desire of information and the same uncertainty pro^^ 
Tail in the deliberations upon the more important and extensive operations 
of man, wherever the action of ^e atmospheric agents may assist or inter- 
fere ; so that the cunning cheat, who could make a parade of abstruse 
learning sufficient to mystify the uninformed, has, for centuries, found tiie 
sale of predictions as to the state of the weather, an abundant source of 
profit. ** Quackery,*' to use the recent language of M. Bory de St. Vincent, 
*< has too long abused the public credulity upon this sulject ; for it muit 
be acknowledged, that these phenomena are connected witii a train of 
agencies, whose very existence we can never appreciate, and whose powers 
are beyond our means of calculation.** Still, by the light which has been 
thrown upon the operations of this part of nature by the philosophers of 
our own times, we can safely take some steps towards an acquaintance 
wi& those atmospheric changes which directly or indirectly affect all 
vegetable and animal life, and more particularly with the order in which 
fliey succeed each other. Provided vdth this knowledge, we may often be 
eUe to anticipate them, and timely prepare either to avert or dimlni^ their 
Injurious influence, or take the greatest advantage of opportunities which 
Bmy be propitious to the increase of the euhsistence, wealth, and happlnett 
of the community. 

In the attempt to form a correct notkm of the causae wfaldi pradaee 
tibose incessant vaiiations In the atmosphere, which are populaily called 
T 



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78 H ATURAL BISTORT OF THE WEATHEE. 

die weather, it win be necefMiy te consider, briefly, some of the properties 
md coDstitaent parti of that wondrous envelope of oar globe.* 

ConciSE View of the Properties and Constitution of the 
Atmosphere. , 

That the atmosphere is a fluid completely surrounding the whole earth 
needs no demonstration ; how far its dimeneions extend into space is a 
problem of far more difficult solution. Had it been a fluid of uniform den- 
sity, the length of the mercurial column suspended in the barometer, would 
have demonstrated that its greatest elevation could not have exceeded five 
tnUes ; but the air being veiy elastic, the higher portions of the mass which 
covers our globe, sustaining a diminished pressure, must swell upwards, and 
occupy a proportionably wider space. This property removes the boundary 
of the atmosphere to a much higher elevation ; and from the consideration 
that the reflection of the Sun's rays, unless the sky be overcast, is constant, 
so that there is total darkness in no climate, even at midnight, it has been 
inferred, that the elevation of the atmosphere must, at least, be equal to 
1688 miles. This veiy great extension of a rare expansive atmosphere 
appears conformable to the general phenomena. Near the equator it may 
stretch out even much further, and yet its elevation can never exceed a 
certain absolute limit. Though this extreme boundary may surpass all our 
ordinary conceptions, it yet scarcely exceeds the twentieth part of the dis- 
tance of the Moon, which was held by the ancients to communicate with 
our atmosphere. 

Though we can sound the depths of this great aerial ocean but approxi- 
mately, we are not so situated with regard to its weight. This property 
has been long demonstrated to exist, and even those differences of pressure 
upon the earth, its supporting surface, which must attend the fluctuations 
of a body of such attenuated fluidity perpetually agitated, can be measured 
and compared. 

To the properties of, magnitude and weight must be added those of eZos- 
tidty, expansibility, transparency, and insipidUy, 

Air is also generally considered to be invisible, but it is certain that, like 
water, it is a colored fluid ; it is naturally blue, as that of the latter is greeny 

* It would be extremoly difficult, in an article which involves so great a number of focts 
■ad opinions, to liisign an individttal autliority to each of the ibllowing statements, ft is$ 
tksnfine, propto to nenlion, that the authors who have been prioeipaHy eoMvtted ih» 
tWs abridgaent of a very exteiuiiTe and comi^loatod solject, are these:— 
Dtaiiell, J. F., Esq., F. R. S.— " Meteorological Essays and ObservatioDS." 9d •diU 
LesKf, Professor — Articles " Climate " and " Meteorology,** in the Supplement to tlit 
fineyclopedia Britannica ; and ** On Heat and Moisture." 
f W s Hi, Tkm., Bsq<— AiCieto *^ Olood,*' hi Sopptement to Eney. Brit. 
Bnmfd, laJU, Es(|.— ** Nboienolatara and Obserrations oa Cloods**' 
B^ie au FmuiU^AMtMlA** mUotm," im Diet. 01aai> d'girt^ Natfslle* 
Harvqf, O., Esq.—** On the Formation of Mists,** in Brande*a JoninaL 1893* 
Pao^i the late Sir H.— Phil. Trans. 1819. 



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NATU&AL HI8T0&T OF TH£ WXATHXR. 7Q 

but both colors acquire tntooiity only firom the depth of Ihe trtMf uenl 
mass* This we perceive in air, on viewing distant objeets, whose cdon 
aie always tinted by the deepening hues of the inteijacent range of atmot* 
phere. The remotest hUls seem lost in a cerulean vesture. The blending 
of the atmospheric azure with the colors of the solar rays, produces thosA 
compound, and sometimes remarkaUe, tints with which the sky and clouds 
are emblazoned. 

The constitution of the rare medium in which we " live, and move, and 
have our being,** has been unfolded by the brilliant discoveries of modem 
cb^mistry. Experiments have been made at distant points, repeated on 
the suminirts of the loftiest mountains, and applied to portions of air brought 
down by balloons from the altitude of five miles ; and the result has been 
the ctmelusion, that the constitution of our atmosphere is the same in all 
places on the surface of the earth, and at every elevation that has yet been 
explored. It appears to consist of a combination of two distinct expansi- 
ble gases, tiie interstices of which are penetrated by ever- varying proper- 
tioDs of condensible elastic vapor. The gases are combined in different 
quantities, a single portion of oxygen being united to three parts by weight, 
or four parts by bulk, of nitrogen ; there is also a very slight admixture of 
carbonic acid gas, amounting to perhaps a thousandth part of the whole. 
The particles of the condensible elastic vapor or steam are invisible, and 
insinuate themselves between the particles of air, and filter through them 
with as little union, but with a similar kind of retardation, as tiiose of water 
ascend and difiUse themselves through a sponge. These distinct atmos- 
pheres of air and vapor thu^ mechanically mixed, have different relations to 
hMt, and their states of equilibrium, when enveloping a sphere of unequal 
temperature, are incompatible with each other. 

The triple assemblage is constantly exposed to the action of heat, a piin- 
dple scarcely known but by some of its properties, which, combining with 
all bodies, even the most dense, either enlaiges their bulk, or, dissolving 
the tie which holds their atoms in a solid form, sets them loose in fluidity, 
or finally expands them into vapor, and removes the seat of their existence 
from the earth to the heavens. The quantity of heat absolutely present in 
any one place is extremely difficult to measure ; but its fluctuations are 
perpetual, and often evident And as every accession or diminution of 
temperature is accompanied by some change, and often more than one, in 
ibe integral parts of bodies, or in the relation of one body to others which 
may be conttguoos, it follows that these changes are infii^te in number and 
chtfacter, and that the agent which produces them may be considered the 
main-spring of all the grand movements in the atmosphere. 

The atmosphere, so compouoded, may be coBsMefed a noiveiMl solveot 
mod though itself iiufdonnu, it is the medium of aU smells, and dissolviag 
tfaediffisreaC odorous effluvia, is charged wilii the emaiiations of all th* 
Taiioot sitfwtaiices it sweeps. 



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80 NATUEAL Hlf TORT OF THS WSATHXE. 

There if ftfll to be added to this enmneimtioD of the iogvedienti of Mm 
tftonishing compouiid, die subtle and mytteiious agendea of 'Iight» and ot 
tiie electric, galvanic, and magnetic fluids ; and last, as if to baffle aD in* 
qairy, and render analysis impossible, there is, in uniyersal operation, a per- 
petual agitation and commixion of the whole mass. 

When we reflect upon tills eyer-agitated heterogeneous fluid, compounded 
of flie most active elements of life and destruction, constanfly combining, 
—separating, now evident to ^e most ordinary sense, now escaping flie 
grasp of imagination, we cannot, rationally, be surprised at the little, com- 
paratively, that is really known concerning it All within the power of the 
most ardent student is to collect flie few facts fliat are established, to dismiee 
coi\jecture and hypothesis, and to apply himself to make additions to our 
knowledge by carefully observing, and accurately and luminously describing, 
the processes daring which he is permitted to be present 

** By invisible, but ever-acflve agencies, the waters of the deep sure 
raised into the air, whence their distribution follows, as it were by measure 
and weight, in proportion to the beneficial effects which they are calculated 
to produce. By gradual, but almost insensible expansions, the equipoised 
currents of the atmosphere are disturbed, the stormy winds arise, and the 
waves of the sea are lifted up ; and that stagnation of air and water i» 
preveilted, which would be fatal to animal existence. But the force which 
operates is <*a]culated and proportioned ; the veiy agent which causes the 
disturbailee, bears with it its own check, and the sbrm, as it vents its 
force, is itself setting the bounds of its own ftiiy." * 

It is evident, from a slight view of these « complicated and beautiful 
contrivances,'* that it is hopeless to expect that all the causes of flie phe- 
nomena of the atmosphere will ever be entirely attained by human science. 
At present but few are known, and those imperfectly. Amongst the prin- 
cipal ones which most affect the subject of our present inquiry are, un- 
doubtedly, heat and electricity. The first raises and suspends the evaporated 
waters invisibly in the air, until some more powerful attraction dissolyes 
the union, and the deserted moisture, exposed to view, falls again to the 
earth, and» revisits it in the varied forms of clouds, mist, rain, dew, snow, 
hail, sleet, and hoar-frost To electricity may be principaUy attributed the 
,more splendid phenomena of lightning, the aurora-l>orealis, and the other 
igneous meteors. And the eflfeot of these causes, variously combined and 
infinitely modified by other agents, is felt in those currents of atmospbeiie 
air, which are described by a sacred writer, as « going toward the norfli, and 
toward the south, as whirling about continually and returning again ae- 
eoiding to flieir eiranitt." 

Imperfect as ikt pnecedteg sketdi necessmily is, it is founded on facta 
which have been cottected by some of the most indefiitigable dbsenrei*. 



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I 



2rA117&AI. HISirORT OF TVS WJBATHUU 81 

nmd MHAA hbtotkm, •£ what they «aw. While it eiiia>lei m to judge a 
BtHe more correctly, perhaps, of lome of the cauiea of those cooditioos of 
cnm atBos|riiere, which are hourly preeentlog themtelvea to our view, or 
afiecting the state of our existence, it cannot but excite emotions of aston* 
isbment and of pity, when we see some of Ae most ignorant of our species 
b^dly pretei^ing to predict the results of the operations, 'visible and in* 
▼isiUe, near and remote, of this vast and complex, and almost unknowa 
iqiparatns. 

We shall present a contrast to the dicta of these daring empirics, by an 
extract from tiie teeent pubMcation of a gentleman,* highly distinguished 
by the services he has rendered meteorology, which contains a few of the 
most general and best audienticated facts relating to the phenomena of 
the atmosphere. From these we may safely reason ; and a knowledge of 
Ifaem may frequently enable us to detect order and regularity among objects 
inoverbially spoken of as uncertain and irregular. 

Some of the more particular Phenomena of the 
Atmosphere of the Earth. . 

** The mean height of the barometer (i. e. the mean weight or pressure 
ot the atmosphere) at the level of the sea, is the same in every part of the 
globe. 

" The barometer constantly descends in a geometrical progresrion for 
e<jpial ascehts in the atmosphere; subject to a correction for the deereasiDg 
temperature of the elevation. 

" The mean temperature of the earth's sur&ee increases gradually from 
the poles to the equator. 

« The mean temperature of the atmosphere decreases from below up- 
wards in a regular gradation. 

«' The barometer at tiie level of the sea is but riif^tly aflected by te 
annual or diurnal fluctuations of temperature ; but, in the higher regions of 
Qie atmosphere, is, on the contrary, greatly alfected by them. 

*• The heating and cooling of the atmosphere, by the changes of day and 
lilght; take place equally throughout its mass. 

« The average quantity of vapor in &e atmosphere deereases from belo# 
upwards, and from the equator to the poles. 

** The western coasts of the extra-troj^dd climates have a much Mi^bat 
mean temperature than the eastern coasts^ 

*< A wind generally sets from the sea to the land during the day* and 
from the land to the sea during ^tue nighty espeeiaily in hot climates. 

<* Between the tropics the fluctuations of the bareaeter do not .nnoh 
exceed one quarter of an inch, wtdle beyond this sp^ce tfiey reach lo ftree 
mtfaes. 

«DM|elL Bwayi. 



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89 nrtVJkAJ* HltTORT OP TdK WBATHX&. 

** lo Um tomperato cMmfttM ^be raias tikd the wteds ara fwiftble. 

'< Ai we advaaee towardi the PpUr ftegiooi, we find the irregidaritiet oC 
Ihe wind iocretsed ; aod ttonnt aad cahnt repeirtedly altefnate, wiUioiift 
warning or progression. 

** In the eztra-tropieal cHmates, a fall in te barometer almost always 
precedes a period of rain, and indicates a change or accelei%tion of the 
aerial currents. 

<* Barometers, situated at great distances from each other, often rise and 
fidl together with great regularity. 

« More than two currents may often be traced in the atmosphere at one 
time, by the motions of clouds, &c. 

** The force of the winds does not always decrease as the elevation in- 
creases ; but, on the contrary, is often found to augment rapidly. 

" The variations of the barometer are less in high situations than in fhoae 
at the level of the sea. 

*' In Great Britain, upon an average of ten years, westerly winds exceed 
tiie easterly in the pnoportioo of 226 to* 140; and the northerly winds ex- 
ceed the southerly, as 192 to 173. 

" Northerly winds almost invariably raise the bardmeter, while southerly 
winds as constantly depress it. 

" The most permanent rains from this climate come from the southern 
legions. 

" The mean height of the barometer varies but little with the changes 
of the seasons. 

" The apparent permanency and stationary aspect of a cloud is often an 
optical deception, arising from the solution of moisture on one side, and 
its precipitation on the other. 

" The quantity of vapor in the, atmosphere in the different seasons of 
the year (measured on the surface of the earth, and near the level of the 
sea) follows the progress of the meaa temperature. 

" The pressure of the aqueous atmosphere, separated from that of the 
aerial, generally exhibits directly opposite changes to the latter. 

** Great falls of the barometer are generally accompanied by a tempora* 
ture above the mean for the season, and great rises by one below the 
same." 

The same authority -also sU^s, that '* The British islands are rituated in 
such a manner as to be subject to all the circumstances which can possiU^ 
be supposed to tender a climate irregular and vaikble. Placed neaHy in 
the centre of the jtemperate zone> where the range of temperature is vary 
great, their atmosphere is sul^ect, on the one side, to4he impressions of 
the htrg^ continsffllt of the world ; and, on the other, to ^oee of the vast 
Atlantic Ocean. Upon their coasts the great stream of aqueous Taper, 
peipetually arising from the western waters, first receives the influence of 
the land, whence emanate those condensations and expansions which d6-> 



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SXrVTHAL HlfTOKT OF TMX WXATHXE. 83 

fleet and lerane Uie gnad ayttm^ of eqirfpoiMd cnrrHite. Tbey are abo 
witiUa the fi%oiic efieett of ^e knmeiiae borrien and fieUa of ice, wliichy 
when the shifting portion of the sun advanoea the tropieal cMmate towaidt 
the northern pole, counteract fts energy, and preaeot a condensing rar&ce 
of enormous ezteirt to the increasing elasticity of the aqueous atmosphere." 
Amidst all the uncertainty and seeming confusion arising from this compli- 
eation, g^Mral principles may still be recognised ; and, it is believed, die 
more they are studied, the more <^viou8 they will appear* 

Evaporation. 

Hie formation and never-failing supply of tiie condensible elastic vapor, 
wfaicb has been described to be one of the constituents of the atmosphere, 
is provided for by that law of nature, which has endued water, under all 
eircumstances, even when congealed into ice, with the power of emitting 
vapor or steam, in a quantity proportioned to its temperature. The presence 
of water over the globe may be said to be universal ; for even in the frac- 
tion which is estimated to be land, it is so profusely distributed as to main* 
tain a perpetual exhalation. ** Pasturage, corn-fields, or forests support a 
continual evaporation, augmented only by the dryness of the air, and the 
lapicBty of its sudden contacts. Even ploughed land will supply as much 
moisture to the exhaling fluid as an equal sheet of water. It is only when 
the ground is quite parched, that it ultimately retains its latent store."* 
Am this property of water clings to it in all its metamorphoses, and attends 
it in an its localities, it follows that the process of evaporation is constant 
and universal. It is generally also invisible, but there are times when it 
may be seen, and we can inspect, at the level of the eardi, some of those 
operations which usually take place in the higher regions of the atmo- 
sphere. In the calm evening of a fine summer's day, the rudiments of 
Intttre clouds often present themselves to our sight, in the first part of their 
flight; and though they disappear, it is no proof of tiie suspension, or even 
of ftie diminution, of the process, which proceeds as powerfully and e£fect- 
naUy during the most brilliant aerial transparency as in the thickest mist 

By means of the visibility which cold imposes upon aqueous vapor, we 
can often satisfactoryy trace its upward progress in the doods of fine 
weather. « During the heat of the day it rises from the sur&ce of the 
land and waters, and reaches its point of condensation in greater or less 
qmitities at dilfisient altitudes. Partiid eleads are formed hi dififorent 
paraflel i^anes, vAuch always maintahi their relative distances. The denser 
fonm of the lower strata, as they float along with the wind, riiow that 
the greater abundance of precipitation has been at the first point of depo-* 
sNIon, while the featiiery shapes and lighter (extore of the upper attest a 
laier atmotp^ore. These clouds do not inerease beyond a certain point. 



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S4 l!fkrV%At BIBTORT €0? TSB WXAVBE* 

ind often remain stttfonaiy in qatnUty tad figuM kft inyfaoqw^ but, as 
the heat decfinet, they gradodly melt away, till at length, i^aetk the mm 
has sunk below the horizon, the ether Is unspotted «nd tmnqiaient Hie 
stars shine tiiroogh the night wMi UMiimmed lostre, and the sun imed ia 
the mon^ng in his brightest splendor. The elonds again begin to iam^ , 
increase to a certain limit, and Taidah with the OTeniag shades, nis 
gradation of changes, wUch we see so often repeated in our finest sgasoesj 
may at first seem contrary to the tme principles ; and the predpitatloos» 
which occur with an increcue of temperature, and disappear with its de- 
eUne, may, without reflection, he regarded as diametrically opposed to 
correct theoiy. But a little consideration will show that such conclusions 
would be untrue. The vapor rises, and is condensed ; but in its descent 
idls into a warmer air, where it again is evi^orated, and becomes invisible ; 
and as the quantity of evaporation from the surface of the earth is exactly- 
equal to supply this process above, the cloud neither augments not de- 
creases. When the sun declines, the ground cools more rapidly than the 
air; evaporation decreases, but the dissolution of the cloud continues. 
The supply at fength totally ceases, and the cloud subsides completely 
away. The meming sun revives the exhalations of the earth, the process 
of their condensation and consequent cloud-like form commences, and they 
i^n undergo the same series of changes."* 

Descending again to the opemtions on the earth's sur&ce, we may ob- 
serve that the ascent of the aqueous vapor is modified by the jelative 
differences ef the temperatures of the exhaling fluid and the ambient air. 
Two of these it may be useful to describe. They are, 

1. When the tempemture of the fluid is above that of the air 5 

2. When the tefiaperatore of the fluid is below that of the air. 

In the first case, the evaporation is proportionate to the difference of 
temperatuie. The gaseous fluid in contact with the sur&ce of the wanpier 
water becomes h^ter by receiving portions of the excess of heat, and, 
rising up, carries with It in its ascent ttie entangled vapor, which has been 
cooled down by the low temperature of the air into the form of steam. 
This is the visible evaporation referred to above. 

In the second case, though the water is colder than the air, it -stUl, frem 
6ie law before mentioBed, emits vapor from its surface, but invisibly^ as 
there is no. coodensiog dispositiOB now in the air. TU» vapor, thuefore, 
ndther having the power to dlspfaice the gaseous fluid* nor heat to cauee a 
circulation of it, can only pass by fikeaag through its mterstices— a saos^ 
heautiM and astonishing instance of die extreme divisibility of matter. 

The foroeef aqoeeus ¥aper ditengaged at ^^forent tempemtuies has bfen 
determined with grant aoeem^, and the amount ef evaporation has heea 
demonstrated to be, ether things bMng equal, alirays in pt^wcyon to 4m 
force. 

* Doniell. 



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ITATITAAK BUTOftT OF TBB WSATBUU 



U my 1m «Mllf faB^ilAed, tibit •■ tbe iotoraOeM of the gMMiM floid 
can contain but a certain quantity of elattic Tapor, there would naturally 
be a Kmit to evaporation. This ii actually the caie. It very often happens 
ftat ^e interstices are found to be AiU, and can hold no more, and that 
then evaporation c ea e ei ; sometimes, indeed, they may be said to run over, 
and it is then we see th« ezeess in the shape of steam, or mist, or cloud. 
The capacity of these inter otkss of the gaseous fluid becomes larger er 
smaDer in proportion to the temperature of their particles, and the effect of 
their contraction or iiipmnwon is precisely sisular to the grasp or relaxation 
of ttie hand on a piece of hnbibing sponge. At a low temperature, or 
when the grasp is t^htest, a certain quantity can only enter. On the con^ 
trary, at a high temperature, or when the sponge is permitted to expand to 
ib» utaiost, its capacity is increased, and a large volume may be con* 
fahied. 

The total quantity of aqueous ^stic vapor which can enter between the 
interstices of the gaseous fluid, or which the latter can hold suspended, 
depends upon temperature, but this quantity is invariably at the same tem- 
perature. A volume of air may contain less than this quantity, but never 
Bfeere. When it has this exact quantity, it will remain transparent, and is 
Mkl to be saturated, or at iti point of Maturation, It is then as damp as it 
can be; any attempt to insert more vapor will fail, and the rejected vapor 
wyi become visible in the form of steam. If we lower the temperature, 
^he aerial interstices will contract, and soma of the contained vapor will be 
equeeased out in the same form. We may increase the temperature to any 
extent wifliout any visible change, but we render the air drier in proportion 
to ihe degfee (o which we ascend, and in the same degree capable of re- 
ceiving and supporting an additional quantity of humidity. Atmospheric 
. pressure also affects the amount of the quantity suspended, by opposing 
tiie difliision and retarding the formation of the vapor. From the aqueous 
flnid being so abundantly spread over the face of the earth, there can be 
no doubt that the permanently elastic or gaseous atmosphere would very 
^leedlly be saturated with its vapor, did not some cause prevent its uni- 
versal division. This never-failing cause is inequality of temperature, 
which excites, or diminishes, or suspends, in ^e way we have described, 
ttie process (rf* evaporation. 

The ab oe lute quantity of moisture that ak is capsMe of containing, roi^ 
be conceived from the following statement of Bir. Leslie >-^< Air, at the 
freezing point, Is eapairie of holding a portion of moisture equal to the 
ItM part of its own weight; at ^ teasperature ^ S^^', the 80th part ; at 
that «f M^, the 4eth part; at 118<>, the 20th part ; and at that of 140^ the 
Mfli pait; 00 that the air has its dffness doubled at each nse of tempera* 
turn, snsweiing to 87^ of Fahrenheit While tfie temperature, therefore, 
advances untformly in aiiflimetical progression, the dissolving power, which 
8 



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8(^ NATVKAI. HI8TO&T 6y THX WEATBUU 

Ihit coiDBMUiicatef to Ikt tir, moiHits wUh the aecelentiiig i»|>idlty of a 
goometrical series.** 

By the improved InstrumeDts and accurate observations of this gentleman 
aad others, the total quantity of moisture which could be suspended at one 
time in the air can be correctly estimated. It has been stated by him, that, 
at 6S^ Fahrenheit, a cubic umM of air, measuring 40 inches every way, 
ean retain 262 grains of water. But if a largcur scale be preferred, the same 
numbers will express in pounds troy the quantity of water required to 
saturate a perfectly dry mass of air constituting a cube of twenty yards in 
dimension. If the greatest amount possible of the aqueous element were 
to be suspended in the atmosphere,, and this wera to pass from a state of 
absolute dampness into that of eztrome dryness, and dischaige the whole 
of its watery store, it would form a sheet of somewhat less than &ve inches 
in depth. To furnish the usual supply of rain, the air must, therefore, un- 
dergo very frequent dianges, equal tp that of from diyness to humidity in 
tiM course of the year. 

The average amount of evaporation in the neighbourhood of London per 
annum, calculated by Mr. Daniell's hygrometer, a most elegant and perfect 
Instrument for ascertaining the humidity of the atmosphere, is 23,974 inches* 
The average weight of the quantity of water raised by this process, from a 
circular surface of six inches diameter, 0.81 gr. per minute. The results 
of actual measurement by Mr. Howard accord most satisfactorily with this 
method of estimating the amount of evaporation, and prove most incon- 
tesUbly the accuracy of the calculations upon which it is founded. 

The rate at which this process proceeds near London, during the several 
months of the year, is estimated by Mr. Daniell, and recorded in the BrU' 
iik .ikn(mae, as follows : 



July . . . 


in. 
. 3.293 


August . . 
September 
October . 


. 3.327 > 
. 2.620 
. . 1.488 


November 


. . 0.770 


December 


. 0.516 



January . . . 0.413 

February . . . 0.733 

March .... 1.488 

April .... 2.290 

May .... 8.286 

June .... 8.760 

The smallest quantity ef water is, therefore, lifted into the atmospheia 
during the month of Jaauaiy, and the greatest in June. ' The mean quan- 
tity held in solution in a eubio foot of air, is 8.789 gr. 

The rate of exhalation from the surfiice of the ground is scarcely of leas 
consequence than the fidl of rain, and a knowledge of it might ofUi^ direct 
tfie most important operations. Mr. Leslie invented an instrument fisr 
measuring the quantity of moiaturs exhaled from a humid sur£ice in a pven 
time. Tbb he called the Atmometer, and be has estimated that the d«i|j 
SB^alation from a sheltered surfiice of water would* at the mean diyness of 
winter, lower it 0.018 Inches and at the mean of summer OJ048 indies. 



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HATURAL HItTORT OP THE WEATHBE. 97 

And he gires 6ie foHowiDg ioatance of iti use : Suppoie a pool for the 
supply of a naTigable canal exposed a auiiace equal to ten English acres, 
and that the atmometer sunk 80 parts during the lapse of 24 hours, the 
quantity exhaled in that time would he 2904 cubic feet, or about 81 tout, 
equal to 1760 imp. gall, per acre. 

The dissipation of moisture is much accelerated by the agency of sweep- 
ing winds, the effect being sometimes augmented 6 or even 10 times. In 
general, this augmentation is proportional to the swiftness of the wind, the 
action of still air itself being reckoned equal to that produced by a celerity 
of eight miles each hour. 

Cloi7D8, Foes, and Mists. 

The presence of the ocean of vapor, which we have described as con- 
stantly ascending from the earth, and constituting part of the atmosphere, 
is, as has also been observed, not always evident to the sight; in its 
elastic state it is always invisible, and, therefore, it is only in some of its 
changes that the eye can detect it. By one of the most remarkable of 
these, those masses of visible aqueous vapor are formed, which, floating In 
Ithe sky, or drifting through it with the wind, at different elevations, with 
every variety of color and form, are called clouds; or which, recum- 
hent on the surface of the land or of the water, and spread over greater or 
smaller portions of them, are denominated fogs, or mists, according to 
their intensity. In all cases, their composition is similar, and consists of 
the moisture deposited by a body of air, in minute globules. 

Their formation, in every position, is a consequence of decrease of tem- 
peratures in some parts of the atmosphere where a certain proportion of 
aqueous elastic vapor is present ; but in those where the latter condition 
may be wanting, it is evident that the developement of cloud will not follow 
the decrement of temperature. Nothing is more common than the fact of 
the necessary conditions existing in some of the atmospheric strata, and at 
the same time being absent in others ; and thus we can understand the 
causes of the alternate beds of clouds and clear air, which oflen diversify the 
sky in serene weather. We can hence also comprehend how, in stormy 
weather, a solitary cloud sometimes appears to stand stationary over a moun- 
tain-top, while myriads of other clouds drift past it on the gale. An ob- 
server on the summit feels the multitudinous dew-drops of the seemingly 
fixed cloud sweeping by with great velocity, and discovers the stationary 
aspect which it exhibited below to be altogether ^n illusion. The fact is, 
the inferior in^sible beds of air are relatively warmer and more moist. 
They dash against the sloping side of the mountain, and are reflected up 
to the plane of condensation in the atmosphere, where they give out their 
excess of water in the form of clouds. Above the cooling influence of the 
mountain-top ^the temperature of the air may not be depressed to the i 
point, and hence it continues dear. 



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86 ITATURAL HI8TOKT Of THE WXATHE&. 

If the globules of inter which constitute i cloud, descend, in conse- 
quence of their weight, and come once more within the influence of an 
elevated temperature, the aqueous vapor necessarily becomes ^^n invisi- 
ble. In this way, the under surfiice of a stratum of clouds becomes nearly 
parallel, or rather concentric, with the surface of the sub-adjacent iandsc^»e 
over which it floats. Above this first range of clouds the temperature may 
still be considerably higher, and hence another large body of air must be 
jNissed through, before a temperature sufficiently low be arrived at, to cause 
a second deposition of clouds. 

M. Fresnel ingeniously supposes that the air contained between the 
minute globules of vapor, or the very fine crystals of snow, which form a 
mass of clouds, is always of a higher temperature than the surrounding 
dear air. He supports this opinion on the well known facts, alreacfy al- 
luded to, that the rays of the sun will pass through the air without heating 
it, unless the air be in contact with water, land, or some other reflecting 
object. The cloud accordingly forms such a body as will stop the sun's 
rays, and force them to warm, not only the air in external contact with it, 
but all the air in its interstices. It follows, therefore, that though the maaa 
of waters in a cloud be heavier than the surrounding air, the warmer air in 
the interior of the cloud buoys it up, and causes it to float.* 

M. Gay Lussac, on the other hand, refers the mounting of clouds in the 
air to the impulsion of the ascending currents, which result from the differ- 
ence of temperature between the surface of the earth and the air in elevated 
regions. 

The formation of clouds may be observed with most advantage in Alpine 
countries, as they are there so frequently produced under the eye, upon 
the sides or the summits of mountains, by the condensation of the vapor in 
the sheet of air immediately over them. A mountain cloud is at first of 
but small extent, but it enlarges insensibly, and is swept by the winds into 
the bosom of the air, where it either meets and unites with others, or 
various tufts of these are scattered over the sky. ' These aerial groups 
appear, while drifting through the sky, to avoid dashing themselves upon 
the mountain peaks in their course, and, as if endowed with instinctive 
repulsion, they bound over the crest of a mountain in a concentric curve, 
and slide down into the valley on the other side. The French naturalists, 
with much plausibility, ascribe this beautiful phenomenon to electricity. 
M. Bory de St. Vincent thinks, that, when small tufts of cloud are carried 
towards the sides or the summit of a mountain, they move with less rafndity 
than the force (wind) which moves them, and this force consequently 
arriving sooner at the obstacle, is reflected, and meets and checks the 
cloud in its progress. 

The mean height of the clouds may be conceived by the following ex- 
tract from Mr. Leslie. " We shall not err much, if we estimate the position 

AnnalM de Chim. et de Pbyi. xzi* 960. • 



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IfATURAL BISTORT OF THE WEATHER. 89 

of extreme humidity at the height of two miles at the pole, and four milei 
And a4ialf under the equator, or a mile ind a half beyond the limit of con- 
gelation. This range is neiirly parallel to the curve of perpetual congelation 
in the polar regions, but bends nearer to it in approaching the equatorial 
parts. 

CLASSIFICATION OF CLOUDS. 




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90 NATURAL HI&TORT OF THE WEATHER. 

Infinitely diTenified as the forms of clouds may appear to be, coireet 
ebsenrert have stated that they may all be comprised in seven modifiations. 
Names and definitions have been given to these by Mr. Howard and Mt. 
Forster. By this classification and nomenclature their appearances may be 
noted down and transmitted to contemporary and future observers, for the 
purposes of comparison and record. , A great advance has consequently 
been made in the perspicuous description which has succeeded to the 
rague and unintelligible generalities of preceding ages. Mr. Howard's' 
names are in Latin ; to them we annex Mr. Forster's English nomencU- 
ttire. 

These following modifications are arranged in tiie order of their ordinary 
elevation, but which is very frequency deranged : — 

Howard. Forater. 

Cirrus Curl-eloud, 



ClRROCVMULUS 
CiRROSTRATirS 
CUMITIiOSTRATUS 

CuMin«us 

Nimbus 

Stratus 



Sonder-eloud. 

JVane-cloud, 

Tvoain<loud, 

Staekett'Clottd, 

Rain- cloud. 

Fall-cloud. 



In the annexed engraving are representations of the more usual forms of 
these genera, and we subjoin a few remarks on each to render their classi- 
fication still more easy. In doing this, we shall depart from the above 
order, for the purpose of taking the simpler forms first. 

Cirrus — Curl-cloud, Fig. 1. 

The ewUng and flexuous forms of this cloud constitute its most obvious 
external character, and from these it derives its name. It may be distin- 
guished from all others by the lightness of its appearance, its fibrous tex- 
ture, and the great and perpetually changing variety of figures which it 
presents to the eye. It is generally the most elevated, occupying the 
highest regions of the atmosphere. 

The eomoid eirrut cloud, vulgarly called the mare*§ tail, is the proper 
cirrus. It has, as represented in the engraving, somewhat the appearance 
of a distended lock of white hair, or of a bunch of wool pulled out into fine 
pointed ends (a*). 

In variable and warm weather in summer, when there are light breezes, 
long and obliquely descending bands of cirrus are often observed, and seem 
sometimes to unite distinct masses of clouds together. Frequently, by 
means of the interposition of these cirri, between a cumulus and Some 
other doud (as, for example, einostratus), the cumulostratus, and ultimatdy 
the nimbus, is formed. 

« Bm IndiMtioMorWMtlMr, ^ 96. 



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fkATVWLAh HlftTO«T OF THK WSATHUU 91 

. Upon a miBute ezainioation of tbe drnis, every particle b fovod to be 
kk motion, while the whole mass scarcely elianges ita place. Sometimes 
tiba fibres which compose it, gently wa?e backwards and forwards, to and 
fiom each other. 

After a continuance of clear, fine weather, the cirrus is often observed at 
a fine whitish line of cloud, at a great elevation^ like a white thread stretch- 
ed across the sky ; the ends of which seem lost in each horixon (6*). 

To this line of cirrus others are frequently added laterally ; and some- 
times becoming denser by degrees, and descending lower in the atmosphere, 
inosculate f with others from below, and produce rain. To this kind the 
name of linear dmu has been given. Sometimes on the sides of the 
first line of a cirrus, clouds of the same kind are propagated, and sent off 
in an oblique or transverse direction, so that the whole phenomenon has 
the appearance of net-work ; this has been denominated retieular cttnft. 

Though the above-mentioned varieties of tbe cirrus are all composed of 
gtraigJii lines of cloud, either parallel, or crossing each other in different 
directions ; they are ranged under the head of cirrus, or curUeloud, from 
their analogy of texture to tbe substance from which this cloud is named. 

CuMTTiiXTs — Stctcken-clottd, Fig. 9. 

This cloud is easily kiiown by its irregular hemispherical or heaped su- 
perstructure, hence its name eumuius, a heap or pile. It has usutdly a 
flattened base. The mode of its formation is by the gathering together of 
detached clouds, which then appear stacked into one large and elevated 
mass, or atacken-cloud. The best time for viewing its progressive formation 
b in fine settled weather. About sunrise small thinly-scattered specks of 
clouds may be observed. As the sun rises, these enlarge, those near each 
other coalesce, and at length the cumulus is completed. It may be called 
the cloud of day, as it usually exists only during that period, dissolving in 
the evening, in a manner the exact counterpart of its formation in the 
morning. Cumuli, which are of a more regular hemispherical form, whitish- 
colored, and which reflect a strong silvery light when opposed to the sun, 
appear to be connected with electrical phenomena. Those seen in the 
intervals of showers are more vari^able in form, and more fleecy with irregu- 
lar protuberances. When this kind of cloud increases so as to obscure the 
sky, its parts generally inosculate, and begin to assume that density of 
a|>pearance which characterizes the enmulostratus. 

St&atvs — FtiU'CUnul, Fig. 11. 

This kind of doud rests upon the sur&ice of the globe. It is of variable 
eaitent and thickness, and is called stratus, a bed or covering. It is gen- 

* 8e« lodications, p. 95. 

t loMcalation is a unim by the coojonpUoQ of the eztrMoitiM. 



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92 HATURAL HI8T0AT 09 THS W&A91ISR. 

ertlly Ibmied by the fobsidence of vapor in the atmosphere, and has, there- 
fore, been(ienoiiUDatedy&//-ctotid. This genus includes all fogs, and diose 
creeping mists, which in summer evenings fill the valleys, remain during 
the night, and disappear in the morning. The best time for observing ite 
(brmation is on a fine evening, after a hot summer's day : as the cumufi 
which have prevailed through the day decrease, a white mist forms by 
degrees close to the ground, or extends only for a short distance above it. 
This cloud arrives at its density about midnight, or between that time and 
morning, and it generally disappears about sunrise. It is, for this reason, 
called by some, the cloud of night, ^ The coming in of autumn b generally 
marked by a greater prevalence and density of this cloud. In ^winter it is 
ftill. denser. It has often been found to be electrified positively. The 
stiatus should not be confounded with that variety of the cirrostratus, which 
is similar in external appearances ; the test to distinguish them is, the stra- 
tus does not wet objects that it alights upon ; — the cirrostratus moistens 
every thing it touches. 

CuAOCVMiTLUSd — SondcT'Cloud. Fig. 2. 

This consists of extensive beds of a number of little, well-defined, orbicu- 
lar masses of clouds, or small cumuli, in close horizontal opposition ; but 
at the same time lying quite asunder {sonder-clofid), or separate from one 
another. It is to be distinguished from some appearances of the cirrostratus 
which resemble it, by the dense and compact form of its component nubec- 
ula (little clouds). From the intermediate nature of this cloud between 
the cirrus and cumulus, it has been called cirrocumulus. The word 
sonder-cloud is of Saxon derivation. 

Sometimes the nubeculae are very dense in their structure, very round in 
their form, and in very close opposition (c*). 

At other times they arc of a light, fleecy texture, and of no regular 
form. 

- The cirrocumulus of summer is of a middle nature between the two last ; 
its nubeculsB vary in size and in proximity ; and its picturesque appearance 
in' this season often presents, by moonlight, as Bloomfield expresses it. 

The beauteous semblance of a flock at rest. 

The formation of this kind of cloud is either spontaneous, that is, unpre* 
ceded by any other, or results from the changes of some other modification. 
Thus the cirrus or cirrostratus often changes into cirrocumulus, and vice 
versd* If it does not terminate with this kind of change, it subsides slowly 
as if by evaporation. 

* See IndieatioiM, p. 95. 



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JTATUBAL HlflTOBT Of THE WEATHEB. 93 

C1RRO8TRATU8 — Wane-clovd, Fig. 3, 4, 6, 6, 7. 

This cloud is distinguishable by its flatness, and great horizontal extension 
hi proportion to its perpendicular height. Under all its various forms, it 
preserves this characteristic. It often results from the fibres of the cirrus, 
after descending from a higher station in the atmosphere, subsiding into 
strata of a more regularly horizontal direction, and hence it is called eirrO' 
stratus. As it is generally changing its figure, and slowly subsiding, it has 
received the name of wane-cloud. It originates more frequently from 
cirrus than from any other, and less fi-om cumulostratus than cirrocumulus. 
Being once formed, it sometimes re-assumes the character of the modifica* 
tion from which it originated, but more frequently it evaporates by degrees, 
or by inosculating, with some other modification, produces the cumulostra- 
tus, and eventually the nimbus, falling in rain. 

Sometimes this cloud is disposed in wavy bars or streaks, in close hori- 
zontal opposition, and these bars vary infinitely in size and color, generally 
blended in the middle, but distinct towards its edges, ^o^. 4. A variety not 
unlike this, is the mackereUback sky of summer evenii^. It is often 
very high in the atmosphere. Another common variety appears like a 
long streak, thickest in the middle, and wasting away at it» edges. This, 
wbdn viewed in the horizon, has the appearance of fig, 7. It often 
seems to lie on the summit of the cumulostratus, as represented in the 
engraving ; in this case, the density of the latter increases in proportion as 
the former form and evaporate upon it. The result of this intermixture, 
and the consequent density, if the formation of the nimbus, and the fall of 
rain. 

Another principal variety of the cirrostratus is one which consists of 
small rows of little clouds, curved in a peculiar manner ; it is from this 
curvature called eymoid. fig, 6. (d*.) 

Fig, 6 is the representation of a similar one, less perfectly formed, having 
more of the character of the cirrocumulus, and is often produced when a 
large cumulus passes under the variety marked^. 7. (e f.) 

Another remarkable development of this varying genus is, that extensive 
and shallow sort of cloud, which occurs particulariy in the evening and 
dnrtng night, through which the sun and moon but faintly appear. It is in 
ftaa cloud that those peculiar refractions of the light of those bodies, called 
hales, mock suns, &c. usually appear. (/}.) 

C9in7z.oBTiiATiTS — TuDOm'eUmd, Fig. 9. 

The base of this modification is generally flat, and lies on the surface of 
an atmospheric stratum, the superstructure resembling a bulky ■ cumulus 
OveAanging its base in large' fleecy protuberances, or rising into the forms of 
rocl^ mountains. Considerable masses of these frequently are grouped upon 

• See Indleationt, p. 95. f Ibid. % Ibid. 



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94 NATURAL HI8T0BT OT THE WEATHKE. 

a common stratum or base, from which it has been named ewnuloitratus. 
It derives the other appellation, twam-elouti from the frequently visible 
coalescence of two other modifieations, as, for example, the cirrus and the 
cumulus. Its density is always much greater than the cumulus. Cumu- 
lostratus sometimes forms spontaneously, but is generally produced by the 
retardation of the cumulus in its progress with the wind, which then In- 
creases in density and lateral dimensions, and finally protrudes over its 
base in large and irregular projections. Sometimes contiguous cumuli unite 
at their bases, and at once become cumulostratus. Sometimes the upper 
currents of air conduct cirrostratus near the summits of cumuli, or pierce 
them, as is shown in the engraving. The effects of this junction have 
been described under the last modification. 

Cumulostratus often evaporates, sometimes changes to cumulus, but, in 
general, it ends in nimbus, and Ms in rain. In long ranges of these clouds 
it has been observed that part has changed into nimbus, and the rest re- 
mained unchanged. 

NiMBtTs— liiiti»-e2atMi. Fig. 11. 

This is not a modification depending upon a distinct change of form, but 
rather from increase of density and deepening of shade in the cumulostra- 
tus, indicating a change of structure, which is always followed by the fall 
of rain. This has been, therefore, called ntm&us, (a rainy black clotid.) 
Any one of the^receding six modifications may increase so much as to 
obscure the sky, and, without falling in rain, ** dissolve,*' and " leave not a 
lack behind.** But when cumulostratus has been formed, it sometimes 
goes on to increase in density, and assume a black and portentous dark- 
ness. Shortly afterwards 'the intensity of this blackness yields to a more 
grey obscurity, which is an evidence that a new arrangement has taken 
place in the aqueous particles of the cloud ; the nimbus is formec^and rain 
begins to fall. The shower continues until another interior change suc- 
ceeds, when the nimbus is extinct, and more or less of other modifications 
re-appear : the cirrus, cirrostratus, or perhaps the cirrocumulus, is seen in 
the higher regions of the atmosphere, and the remaining cumulus, no 
longer retarded, sails along in a current of wind nearer the earth. These 
effects may be satisfactorily observed when showers fall at a distance ; the 
nimbus can then be seen in profile, and the process of its formation and 
destruction followed through all its stages. 

In addition to this sketch, it may be stated, that masses of cloud may 
present themselves to the observation so indefinite and shapeless, as to 
render it difficult to refer them at once to any of the preceding modifica- 
tions ; but it is believed that in every case, if the observations be attentively 
prolonged, a tendency to resolve into some of these forms will, sooner or 
later, be discovered. A circumstance which not only shows their distinct 
nature, but proves that there are some general causes why aqueous vapof. 



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KAIUAAL HISTORY OF THE WKATflER. 95 

impended in the air» should assume, though with great rarieties ofsize and 
Ibrm, certain definable and constant modifications. 

\ 
Indications of approaching Chanoes of the Weather from 
THE Form of the Clouds. 

The [MTOgnostics of coming weather must always be deduced from Aose 
ckrads which ultimately prevail ; for, in vaiiable weather, all the modifica 
lions may be seen in a single day. < 

Cirrus. The comoid, or morels tail, variety of this cloud described a, 
p. 90, is an accompaniment of a variable state of weather, and forebodes 
wind and rain. In very changeable seasons, the direction of the fine and 
idmost evanescent tails varies considerably in a few hours. When the tails 
liave had a constant direction towards the same point of the compass for 
sny considerable time, it has been fiequently observed that a gale has 
sprung up firom the quartjer to which they had previously pointed. 

The variety b, p. 91, is the first indication of a change to wet 

CiRRocuMUiiUS. When this dood prevails, we may, in general, antici- 
pate, in summer, an increase of temperatwe ; in winter, it often precedes 
the breaking up of a frost, and indicates warm and wet weather. 

The variety e, p. 92, is striking before, or, about the time of thunder 
storms in summer. It is commonly a forerunner of storms, and has been 
remarked as such by the poets. 

Cirrostratus. The prevalence of this cloud is always a sign of rain 
or snow. 

The eymaid arrangement d, p. 93, is a sure indication of stom^ weather, 
and the variety c, p. 93, is almost always so. 

The variety/, p. 98, is the surest prognostic we are acquainted with, of 
an impending fall of rain or snow. 
« CuMULOsTRTUs may always be regarded as a stage towards the pro- 
duction of rain or snow, and, in this case, always ends in the nimbus. 

Nimbus is always followed by a fall of rain or snow. 

Fogs and mists, when they extend over large surfaces varied with land 
and i^rater, are generally produced in fine calm weather, after the sun's rays 
have ceased to warm the earth, by the higher masses of air, which have 
been rapidly cooled in the more elevated regions of the atmosphere, de- 
scending by their weight, and intermixing with the lower, and lighter, and 
still warmer strata. These are gradually chilled, until the undermost stratum 
is affected, first to dampness, then to a slight precipitation scarcely visible, 
to the eye, and finally, to mist and fog. The earth, during clear nights» 
immediately on the withdrawing of the heat-imparting energies of the sun^ 
begins to emit the particles of heat it had acquired during the day, or, ia 
ordinaiy language, to cool. The atmosphere does the same, but at a much 
slower rate. In the race, therefore, between the cooling powers of tbesei 



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NATVmAI. HISTOmr OF THK WXATflKm. 



tmo bodiei, liie ctait it usually mtde tt mmH wid& tlie eai^'t \ 
wanner than the incumbent air. The firat, by Its more rapid descent, ofrefi- 
takea the latter at some point of equal temperature, and passing its sluggish 
competitor, becomes colder, and, of course, instead of warming the stratum 
of air in contact, as it dfd in the first part of its course, it now, on the coo- 
traiy, becomes an absorber of beat, wd, consequently, cools the coatiguous . 
bodies. In both these cases the process is favorable to the formatloB «f 
mist, but in different modes. In the first, it assists the intermixtttre of the 
two differently warmed bodies of air, by keeping up the temperature of die 
lower one, and by thus increasing its disposition to ascend, the mingling and 
the deposition are more rapid and complete. In the latter case, it is in 
the same condition with relation to the air near the sui&ce, as the nffiii 
ahoye it, namely, coeler, and therefMe it ads simBarly ; the suifiK:e-«ir 
being now between two cooling masses, &e rate of its coodeosatioQ aacl 
consequent predpitatba of moisture is at least coBtinued» and perhaps m- 
creased. 

The phenomenon of mists forming over lakes and livws, when tl^ at- 
mosphere of th^ banks and adjacent land is entirely free from visible 
yapor, is a very remarkable one, and has excited considerable attention. 
The late Sir H. Davy bbserved and communicated to the public some 
curious facts, which have contributed very much to our knowledge on Ae 
subject. The principal operating cause in producing this singular effect, is 
the difference of the rate of cooling, in the absence of the sun, in fluid and 
in solid bodies. In the surface of the former the particles, as they ate 
cooled, sink, and give place to those beneath, which then are warmer, and 
therefore lighter, producing thus a renewal of surface, and a very slow de- 
crease of its general temperature, compared with those of solid bodies, 
whose particles are motionless among themselves. When these on their 
surface are cooled, they remain in their place, and are affected by the supe- 
rior warmth of the internal particles, only in the degree of the conducting 
power of the body. And this conducting power is found to be extremely 
feeble in most of the substances which form the solid crust of our globe. 

These conditions being understood, it will be easy to imagine, that the 
portion of the atmosphere which reposes on the sur&ce of water, will con- 
tlmie warmer after sunset on a clear night, than the contiguous parts which 
rest upon the adjacent land. From its position, too, with regard to an 
aqueous surface, it wiH also obtain a greater load of moisture. If we now 
suppose the cooled air of a superior stratum to descend in the usual manner 
upon the masses of air lying upon the earth and the water, which, thou^ 
closely adjoining, are, with regard to heat and humidity, very differently 
compounded, we shall find that its descent might produce little or no 
visiUe change in the land-stratum, while, by its superior weight, it would 
fiill into and partially displace that over the water, intimately intermixing 
with it, and condensing its moisture, and thus creating in the air a vidttle 



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NATURAL HI8T0BT Or THE MTXATHKR. 97 

liTar or lake of vapor, wboie boundaries in a still night would ezaotly eofai- 
ctde with the banks of the water beneath, however inegular their outline. 
Mr. Harvey observed a mist of this kind hovering in a beautiful stratum 
over the stream which supplies Plymouth with water. The mist moved in 
the direction of the running stream, but with a velocity much greater, while 
it accommodated itself, in a most singular manner, in its course, to all the 
tuiBB and windings of the channel. The breadth of the mist was nearly 
the same as that of the stream, and its average altitude about five feet. 
The water of the stream was observed to stand at 56^, the air over the 
water 47;^®, the ground near the mist 46^, the air above it 49<'« 

The following facts also corroborate the view we have taken of the 
theory of the formation of mists over water. Sir H. Davy, on descending 
the Danube during three nights in June, 1818, observed, that the mist 
BBgulaily appeared over the water in the evening, when the temperature of 
tiie air on the shore was from 8^ to 6^ lower than that of the stream, and 
that it as regularly disappeared when the temperature of the atmosphere on 
tiie banks surpassed that of the river. At six o'clock in the morning of 
Ibe last day mentioned, Sir H. Davy observed, at the junction of the rivers 
ino and Ilz with the Danube, the respective temperatures of the water 
of the three rivers, and that of the air on the land. He found them, and 
tiie existing state of the atmosphere over the waters, to be as follows : — 

Temperatare of the 



^40 



This observation strikingly exhibits the precipitation in its varied propor- 
tion produced by the intermixture of the cooler air of the land with that of 
fbe floating strata of air over the rivers, at their different temperatures. 

If we suppose that we have enumerated above all the causes of the 
formation of mists, it would be difficult to account for the fitct of mists 
increasing in density and extent after their first formation, or for their con- 
tinuance after the difference of the temperatures of the air and water Itad 
been reduced to nearly nothing. It is evident that the conditions we have 
mentioned are not sufficient for the production of this effect, which yet 
may often be observed. Sir H. Davy thinks that this increase and pro- 
longed existence depend, not only upon the operation of the causes 
wbich originally produced them, but likewise upon heat which is evolved 
from the superficies of the particles of water composing the mist This 
produces a descending current of cold air in the very body of the mist, 
whilst the warmer water continually sends up vapor. This decrease o^ 
temperature in the middle of the body of mist was remarked also by Mr. 
Harvey, during a dense mist, which shrouded not only over tfae whole of 
9 



Temperatare of 


State of the atmosphere over the 


the Aiyen. 


Riven. 


62<' Danube. 


Thick fog on the whole breadth. 


66<» Inn. 


Dense mist ditto. 


66« Ilz. 


Light mist 



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S6 NATURAL BISTORT Or THE WEATHER. 

Ub iur&ce, but fhe adjacent country t^. Ai the part crossed was near^ 
« mile hi breadth, many opportunities presented theraseires of rematldng' 
the temperatures of the water uid the nnst. The rirer was umformiy 63P 
tSL OTCf its surface ; on the eastern shore, and for three hundred yards nctoad 
the temperature of the air was 42° ; jis the middle of the rirer was 2^ 
preached, it subsided to 41^, and agaiiB graduaffiy rose until, on tiie westecn 
bank, it had arrived to 49^ ; the air in the fields close to die lirer was 4P. 

A current of dry air, however, appears to have ihe effect of suspoftdiag 
all these operations, even where the relative conditions of the water and 
the air might be supposed to be very favorable to them. Sir H. Davy, 
during his Danube voyage, observed, that during' a strong easterly wind no 
nists were formed, when the water was 61°, and the air but 54° ; a re* 
maricable contrast to the case of the rivers Inn and Ilz before meiitiooed» 
where the difference of a degree or two only was marked by depositioii. 
Mr. Harvey repeatedly observed this effect of dry air at Plymouth. 

The pecidiar odor which prevails in some fogs, has never yet been satia* 
lactofily accounted for. 

Rain, Hail, and Snow. 

The water which we see descending from the clouds, in the fluid state 
of drops, or crjrstalfized iq snow, or congealed in haU, is in the final stage 
of that perpetually recurring journey, which some portion of this element 
is constantly performing through the atmosphere of our planet 

Lifted up, perhaps, from the surface of some remote ocean, by the pro* 
cess of evaporation, into the region of the winds, and subjected to a play 
of temperature infinitely varied, it may, by the changes of its locality, have 
presented its beautiful evanescent a|>parition to aU the nations of the earth, 
before that junction of coincidences happened, which produced its fall al 
our feet. This last change, which preceded and terminated its aerial 
career, was but another effect of the same extensively operating cause 
which produces, in the transparent atmosphere, the deposition of those 
minute particles of water which constitute a cloud, and which, when 
greatly increased in energy, assembles and pours them in rain. 

" The profuse precipitation of humidity which has received this appel- 
lation, is caused by a rapid commixture of opposite strata of air of different 
temperatures. The action of swift contending currents in the atmosphere, 
brings quicltly into mutual contact vast fields of air over a given spot. 
The separation of moisture is proportionally rapid and copious ; the parti- 
cles conglomerate, and in temperate weather the deposition descends .to 
the earth in the form of rain. In the cold season the aqueous gfobules, 
freezing in the mid air into icy spiculee, coUect together during then 
descent, and become converted, ere they reach the earth's surface, into 
flakes of snow. Hail is formed under different circumsttmces, and gen- 
erally in sudden alternations of the fine season, the globules of rain bdng 



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NATUEAI. HISTORY OF TH£ WEATHER. 99 

congealed during titoir fall| by passing through a stratum of dry and cold 
•k. 

** The drops of rain vary in their size, perhaps from the 26th to the ^th 
of an inch in diameter. In parting from the clouds, they precipitate thdr 
descent till the increasing resistance opposed by the air, becomes equal to 
Ibeif weight, when they continue to fall with a uniform velocity. This 
velocity is, therefore, in a certain ratio, to the diameter of the drops ; hence 
thunder, and other showers in which the drops are large, pour down faster 
than a drizzling rain. A drop of the 25th part of an inch, in falling through 
the air, would, when it had arrived at its uniform velodty, only acquire a 
celerity of 11} feet per second; while one of |th of an inch would acquire 
a velocity of 33Ji feet. 

** A flake of snoW being, perhaps, nine times more expanded than water, 
would descend thrice as slow. Hail>stones are often of considerale dimen- 
sions, exeeedittg sometimes the length of an Indi ; tiiey may, therefore, 
(all with a velocity of 70 feet per second, or at the rate of about fifty miles 
in the hour. Striking the ground with such impetuous force, it is easy to 
cooceive the extensive in|4iry which a hail shower may occasion in the 
hotter climates. Hie destructive power of these missiles in stripping and 
tearing (he fiuits and foliage, ineraases besides in a faster ratio Aan the 
-mom^tum, and may be estinurted by the square of their velodty multiplied 
into their mass. This &tal energy is hence as the fourth power of the 
diameter of the hailstone.*'* The celebrated Yolta referred the formation 
of hail to the play of electricity among the clouds, and upon this theory 
proposed the erection of ptxragrile$, or hail-rods, in countries much ex- 
posed to the ravages of hail-storms. These, upon the same principle! as 
lightning rods, were to consist of lofty poles tipped with metallic points, 
and having metaUie wires communicating with tiie earth. By thus sub- 
tiacting superabundant dectridty fit>m clouds, Yolta imagined that the 
iwmation.of hail would be prevented. These pctragrile$ have been tried 
in Switzeriand upon an extensive scale ; but their success has not been 
proportionate to the expectations which were formed from a minute experi- 
ment. 

The average quantity of rain which falls in the course of a year, in the 
neighbourhood of London, according to Mr. Daniell's observations, amounts 
to 23 yV inches, or, if collected, it would form a sheet of water of that 
depth. The registers of the rain which have been kept in various parts 
of the United Kingdom, have given results wliich have excited some doubt 
of their accuracy. Mr. Lestie thinks, that ** in general twice as much rain 
fidls on the western as on the eastern side of our island, and that the aver- 
age annual quantity may be reckoned at 30 inches. According to this 
estimate, the whole discharge from the clouds in the course of a year, on 

♦Leslie. 



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100 



IfATURAI, HI8T0AT OW THE WSATHS&. 



every square mile of the lurface of Great Britain, would, at a medium, be 
1,944,633, or nearly two millioDf of tons. Thia gives about three thousand 
tons of water for each English acre, a quantity equal to 630,000 imperial 
gallons.'* 

The contributions of the several months to the production of this quan- 
tity, are stated by Mr. Daniell, and recorded in the British Almanac, to be 
in the following proportions : — 



January 
February 
March • 
April 
May . 
June 



1.488 
0.746 
1.440 
1.786 
1.858 
1.830 



July . . 
August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 



2.516 
1.453 
2.193 
2.073 
2.400 
2.426 



The greatest average quantity, therefore, iaUs in July, and the ^smallest 
in February. 

In comparing quantities which fall in the twenty-four hours, which con- 
stitute a day, the result of experiment shows that a greater amount of rain 
fiUls while the sun is below, than when above the horizon. 

One very remarkable circumstance attending the fall of rain, is, ** that 
smaller quantities have been observed to be deposited in high than in low 
situations, even though the diflTerence of altitude should be inconsiderable. 
Similar observations have been made at the summit, and near the base of 
hills of no great elevation. Rain-gauges, placed on both sides of a hill 
at the bottom, always indicate a greater fiill of rain tiian on the exposed 
top."^ 

If the whole of the waters which fall from the heavens were to return 
again, the evaporation from the ground might be sufficient alone to main- 
tain the perpetual circulation. But more than one-third of all the rains 
and snows are carried by the rivers into the ocean, which must hence 
restore this continued waste. 



* LmUo. 



%*TbeNataral Hiitory of the Weather embraeei the phenomena of Dew and Jbar 
Froet, DryneM and Mmstore, Heat and Cold, Thunder and Lightning, and Wind* : as 
well at thoee of Evaporation, Clouds, Fogs and Mist, and Rain, to which the present 
article is necessarily limited by our space. The subject will be pursued in the Almanao 
for 1838. 



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SHAPK OF THB SARTH, AND ITf f IZX. 101 



II. SHAPE OF THE EARTH, AND ITS SIZE. 

The level portions of the earth'i sur&ce teem at firft yiew perfectly flat 
But if we examine them more critically, and for a considerable extent, we 
•hall find that they are decidedly convex, or swelled out in the middle. 
The light of a light-house requires to be raised, in order to be seen at any 
considerable distance. Let it be placed on a level with the sea, and a 
person of the common height, or whose eyes are less than six feet above 
&e sui&ce of the sea, would not be able to see it at the distance of four 
miles, however strong and clear the light might be. But upon raising himself 
higher and higher, he would at length, when his eye had reached an ele- 
vation of ten or eleven feet above the surface, be able to discern it just 
grazing the surface of the water. The same effect would be produced if 
the light were raised ten or eleven feet, and the eye of the observer were 
on the level of the ocean. And a light 60 or 100 feet high disappears in 
Hke manner by sinking lower and lower ; only the distance at which we 
are required to place ourselves to produce this eflfect, becomes greater and 
greater according to the elevation of the light, and according also to ovnr 
own elevation above the level of the sea. The most convenient position 
for a nice observation of this kind is an extended lake, when covered with 
smooth ice. We will suppose ourselves provided with a common leveling 
instrument, or any long tube capable of being fixed in an exactly horizon- 
tal position, which is easily determined by a water-level, or by being at 
light angles to a plumb-line. Let us suppose that the line of sight through 
the tube is precisely four feet from the ice, and that the tube can be turned 
in all directions without varying from a horizontal or level position. If we 
now look through the tube at an upright rod or pole placed with one end 
On the ice at different distances, we shall be able to establish, in the most 
satisfactory manner, the following important facts. 

1. The line of sight, or apparent level, as it is called, departs from the 
muhce of the ice, or true letel, in whatever direction we look. 

8 This departure, or difference of level, is the same in all directions as 
to the points of the colhpass, where the distance from the observer is the 



S. The difference of level for a distance of one mUe is 8 inches. 

4. If we double any distance, the difference of level is quadrupled, and if we 
tiiple the distance, the difference of level is nine times as great, and so on, 
according to the law of the squares ; that is, the difference of level for one 
mUe being 8 inches, that for two mUes is not twice 8, but four times Q, or 
M inches, and that for three miles is 9 times 8, or 72 inches. 

Similar observations being made in other places in different parts of the 
6ii^, we arrive at essentially the same results. 



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102 ' SHAPE or THE EARTH, AND ITS SIZE. 

The facts above given, lead to conclusions not less curious and striking. 

1. The earth's surface is curved instead of being plane, or flat, and plumb- 
lines or lines perpendicular to the surface, are not strictly parallel, but 
incline more and-more the further they are apart, and tend to meet at some 
point within. 

2. The earth appears to be equally curved in all directions, and the law 
of the departure of the apparent from the true level, indicates a spherical 
surface. 

8. The particular departure of 8 inches to a mile points out the drmen- 
sions of the earth, and furnishes, by means of a simple proposition in 
geometry, a method of calculating its diameter. Thus 
in the adjoining figure we have JlB and £D to find 
JiE, or £E, which does not sensibly differ from AE, 
since BD, by supposition, is only eight inches. It is a 
very familiar proprosition in plane geometry, that, when 
from a point without a circle two lines be drawn, one 
cutting and the other touching it, the touching line 
is a mean proportional between the cutting line and 
the part without the circle ; hence 

BD lABii AB : BE or AE very nearly ; 
that is, 8 inches being t??? o^ & inile, 

jlfj-^il ::1 :7920; 
in other words, the earth's diameter is 7920 miles. This is almost precisely 
what it is fixed at by the most elaborate observations and calculatioDS. 
As the circumference of a circle or sphere exceeds its diameter a little more 
than three times (8|), if we multiply the above result by 3|, we have the 
circumference equal to 24,890 miles. 

The common way of determining the magnitude of the earth, is by 
measuring a certain part of its circumference in the ' direction of the me- 
ridian. Lake Champlain, for example, when frozen over, would furnish a 
proper field for such an operation. Two plumb-lines being suspended, 
on the same meridian, one at Crown Point and the other on the boundary 
line between the United States and Canada, would be found to deviate 
from parallelism one degree, that is, they would meet near the centra of 
the earth, having an inclination, or formihg an angle, of one degree, or 
jij part of a circumference, and the distance between these plumb- 
lines being actually measured with a chain, would be the 360th part 
of the entire circuit of the globe. The inclination of the plumb-lines 
above mentioned, is the same thing as the difference of latitude of the two 
places, and is found by taking the altitude (or angular distance above the 
horizon) of the pole by means of the Pole star, or other star in the neighbor- 
hood. Portions of the earth's circumference, in various countries and regions, 
have been determined in this way with the greatest care and exactness, and 



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DENSITY OF THE EARTH. 108 

the find result of all these operations is very nearly what we have stated 
above. 

-But while we have thus found out the general dimensions of the earth, 
we have discovered that the form is not exactly that of a sphere. The 
lengtii of a degree increases as we proceed from the equator toward either 
pole. We hence infer that the earth is flattened about the polar regions, 
and more convex between the tropics. The average length of a degree is 
69iV miles. But the length of a degree in latitude 66°, is about two-thirds 
of a mile greater than at the equator. The same phenomenon is indicated 
also by the pendulum. A clock which keeps correct time at the equator, 
IS (bund to gain more and more as it is carried toward either pole in con- 
sequence of a quicker motion of the pepdulum, resulting from a nearer 
approach to the centre, and a greater power of ^vity. 

The results of calculations founded upon observations of the pendulum 
agree pretty nearly with those derived from actual measurement ; and the 
conclusion from the whole is, that the degree of flatteniDg amounts to about 
-j^7 of the whole diameter of the earth, that is, a line drawn through the 
centre of the earth, from pole to pole, is j Jo (or 26 miles) shorter than a 
similar line in the direction of the equator. 



III. DENSITY OF THE EARTH. 

Is the earth solid or hollow, and if solid, how dense is it ? Would it be 
equivalent to so much water, or would it exceed it, and how much would 
it exceed it ? It may seem very difficult to answer these questions, and 
yet they have been answered most satisfactorily. It is now abundantly 
proved not only that the earth is solid, but that the interior parts are more 
and more compact the nearer we approach to the centre, as we should 
naturally suppose. We are able to estimate the influence which a moun- 
tain exerts upon a plumb-line by observing how much it is drawn out of 
the direction of an exact perpendicular ; and then, by comparing the size 
of the mountain with the size of the earth, knowing at the same time of 
what materials the mountain is composed, we are able to say how much 
the matter of the whole earth exceeds that of the mountain. It is thus 
ascertained that the matter composing the earth is about five times as 
dense as water, or, in other words, would weigh, under the same dr- 
euhstances, five times as much as the same bulk of water. Now we know 
tiiat the matter near the surface, is, for the most part, either water or earthy 
and stony substances, only two or three times as heavy as water. The 
density of the interior parts, therefofe, must greatly exceed that at the 
•ui&oe, in order that the average may amount to five times the denlity 
of water, as is ascertained by actual observation. 

It may be thought, that tiie above method of determining die quantity 
of matter in a mountain is liable to great uncertainty. It should be 



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104 TEMPERAttTRE OF THE INTERIOR OF THE £aRTH. 

known that we do not lely upon a single experiment, or even upon one 
•ingle method, for so important a restUt. A balance has been contiiT6d» 
depending upon the twisting and untwisting of an extremely fine wire 
suspended perpendicularly,* by which the mutual tendency (or relative 
wei|^t) of two balls of lead, has been accurately estimated and compared 
with the force exerted by the great mass of the earth ; and these delicate 
experiments have afforded a striking confirmation of the result abore stated. 



IV. TEMPERATUEE OF THE INTERIOR OP THE ^ARTH. 

The circumstance of the earth's being flattened at the poles and pro- 
tuberant at the equator, is the natural and necessary result of its rotation 
on its axis. But in order that it might yield to the force resulting from 
such a motion, the matter of which it is composed, must have been soft. 
Now, although water is capable of being compressed, and so far as we can 
judge, of taking any degree of densit)% according to the force exerted upon 
it, still the shape of the earth is not that which would have resulted from such 
a mass of water. There may be particular portions of the sea that extend to 
the depth of several miles, as there are particular points of the solid crust of 
continents, that rise to this height above the general level. Still we have 
reason to believe, that the average depth of the ocean does not much ex- 
ceed three thousand feet. It is thought that heat may have been the 
original cause of the fluidity of the earth, and that there may still remain 
enough to keep the interior portions in the same state. The more this 
subject has been examined, the more the evidence had accumulated in favor 
of the position that the temperature increases as we descend below the 
surface. There are numerous instances in which we have been able, by 
means of natural or artificial excavations, to penetrate to the depth of from 
1800 to 1600 feet. The general inference from all the observations made 
in different parts of the earth is, that there is an increase of heat amounting 
to about 1° of Fahrenheit for every 46 feet in depth ; that at the depth of 
10,000 feet the heat would be sufficient to boil water, and that at the 
depth of about 100 mUes, or -^^ part of the distance to the centre, the 
heat would be intense enough to melt most of the earths and st;ones that 
are known to enter into the composition of the globe. These facts and 
inferences have an important bearing upon the phenomena of earthquakes 
and vdcanoes, and open a wide field of speculation to the natural historian 
and geologist. 

* A baknoe of this constmetioB, applied to electrical forces, has been estimated 10 
awifk to the uzty-tboosandtb part of a f raim 



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AMERICAN ALMANAC. 



PART II. 



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UNITED STATES. 



I. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

JULT 4, 1776, 

[From the Joamalc of CoagreM.] 

ADeclar€tHon by the Mepreaentatives qfthe United States ofjimeriea 
in Congress assembled. 

Wxtcx, in the course of human events, it heeomes necessary for ona 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with 
another, and to assume, among the powers of th^ earth, the separate and 
equal station to which the laws of nature 9fkd of nature's God entitle titem, 
a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should de- 
dare the causes which impel them to the separation. ^ 

We hold these truths to be self-evident :'^hat all men are created equal ; 
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights ; 
that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ; that to 
secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving thdir 
just powers from the consent of the governed ; that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people 
to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying Its foun- 
dation on sut:h principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to 
fhem shaH seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence» 
indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes ; and accordingly all experience hath 
shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer whUe evils are sufferabl6» 
than to right themselves by abolishhig the forms to which they are acoui^ 
tomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invftii» 
ably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute dee- 
potiam, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and 
to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient 
sufferance of these colonies ; and such is now the necessity which eon- 
strains them to alter their former systems of government The history of 
the present king of Great Britain, is a history of repeated injuries and usur- 
pations, eB having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny 
over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. 



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106 UNITED STATES. 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessaiy for 
the public good. 

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing 
importance, unless suspended in their operation, till his assent should be 
obtained ; and when so suspended, he has utteiiy neglected to attend to 
them. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of luff^ 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of repre- 
sentation in the legislature ; a right inestimable to them, and formidaUe to 
tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unu^al, uncomforti^ 
ble, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole pur- 
pose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, widi 
manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to 

be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihflation, have 

returned to the people at large, for their exercise ; the state remaining, in 

the mean time, exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and 

, convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States ; for that 
purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners ; refusing to 
pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions 
of new appropriations of lands. 

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to 
laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their 
offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of offr* 
cers, to harass our people, and eat out their substance. . 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the 
consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, 
the civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to 
our constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws ; giving his assent to 
their acts ofpretended legislation ; 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us : 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any mui^ 

ders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states : 
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world : 
For imposing taxes on us without our consent : 
For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury : 
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences : 
For abolishing the free system of Eng^h laws in a neighboring proT* 



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DECLARATION OF INJDXFENDENCE. 109 

JDce, entiMiihiwg tbereia tn aibitfaiy go^remment, and exi1»i;giBg ite bom* 

dariet, lo as to redder it at ooee aa example and fit initrument for intr^ 

dodng the aame abaohite rule into these cirionies : 
For tiddfar^ 4way our char(efa» abolishing our most valuable laws, and 

altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments : 
For sospending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested 

with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated government here, bj declaring us out of his protection, 
and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and de« 
itroyed the lives of our people. 

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to 
complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with 
circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barba- 
rous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, 
to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their 
iriends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored 
to bring on the tnbabitai\ts of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, 
whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, 
sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the 
most humble terms : our repeated petitions have ■ been answered only by 
repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act 
which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We 
have warned them, trom time to time, of attempts by their legislature to 
extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of 
the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have ap- 
pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them 
by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which 
would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too 
have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, 
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and 
hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace 
friends. 

We therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in 
General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world, 
for the rectitude of our intentions, do,' in the name and by the authority of 
the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare. That these 
United Colonies are, and of right ought to be. Free and Iitoependent 
States ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, 
vud &at all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that, as free and independent states, 
10 



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110 



DNITED STATES. 



they haye full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract affiances, estab- 
Hah commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states 
may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reli- 
ance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each 
other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. 

JOHN HANCOCK, &c* 



SlGlTERS OF THE ABOVE DeCLARATIOIT OE IsTDEPENDENCE. 



J^ames. 


tVTierc and when born. 


Jigein 

1776. 


Died, 


age. 


Josiah flartlett, ) 




N. Hampshire, 




1729 


47 


May 19, 1795 


66 


William Whipple, 1 


N.IL 


Maine, 




1730 


40 


Nov. 28, 1785 


55 


Matthew Thornton, ) 




Ireland, 




1714 


62 


June 24, 180.*] 


89 


John Hancock, 




Massachusetts, 




1737 


39 


Oct. 8, 1792 


56 


Samuel Adams, 




Massachusetts, 


Sept 


22, 1722 


54 


Oct. 2, 1803 


81 


John Adams, 


.Ms. 


Massachusetts, 


Oct. 


19, 1735 


41 


July 4, 182f 


91 


Robert Treat Paine, 




Massachusetts, 




1731 


45 


May 11, 1814 


83 


Elbridge Gerry, 




Massachusetts, 


July 


17, 1744 


32 


Nov. 2?, 1814 


70 


wisizKri^-i- 


Rhode Island, 


March 7, 1707 


60 


July 13, 1785 


78 


Rhode Island, 


Dec. 


22, 1727 


49 


Feb. 1.5, 189C 


93 


Roger Sherman, J 


Massachusetts, 


Apri 


1 19, 1721 


55 


July 23, 179i 


72 


Samuel Huntinffton, f ^, 
WiHiam Williama, T^'* 


Connecticut, 


July 


2, 1732 


44 


Jan. 5, 179C 


64 


Connecticut, 


Apri 


8, 1731 


45 


Aug. 2, 1811 


81 


Oliver Wolcott, ) 


Connecticut, 




1726 


50 


Dec. 1, 1797 


71 


William Floyd, \ 


Long Island, 


Dec. 


17, 1734 


49 


Aug. 4, 1821 


87 


Philip Livingston, f ^ v 
Francig Lewis, ( ^' ^' 


New York, 


Jan. 


15, 1716 


60 


June 12, 177g 


69 


South Wales, 




1713 


63 


Dec. 30, 180? 


90 


Lewis Morris, J 


New York, 




1726 


50 


Jan. 179£ 


I? 


Richard Stockton, 




New Jersey, 


Oct. 


1, 17.30 


46 


Feb, 28, 1781 


51 


John Witherspoon, 




Scotland, 


Feb. 


5, 1722 


54 


Nov. 15, 1794 


^? 


Fr.incis Hopkioson, 


N.J. 


Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, 




1737 


39 


May 8j 1791 


54 


John Hart, 










178C 




Abraham Clark, 




New Jersey, 


Feb. 


5, 1726 


50 


1794 


68 


Robert Morris, 




England, 


Jan. 


1733 


43 


Mav 8, 1806 


73 


Bfnjamin Rush, 




Pennsylvania, 


Dec, 


94, 1745 


31 


Apfil 19, 1812 


67 


Benjamin Franklin, 




Massachusetts, 


Jan. 


17, 1706 


70 


April 17, 1790 


84 


John Morton, 




Delaware, 




1724 


52 


1777 


53 


George Clymer, 


.Pa. 


Pennsylvania, 




1739 


37 


Jan. 23,1813 


74 


James Smith, 




Ireland, 








1806 




George Taylor, 




Ireland, 




1716 


60 


Feb, 93, 1781 


65 


James Wilson, 




Scotland, 




1742 


34 


Aug. 26, 1798 


56 


George Ross, 




Delaware, 




1730 


46 


July, 1779 


49 


Caesar Rodney, ) 


Delaware, 




1730 


46 


1783 


53 


George Read, J Del. 
Thomas M'Kean, ) 


Maryland, 




1734 


42 


1798 


64 


Pennsylvania, 


Mar. 


19, 1734 


42 


June 24, 1817 


83 


Samuel Chase, ^ 


Maryland, 


Aprill?; 1741 


35 


June 19, 1811 


70 


William Paca, f t^, , 
Thomas Stone, ( ^'^* 
Charles Carroll, 5 


Maryland, 


Oct. 


31, 1740 


36 


1799 


59 


Maryland, 




1740 


36 


Oct. 5, 1787 


47 


Maryland, 


Sept. 


8, 1737 


39 


JVoic living, 
June 6, 1806 


93 


George Wythe, ) 


Virginia, 




1726 


50 


80 


Richard H. Lee, 


Virginia, 


Jan. 


20, 1732 


44 


June 19, 1794 


62 


Thomas Jefferson, 


Virginia, 


April 


2, 1743 


33 


July 4,1826 


83 


Benjamin Harrison, 1- Va. 


Virginia, 








April, 1791 




Thomas Nelson, 


Virginia, 


Dec. 


26, 1738 


38 


Jan. 4, 1789 


51 


Francis L. Lee, 


Virginia, 


Oct. 


14, 1734 


49 


April, 1797 


63 


Carter Braxton, J 


Virginia, 


Sept. 


10, 1736 


40 


Oct. 10,1797 


61 


William Hooper, ) 


Massachusetts, 


June 17, 1742| 


34 


Oct., 1790 


48 


Joseph Hewes, > N. C. 


New Jersey, 




1730 


46 


Nov. 10, 1779 


49 


John Penn, > 


Virginia, 


May 


17, 1741 


35 


Sept., 1768 


47 


Edward Uutledge, 1 


South Carolina, 


Nov. 


1749 


27 


Jan. 23,1800 


51 


Thomas Heyward, ( a r< 
Thomas Lynch, ( ^' ^' 


South Carolina, 




1746 


30 


March, 1809 


63 


South Carolina, 


Aug. 


5, 1749 


27 


About 1780 


31 


Arthur Middleton, ) 


South Carolina, 




1743 


33 


Jan. 1, 1787 


44 


Button Gwinnett, ) 


England, 




1732 


44 


May 97, 1777 


45 


Lyman Hall, VGeo. 


Connecticut, 




1731 


45 


About 1790 


69 


George Walton, > 


Virginia, 




1740 


36 


Feb. 2,1804 


64 



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RKYOLITTIONART BEeiSTER. 



Ill 



II. REVOLUTIONARY REGISTER. 



First Contiiikmtai. Army, 1T75. 



Commemder i» ddtf. 
6E0£6£ WASHINOTON, 
JU^'m* OarMnoIf. State. Date of Qmm, 
Artemas Ward, Ms. June IT, 1T75. 
Charles Lee, Ya. do. 17, 1775. 

jtt^utoMt Oenend, 

Horatio Gates, 
Brigadier Oenerais. State. Date tf Comm. 
Seth Pomeroy, Ms. June22, IT75. 
Rieh. Montgomery, N. Y. do. 22, 1776. 
David Wooster, Con. do. 22. 1776. 
William Heath, Ms. do. 22, 1 776. 



State. 

Virginia, 

Major Oenerais. 
Philip Schuyler, 
Israel Putnam, 

State, 
Virginia. 



Date qf Cammieeian. 

JoM 15, 1775. 
State. Date qf Comm. 
N.Y.Junel9,1776. 
Con. do. 19, 1776. 

Date <f OommiaeioH. 
June 17, 1776. 



Brigadier Generale. StaU. DaU ef Comm. 

Joseph Spei^cer, Con. June 22, 1776. 

John Thomas, Ms. do. 22,1776. 

John SulUvan, N. H. do. 22, 1776. 

Nathaniel Greene, R. L do. 22, 1776. 



CONTIHRJTTAL ArMT IN 1783. 



\ ConunaMder in Chitf. 
GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



Mgor Oenerais. State. 
Israel Putnam, Con. 
Horatio Gates, Va. 
William Heath, Ms. 
Nathaniel Greene, R. I. 
Wm. Lord Stirling, N. J. 
Arthur St. Clair, Penn. 
Benjamin Lincoln, Ms. 
M. de Lafayette, Fran. 



DateqfComnu 
June 19, 1776. 
May 16, 1776. 
Aug. 9,1776. 
do. 9,1776. 
Feb. 19, 1777. 
do. 19,1777. 
do. 19,1777. 
July^l, 1777. 



State. Date qf Commissi/m. 

ViigiDia. June 15, 1775. 

Major Oenerais. ' StaU. DaU rf Comm. 
Robert Howe, N. C. Oct. 20, 1777. 
Alex. McDougaU, N. Y. do. 20, 1777. 
Baron Steuben, Pruss. Bfay 6, 1773. 
Wm. Smallwood, Md. Sept.l6, 1780. 
WilUam Moultrie, S. C. Nov. 14, 1780. 
Henry Knox, ^Ms. do. 16,1780. 

Le Chev, duPortail, Fran. do. 16, 1780. 



Brigadier Oeaerals. 
JeaaeB Clinton, 
Laehlan Mcintosh, 
John Patterson, 
Anthony Wayne, 
Geoi^ Weeden, 
P. Muhlenburg, 
George Clinton, 
Edward Hand, 
Qiarles Scott, 
Jed. Huntington, 
JohaStark* 



State. DaUqfComm. 
N. Y. Aug. 9, 1776. 
Geo. Sept. 16, 1776. 
Ms. Feb. 21, 1777. 
Penn. do. 1777. 
Va. do. 1777. 

do. do. 1777. 
N.Y. Mar. 25, 1777. 
Penn. April 1,1777. 
Va. do. 2,1777. 
Con. May 12, 1777. 
N.H.Oct. 4,1777. 



Brigadier Oenerais, 
Jethro Sumner, 
Isaac Huger, ^ 
Mordecai Gist, 
William Irvine, 
Daniel Morgan, 
Moses Hazen, 
C. H. Williams, 
John Greaton, 
Rufus Putnam, 
Elias Dayton, 



StaU. DaUqfComm. 
N.C.Jan. 9,1779. 
S. C, do. 9,1779. 
Md, do. 9,1779. 
Penn. do. 9, 1779. 
Va. Oct. 13, 1780. 

June 29, 1781. 

May 9,1782. 

Jan. 7,1783. 
do. 7,1783. 



Md. 

Ms. 
do, 



N.J. do. 7,1783. 



Major General Le Chevalier du Portail, Chief Engineer. 

Ma|or General Baron Steuben, Inspector General. 

Colonel Walter Stewart, Inspector of the Northern Department. 

Brigadier General Hand, Adjutant General. 

Colonel Timothy Pickering, Quarter Master General. 

John Cockran, Esq. Director General of Hospitals. 

Thomas Edwards, Judge Advocate General 

John Pierce, Esq. Paymaster General. 



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lid ^UHITEP 8TATSS. 

A Tablk ihowing the Force that Each of the Thirteen States sappUed 
for the Regular Army from 1776 to 1783, indufive. [From Niles*8 
Register, July 31, 1S30.] 

Regtdcurs. 

Delaware, 2,396. 

Maryland, 13,912 

Virginia, 26,678. 

Norlh Carolina, . . « . 7,263. 
South Carolina, .... 6,417, 

Geor^a, 2,679. 

Total 231,791. 
*,* The total aun^r of Continental Th-oops, according to the statement in the 
** Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society,** published in the first 
volume of this Almanac, was 231,971 -, MUitia, 66,163. 





Regulars, 


New Hampshire, . 


. . . 12,4*7. 




. . . 67,907. 


Rhode Island, . . 


. . . 6,908. 


Connecticut, . . 


. . . 31,939. 


New York, . . . 


. . . 17,781. 


New Jersey, . . 


. . . 10,726. 


Pennsylrania, . . 


. . . 25,678. 



Abstract of the Accounts of the respective States y for Expenses incurred 
during the Revolutionary War^ as allowed by the Commissioners who 
JinaUy settled said Accounts. — [From Pitkin's History of the U. States.] 



STATES. 



New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, 
New York, 
New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, 
Maryland, 
Virginia, 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Georgia, 



Bnint allowvd 
for Expendi- 
ture*. 



$4,978,015 03 
17,964,613 08 
3,782,974 46 
9,066,787 03 
7,179,963 78 
•,343,770 63 
14,137,076 33 
839,319 98 
7,608,14S 88 
19/186,981 61 
10,487,686 13 
11,633,399 30 
3,998,800 86 



Somg charged 
for advances by 
United States, 
iacladin|; the 
assumption of 
State debtn. 



$1,083,954 03 
6,358,880 
1,977,608 46 
8,438,344 99 
1,060,031 78 
1,343,331 63 
4,690,686 33 

339,898 
1,693,631 38 
8,808,416 61 
8,161,366 13 
6,760,364.89 
1,415,328 86 



Expendi- 
tures ex- 
cloding all| 
advances. 



$8,195,061 
11,705,788 
1,806,866 
6,889,498 
6,319^1 
8,999,449 
9,446,890 
609,431 
6,975,614 
16,383,866 
7,376,038 
6,743,036 
1,578,473 



Balances 
found due 
from the 
tJ.States. 



Balances 
found due 
to the U. 

States. 



$ 75,055 

1,348,801 

309,611 

619,131 

49,080 



1,306,978 
19,988 



3,074,846 

76,709 
612,438 
161,M0 
100j879 
601y08fi 



III. PRESIDENTS OP CONGRESS 
from 1774 to 1788. 



VeyioTk Randolph, 
Henry Middleton,* 
Pejrton Randolph, ^ 
John Hancock, 
Henry Laurens, 



Virginia, 
South Carolina, 
Virginia, 
Massachusetts, 
South Carolina, 



ElKUd 

September 6, 1774. 

October 22, 17T4. 

May 10, 1775. 

May 24, 1775. 

November 1, 1777. 



* Bfr. Randolph, five or six days before the adjournment of Gongrest, was prevented 
from attending by ill health, and Mr. Middleton was chosen to supply hie idaee> 
When the next Congress met. May lOt^, 1775, Peyton Randolph was again choMp psBA- 
dent, but^ being, on the 34th of the same month, obliged to return home, John Hancock 
chosen to fill the vacancy. 



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PRESIDENTS OF CONeRESS. 



113 





From 


EUetd 




John Jay, 


New York, 


December 10, 


1778. 


Samuel Huntington, 


Connecticut, 


September 28, 


1779. 


Thomas M'Kean,* 


Delaware, 


July 10, 


1781. 


John Hanson, 


Maryland, 


November 6, 


1781. 


Elias Boudinot, 


New Jersey, 


November 4, 


1782. 


Thomas Mifflin, 


Pennsylvania, 


November 3, 


1783. 


Richard Henry Lee, 


Virginia, 


November 30, 


1786. 


Nathaniel Gorham^f 


Massachusetts, 


June 6, 


1786. 


Arthur, St.Clair, 


Peonsylvaniai 


February 2, 


1787. 


Cyrus Griffin, 


Virginia, 


January 22, 


1788. 



The first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on the 5th of Sep- 
tember, 1774 ; and the first Congress under the Constitution, assembled in 
New York on the 3d of March, 1789. 



IV. CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, 
promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and oar posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United 
States of America. 

ABTICLE f. 

Skction J. An legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. 

SscTioir II. [1.] The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
members chosen every second year by the people of the several states ; 
and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for 
electws of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. 

[2.] No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to 
the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

[8.] Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the 
ievenl states which may be included within this union, according to their 
mpective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
■umber of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not' taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual emmieration shall be made within three years '^fter the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent 

. * flaamel J<riuisoD, of North GaroUna, was previouily elected, bat dselioed acdepting. 
t Mr. Gorham was elected " Chairman of CoDgrefS " on the 15ih of May precedinf . 
10» 



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114 U2fITSI> STATSfl. 

term of ten years, in such manner a9 (hey shall by law direct. The num- 
ber of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but 
each state shall have at least one representative ; and tmtil such enTbmera- 
tion shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entiticd to choose 
three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 
one ; Connecticut, five ; New York, six ; New Jersey, four ; Pennsylvania, 
eight ; Delaware, one ; Maryland, six ; Virginia, ten ; North Carolina, five ; 
South Carolina, five ; and Georgia, three. 

[4.] When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such va- 
cancies. ' 

[5.] The Hduse of Representatives shall choose their speeder and otiier 
officers ; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Section III..~ [1.] The Senate of the United States shall li>e composed 
of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six 
years ; and each senator shall have one vote. 

[2.] Immediately after they ahaQ be assembled, kk consequence of the 
first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be iiito three classes. 
The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration 
of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the foufth 
year, and of the thkd dass aA the expiration ol the sixth year, so Aat one 
third may be chosen every second year ; and if vacancies happen by resig- 
nation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the 
executive thereof loay mrice temporary appointmentrtintll th& next meeting 
el the legidatuie, which shell then fill such vacancies. 

[3.] No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age 
H thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of th6 United States, and who 
shaH not, ^hen elected, be an inhabitant of that state foar which be dioU 
be.cbdsen. 

[4.] The Yiee-Pmiiddnt of- the United States shall be President of Ibe 
Seilate, but shall have. ne vote, unless they be equally divided^ 

[6.] The Senate shaU choose their other officers, and ilso a piesideitf pro- 
tunpooc, in the almsnce of the Vice-President, or when he sfaall exetdse 
the office of President of the United States. 

[6;] The Senate tUnaSk have the sole power to try all: impendHnentii: when 
flitftiiig for that purpose^ tiiey shall be on oath-or affirmation. Whte tin 
PtOiideBt of the United States is tited, the Chief Jnitice shall piesMa^^ aak 
ilo person shall bd oonvictdd without the coDdorrenov of two^Msiof Ibo 
menbers prcisent. 

ET.} Judgment in case^ of impeadmienishfiU'not extend Inrtlor Han Itt 
lomoval ftem office^ iiM disquafificatioQ to ho^dandjsi^oy any officiirof hcnoiv 
toiist, or profit, under the United States ; but Afr party co n v i c ted shaS 
neterCheless be liaMe and stibject to indictment, trial, jndgmeni, and'pun- 
••iiBdent, according to law. 



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CONSTITUTIOK OF THUS UlflTED STATES. 115 

SlMJTiox ly. [1.] The times, pkces, and manner of hokUng elections ibr 
senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legis* 
latur^ thereof; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter . 
suefa negolations, except as to the places of choosing senators. 

[2.] Th& Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
hm appoint a iSfierent day. 

Sectioit y . [1.] Each House idiall be the judge of the elections, retun», 
and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall cons^ 
tute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day 
to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, 
in sndi manner and under subh penalties as each House may provide. 

[2.] Each House tuiy determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

[3.] Each House sbaH keep a joumsd of its proceedings, and from time to 
ttflne publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, re« 
quire secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on 
any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifUi of those present, be entered oa 
the journal. 

[4.] Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without ibib 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section Yh [1.] The senators and representatives sbaU receive a com- 
pensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, 
fislo^, and breath of the peace^ be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at thesesmon of their respective Houses, and in going to and 
letoming from the same ;. and for any speech or debate in either House, 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

[2.] No senator or lepfesentaliVe shall, during the time for .which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
hare- been increased duiing such time ; and no person holding any office 
undei the Uni^d Slates, shall be a member of either House during his 
continuance in office. 

Section VH, [!•] AH bUk lor raisii^ revenue shall originate in the 
House of Biepit99wUtives ; \ittt the Senate may propose or concur with 
amendments as on other bills. 

C2«] £vttiy hiU wbkhfjball bav* passed the House of Repreaeoitadves 
and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the Presi* 
de«t of tba United States: if h» appeoTe, he idnll sign it; but if not, 
be sbaH return it, with his ottyeetioiis^ to that House in which it AaXL 
bare originated, who. shall enter tbe et^eotions at large on tbeit joumtd. 



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116 UNITED STATES. 

and proceed to reconaidef it If, after tuch reconsideration, two-tfaitds of 
that House shall agree to pass tlie bill, it shall be sent, together with the 
otjections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, 
and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But 
in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas 
and nays ; and the names of the persons voting for and against tlie bill, shall 
be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not 
be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it 
shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner 
as if he had si^ed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent 
its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

[3.] Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives maybe necessary (except on a ques- 
tion of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United 
States ; and before the same shall take efiect, shall be approved by him, or 
being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate 
and HousO of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations pre- 
scribed in the case of a bill. 

Sectiox VIII. The Congress shall have power — 

[1.] To to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the 
debts and provide for the common defence and general wel£aire of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the 
United States : 

[2.] To borrow money on the credit of the United States : 

[8.] To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
states, and with the Indian tribes : 

[4.] To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States : 

[5.] To coin money, regulate the vadue thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures : 

[6.] To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States : 

[7.] To establish post-offices and post-roads : 

[8.] To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for 
limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respec- 
tive writings and discoveries : 

[9.] To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court : 

[10.] To define and punbli piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, find offences against the law of nations : 

[11.] To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water : 

[12.] To raise and support armies ; but no appropriation of money to tbAt 
use shall be for a longer term than two years : 

[13.] To provide and maintain a aavy: 



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COlTSTITUTIOJf or TH» ViflTED STATES, " 117 

£14.1 1^0 "'^^ ntl^ for the gi»T«mmeBt tnd regutalion of the Itod and 
oaTal forces : 

£15.] To provide for calliDg forth the militia to execute the lawf of the 
UoioOy suppreas ioaurrectiona, and lepel invasiona : 

[16.] To provide for orgauzing, arnung, and disciplining the militia, and 
£»r governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline 
predcribed by Congren : 

[17.] To exercise exclusive legislation in aU cases whatsoever, over such 
dbtrict (not exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular 
statea» and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government 
of the United States ; and to exercise like authority over all places pur- 
chased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same 
Aall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and 
other needful buildings : — ^And 

[18.] To make all laws which riuill be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department 
or officer thereof 

SxcTioir IX. [1.] The migration or importation of such persons as iny 
of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; 
but a lax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

[2.] The privilege of the writ of habecu corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may re- 
quire it. 

[3.] No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

[4.] No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 

[5.] No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

[6.] No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or 
revenue to the ports of one state over those of another : nor shall vessels 
bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, dear, or pay duties in 
another. 

[7.] No money shall be drawn firom the treasury^ but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of the 
receipts and exp^ditures of all public money shall be published from time 
to time. 

[8.] No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any Und whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 



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118 ViriTEO STATES. 

Ssonoir X. [1.] No slule AtXL tuUr into toy tretty, ankmee, or oon- 
fedoiation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit biBs of 
credit ; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in pajrment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, exjto^ fodo law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts ; or grant any title of nobility. 

£2.] No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impoets 
or duties on imports or exports, ejtcept what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws ; -and the net, produce of all duties and 
imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for thO use of dia 
treasury of the United States ; and aU such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

[3.] No state shall, without the consent of the Congpress, lay any doty of 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agree- 
ment or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in 
war, unless actually invaded* or in such imminent danger as will not admit 
of delay. 

ARTICLE II. 

Sbctioit I. [I.] The executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of 
four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term* 
be elected as foUow9 r 

[2.] Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof 
may~direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators 
and representatives to which the state maybe entitled in the Congress; 
but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. 

[8. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for two 
persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with 
themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the 
number of votes for each 3 Mdiich list they shall sign and certify, and transmit 
sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate.. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, opni all the certificates, and the votes 
•hall then be counted. The person having the greatest nmdl>er of votes diall 
be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors 
appomted 3 and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a majority, 
then from the five highest on the list, the said House shall in like manner choose 
the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states* 
the representation from each state having one vote : A quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a ma- 
jority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the 
choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the 
electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more, 
who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice- 
President.] * 

* This clause is annulled. See Amendments, Art. }^. 



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CONSTITUTI01I OF T0X UVtTED STATES. ~ 119 

.{$.] The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
tbrou|^ut the United States. 

[4.] No person, except a natural bom dtisen, or a citizen of the United 
States at die time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to 
the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that office 
who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been four- 
teen years a resident within the United States. 

[5.] In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, 
die same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law 
provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the 
President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as Presi- 
dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

[6.] The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period 
lor which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that 
period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

[7.] Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : — " I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will' 
fiuthfully execute the office pf President of the United States, and will, to 
the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the 
United States.'* 

SxcTioiv II. [1.] The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army 
and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states 
when called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require 
^ opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

[2.] He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
jodges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, 
whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall 
he established by law : but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the 
eourts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

[8.] The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies, that may hajh 
pen daring the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall 
expire at the end of their next session. 



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ISD VKITES STATES. 

Sfionoir III. He 8lnll» from time to time, give to the Congress ia&r- 
mation of the state of the Uiiion, and r^eemmend to their oonsideiaftiMi 
such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may, oa 
extraordinary occasions, coQ?ene both Howes, or ei&er of them, and in 
ease of disagreement between them, with respeot to the time of adjourn- 
ment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall f^bkok proper ; he duA 
receive ambassadors and other pubMc miidsters ; he diall take care that the 
laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the 
United States. 

SxcTioir lY. The President, Vice-President, and all civil offieen of 
tile United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, aad 
conviction of, treason, bribeiy, or other high ciimes and misdemeanors. 

AETICLE III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one supremexourt, and in such ii^rior courts as the Congress may, from 
time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for tiieir services, a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sectioit II. [1 .] The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; — to all cases 
affiicting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; — to all cases of 
admirsdty and maritime jurisdiction ;?— to controversies to which tiie United 
States shall be a party ; — ^to controversies between two or more ^ates ;^- 
between a state and citizens of another state ; — between citizens of different 
states ; — ^between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of 
(Parent states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

[2.] In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consids, 
and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have 
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme 
court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with sudi 
exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress shall make. 

[S.] The trial of all crimes, except in oases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shaB 
have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the trial 
shril be at such place or plaeea as the Congress may by law have directed. 

Section III. [1 . ] Treason-against the United States'diall consist only ia 
levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them akl 
and comfort 

[2.] No person shall be convicted of treason maless on tiie testimoigr «f 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court 



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CONSTITUTIOir OF THE UlTITKD 8TATX9. 131 

* p.l The Congress sliaR have power to declare the pimisliment of treasoB» 
Imt no attainder of treason shall work corruption of hlood» or Ibifdture, ex- 
cept during the life of the person attainted. ' 

AETICLE IV. 

Sectioh I. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. _ And 
tiie Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the efiect thereof. 

Sectioit II. [1.] The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privi- 
leges and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

[2.] A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 

[3.] No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sectioit III. [1.] New states may be admitted by the Congress into this 
union : but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction 
of any other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or 
more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the 
states concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

[2.] The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to 
prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state. 

Sectioit IV. The United States shall guarantee to eveiy' state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shaH protect each of them 
ai;ainst invasion ; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive 
(when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

ASTICLE V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necenary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the appli- 
eation of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a 
convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid 
to ift intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by . 
the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in 
fliree-fimr^ thereof as the one or 6ie other mode of ratification may be 
proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment, which may be 
> prior to the year one thousand ei|^t htmdred and eight, shall in any 
11 



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WMriAeftiM4mtMifiMH«lic]«MMla4heBil4li MaOw of ^fint 

equal miflhige in the Senate. 

AATIGLI VL 

XI.] AD debts contracted, and engagementi entered into* before the adap- 
tion of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the tTnited States un^ 
{his Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

^ [2.] This Constitution* and fhe laws of the United States, which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made* 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of die 
land ; and fhe judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thii^ in 
the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

[8.] The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the meml>erB 
of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both 
of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or 
affirmation, to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever he 
required as a qualification to any ot^e or puhlic tnist under the United 
States. 

A&TICLE VIL 
The«alifieatieatof die eonreM(&Q&s «€ «ine elatos, ehall be enfficient for 
ihe-ettaUish«eBt of 4his CdaMkntien between the etaitee so faCtifyiog ^ 
earner 

Done in convention, by the tmaaiMioas 'eowetH of 4he States ^present, tiM 
seventeenth day-ojf Se|»lettber, in the year of eur Lord ose thousand 
seven handred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto 
sabscribed oxa names. 

fmo, WASHINGTON, iV«s«fe«tf, 

^ew HamjpaHre — John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman. MwsaehuseUa — 
Nathaniel Gorh^m, Rufus King. Connecticut — William S. Johnson, Roger 
Sherman. JVfeto Tork — ^i^exander Hamilton. JVcto Jersey — Wilfiam 
Livingston, David Brearley, WiHiam Pateison, Jonathan Dayton. Penn- 
JSyltMzma— Benjamin Franklin,. Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George 
tliymexy Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouvemeur 
Morris. De/atoare— George Read, .Gunning Bedford, jun.^ John Dickin- 
son, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom. Maryland— ^9mes M'Henry, Daniel 
of St Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll. Plrginto-^olm Blair, James Ma^ 
son, jun. J\rorth Carolina — William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hug)i 
Williamson. South CardUna — John Rudedge, Charles Cotesworth Pinek* 
ney, Charles Phickney, Pierce Buder. Geofgui— William Few, Abraliam 
l^dwin. 

Attest > 

WiLz^iAM Jackson, Secretary, y 



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COiraTITUTIOH 0F W« WIV9D 8TATXB. ]jtt 

{Cbn^eM of fheitftnt session under ihe ConsfUuHon, heMin ^ et#y qf 
JYhjix York, in 1T89, proposed to the legislatures of the several Sta<ef» 
twtiv6 amendments, ten of which only were adopted. They are 1M 
firstten cfthefblMmng amendments ; and they were ratified by three* 
fourths f the constitutional number , of the States, on the 15th ofBeeem- 
ber, 1791. The 11th amendment was proposed at the first session of the 
^ird Congress, and was declared in a message from the President rf 
t&e United States to both Hotues of Congress, dated the 8th ofJimuaryf 
1798, to have been adopted by tfie constitutional number of States, 
The 12tli amendment, which was proposed at the first session of the 
eighth Congress, w<is adopted by the constitutional nutnber of States 
in the year 1804, according to a pubKc notice by t?ie Secretary of State, 
dated the 25th of September, 1804.] 

AMENDMENTS 

To the Constitution of the United States, ratified according to the Provisions of 
the FiAh Article of the foregoing Constituti<Mi. 

AbticI'K I. Congress shall make no law respecting an estahlishment 
of religion, or prohihiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom 
of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
9nd to petition the government for a redress of grievances. 

Articlb II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security 
of a&ee state, ihe right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be 
Ininnged. 

Abtici<s III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a man- 
ner to be prescribed by law. 

AsTicus lY. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, 
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, 
rinU not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, 
•apporled by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to ba 
terched, and th^ persons or things to be seized. 

Abticlj: y. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or othei- 
viae infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indietment of a gi^iand 
jwy, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia^ 
wbea kx actual service in time of war or public danger ; nor sbe^ aoy per- 
•oo be sutject, for the same ofifenee, to be twice pot ia jeopardy of Ufo 
or ttmh; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness 
tgsiBst himself nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property^ without due 
process' of law ; nor abaH private property be taken fer public use, without 
J«et compensation. 

Aatici«x VL In aU criminal prosecutions, the aocused shall eijOy the 
zi^^t to a ^|>ee<|y and public trial» l>y an impartial juiy of the state and dis- 



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tM UHITBS tTATXS. 

trict wherein the crime thaU hKfp been ceaimitted, wMdi dietiiet Am 
have been previovily ascertaioed by law, and to be infonned of the naliii» 
and cauae of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witneaees againat 
him ; to have compulaoiy proceaa for obtaining witneaaei in hia &vor, and 
to have the assistance of counsel for his defence. 

ABTiciiB y II. In suits at common law, where the value in contro- 
versy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by juiy shall Be pre- 
served, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in uiy 
court of the United States, than according to the rtdes of the common 
law. 

Article YIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

ARTiciiE IX. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, 
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

A&TiCLs X. The powers not delegated to the United States, by the 
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the state* 
respectively, or to the people. 

Article XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be 
construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted 
against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens 
or subjects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and 
Yflte by ballot for President- and Vjce-Presidentr^Be ef whom, at leasts 
shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as. President, and in distinct bal« 
lots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct 
lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as 
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall 
sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of die 
United States, directed to the President of the Senate . The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted ;-«^e 
person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the 
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors 
appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons 
having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted 
for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, 
by ballot, the Preddent. But in choosing the President, the votes shall hd 
islken by states, the representation from each state having one vote ; i 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to & 
choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose & Preaideiit^ 
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before Hie fowtti 
day of March next following, then Ae Vice-President shdl act as Fvesi* 



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BUCCBBSITB A^KIintnULTIONB. 190 

dent, M in the m>e tllh> ^iith €f odwr «ti»tUiMiaaia dJsabnUy of tht 
FfOM^ent The peisen bsving the greatest number of votes as Yice^iesi* 
AemU «hall be the Yice-PresideDt, if svch mumber be a majority of the whoW 
mtmber of electors appointed, wa4 if no person hare a nM^joiity, then from 
the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall ehoose the Vice* 
Presid^it ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole 
number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary 
to a choioa*- But no peraon constitutienaUy ineligible to the office of Pieii* 
dent ilkall be digible to ttat of Vice-President of ^e United States. 

INfitt 1. Another amtendiacat was proposed aaarticle Xm. at the second s«e« 
sion of the eleventh Coagtess, but not having been ratified by a sufficient nam-* 
ber of the states, has not become valid, as a part of the Constitution of the 
United States. It is erroncouily given as a part of the Constitution, in page 74» 
Vol. I. Laws of the United States, published by Bioren &> Duane in 1810.] 

\_NoU 2. The Constitution, as above printed, has been carefblly compared 
with the copy in the Laws of the United States, published by authority, and 
alse urith one in the National Calendar for the year 1826, which was copied 
from the foH in the Department of State.] 

{Note 8. The ratification of the Constitution by the state of New Hampsfafre, 
being the 9th in order, was laid before Congress, on the 2d of July, 17^, and 
with the ratifications of the other states, was refisrred to a committee, to report 
an act for carrying the new system into operation. An act for this purpose was 
reported on the 14th of the same month, and was passed on the 13th of the Sep- 
tember following.] 



V. SUCCESSIVE ADMINISTEATIONS. 

First Admhtistration ; — ^178§ to 1797 ; — 8 years* 

GxoiiOB Washikotok, Vii|^nia, April 80, 1789. President 

John Adams, Maffsaehusetts, do. 1789. Vice Praaident^ 

Jippoiatdd* 

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Sept. 26, 1789. ) «^^^4^j^ ^r 

Edmund Randolph. do. Jai 2, 1794. S ^^'^^^J" « 

Time«hy Pickering, Pennsylvania, Dec. 10, 1796. ) =*^^®- 

Alexander Hamilton, New York, Sept. 11, 1789. > Secretaries of the 

Ottver Wolcott, Connectieut, F^. 8, 1796. j TreasMy. 

Henry Knox, Massachusetts, Sept. 12, 1789. J q^^^.^.^^ ^^ 

Timotlnr Pickering, Pennsylvania, Jan. 2, 1795, V ^•*^'!2^ ^^ , 

James M*Heniy, Maryland, Jan. 27,1796.) **"' 

Samuel Osgood, Massachusetts, Sept. 26, lTO9i > «^ . »#—♦*— 

thnothy Pickering, Pfennsylvania, Nor. 7, 1791. V *^®|?i™ff®^ 

Asc^Habersham, Geoc^, Feb, 25, 1T96. ) ^^^^^^ 

B^mund Raodolpb, VliigiBin, . Sept. »«, 178^.1 .^^^^^^ -,^ 

William Bradford, Pennsylvania, Jan. 27, 1794.V^"^*yf ^^'' 

ChariesLee, Virginia, Dec. 10, 1795.) ®^' 

11* 

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apeniken 0fthe B9U$e ^ Ripmtmiatim , 



Frederick A. Muhkabeig, 
Jonatbtn Trumbull, 
Frederick A. Muhlenbeig* 
Jonathan Dayton, 



PenQsy]Tania« 
Connecticut. 
Pennfjlvania, 
New Jersey, 



1ft Congress, ^ 
id do. 
8d do. 
4th do. 



1789. 
1791. 
179S. 
1795. 



SscoKD AoKiinsTRATioir ; — 1797 to 1801 ;— 

JToHir Adams, Massachusetts, Mardi 4, 1797, 

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, 1797, 

Timo^y Pickering, Penn. (continued in Offiee.) 

John Marshall, Virginia, May 13, 1800. 

Olirer Wolcott, Conn, (continued in office.) 

Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts, Dec. 31, 1800. 

James M* Henry, Md. (continued in office,) 

Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts, May 13, 1800. 

Roger Griswold, Connecticut, Feb. 3, 1801. 

George Cabot,* Massachusetts, May 3, 1798. 

Benjamin Stoddert, Maryland, May 21, 1798. 

Joseph Habersham, Georgia, (continued in office.) 



Charles Lee, 



Va. (continued in office.) 



4 years. 

President. 
Vke President 

J Secretaries of 
State. 

i Secretaries of the 
Treasury. 

f Secretaries of 
t War. 

C Secretariesof the . 
I Navy. 
C Post Master 
I General. 
C Attorney Gen* 
I eral. 



Speaker $ of the House of BepresentaHoes. 



Jonathan Dayton, 
Theodore Sedgwick, 



New Jersey, 
Massachusetts, 



6th Congress. 
6th Do. 



1T97. 
1799. 



Thibd ADMimsTRATioir ; — 1801 to 1809 ; — 8 years. 



Thomas JEFFSRsoir, 
Aaron Burr, 
Geoige piinton, 

James Madison, 

Samuel Dexter, 
Albert Gallatin, 

Heniy Dearborn, 

Benjamin Stoddert, 
Robert Smith.f 
Joseph Habersham* 
Gideon Granger, 



Virginia, March 4, 1801. 

New York, do. 1801. 

New York, do. 1805. 

Viigittia, March 6, 1801. 

Mass. (continued iti office. ) 
Pennsylvania, Jan. 26, 1802. 

Massachusetts, March 5, 1801. 

Md. (amiviiuedvn i^ffiee*) 
Maryland, Jan. 26, 1802. 
Geo. (continued in office.) 
Connecticut, Jan. 26, 1802. 



Prei^ent. 
^ Viee Presidents. 

{Secretary of 
State. 
) Secretaries of 
> the Treasury. 
C Secretary of ' 
X War. 

J Secretaries of thie , 
Navy. 

)(Post Masteif 
5 General* . 



* Mr. Cabot decUnSd the' appibintment. ' The JWvy DepartmeiU wu ettablisliediQ 1798. 

t ReteH Smith WM appoiiited Attoniej General, tnd Jacob CrwbinMdd of Maasaohfk 
setts, SeereUry of the Nary, on the 9d of March, 1805, bat thejr both declinsd these mp^ 
poiilteenti ; and Mr. Smith eontinaed in the office ef S«cretarr or the fCavy, till the ondef 
lit. ^efferMo*t ttdministftliM. r ■ 



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succssfivm ▲mtimsnuTioNs.^ 



m 



LeriliMolD, 
JTolm BreckoDridge, 
CBtar A. Rodne J, 



Keotucky, 
Delawtre, 



Dec. 28, 1805. y^"**^ ®«^ 
20,1807.) •~- 



Jan. 



Shaken tfihe H6ui€ of lUpre9eniaHo€$, 



N&flnniel Mtcon, 
JToMph B. Ytraum, 
Nathauiel Mtcon» 
Joseph B. Yamum, 



North Carolina, 
Mafsachuaetts, 
North CaioHna, 
Maaaachuaetti, 



7th CoDcreat. 
8th do. 
9th do. 
10th do. 



1801. 
1808. 
1805. 
1807. 



Fourth ADMiirxsT&ATioir ; — ^1809 to 1817 ;— 8 yean. 



JaXSS MADiaOKT, 

George Clinton, 
EUbndge Gerry, 

Robert Smith, 
James Monroe, 
James Monroe.* 
Albert Gallatin, 
George W. Campbell, 
Alexander J. Dabas, 
William Eustis, 
John Armstrong, 
James Monroe, 
^inUiam H. Crawford, 
Pftul Hamilton, 
William Jones, 



Virginia, March 4, 1809. President 

N. Y. 1809, (d. Jlp, 20, 1812.) > y,^ p^^#. 

BCass. 1818, (d. J^av.23, 1814.) J ^'^ Frertdenti. 

Maryland, March 6, 1809. > 

Yirginia, Nov. 2.5, 1811. > Secretaries of 

Ylrgioia, Feb. 28,1816.) State. 

Penn. (continued in office.) ) 
Tennessee, - Feb. 9, 1814. > Secretaries of 
Pennsylvania, Oct. 6, 1814. ) Uie Treasury. 
Massachusetts, March 7, 180P *) 
New Yoric, Jan. 13, 1813. ( Seeretariea of 
Virginia, Sept. 27, 1814. f War. 

Georgia, March 2, 1815. J 

South Carolina, March 7, 1809. ) 0^,^.,,^- ..f 
Pennsylvania, Jan. 12, 1813 5 °t^ 
Beqj. W. Crowninshield, Massachusetts, Dec 19, 1814. ) "*® "*^* 
Gideon Granger, Conn, (continued in office,) \ Post Masters 

Return J. Meigs, Ohio, March 17, 1814. > Oeneia]. 

CsBsar A. Rodney, DeL (continued in office.) > l**^^^«^ n^«_ 

William Pinkney, Maryland, Dec 11, 1811. i ^^^rn^^ Gen- 

Richard Rush, Pennsylvania, Feb. 10,1814.) ^'^ 



Speaker $ qftke Bouu of RepreBtntaOoet. 



Joseph B. Vamum, 
Heniy Clay, 
Henry Clay« 
Langdon Chores, 
HeivyCli^, 



Maimchusetts, 11th Con gt es i, 
Kentucky. 12th £h 

Kentucky, 14th do. 



1809. 

1811.' 
C481& 
>18t4. 

181$. 



Fifth Adkxvistration ;— 1817 to 1826 ;-^ yean.^ 



JjiMXS Moimos, Vii|^n|ay March 4, 1817, President 

Daniel D. Tompkins, NewYoric, do. 1817. Vice President. ~ 

J^Q.AdaiM, Massachusetts, Ma^'sTlSn. JBecf'y of 8«ate. 

William a. Crawford, Georgia, March 5, 1817. . Secc^y ol^ffSM* 



« Jai 



I Monroe was utuiiiiiiiiiiniisj, haviof for mois tiaa stBtad as Boerotaiy of Was. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



V]riTB0 ftVULVSt* 



Iftftc Shelbj,* Kratncky,. ^Um-k 9^ 1817. ) Sebvtute of 

John C. Cauioim> South Carolina, Dec. 16, 1817. > War. 

f«'?t^^"*''^*^^^'l?^Nf'r*^'^K.t^ ? Secretaries of 

Smidi Thompson, New York, Nov. 80, 1818. V , ^ ■ 

gamuel L. Southard, NewJei^y, Dec, •,18M.y "^ «»^- 

Itotam J. M^gh ^^^ (eiUinued in office,) \ ¥mt Uut&m 

~ ' I McLean, do. Dec. 9, 1828. > GenenO* 



BIchard Rush, Penn. (eoniinued in office,) > AttomcYS GeiK 

William Wirt, Virginia, Dec. 16,1817.3 eraL 

l^eakera of the House ofBepre$entaHve$. 

Heniy Clay, Kentucky, 15th Congress, 1817 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, > ,g^ , C ISl*. 

John W. Taylor, New York, J *®"* ^'*- il8«l. 

PhiUp P. Barbour, Virginia, 17th do. 1821. 

HeniyCIay, Kentucky, 18th do. 1828. 

Sixth ADMimsTRATiox ;— 1825 to 1829 ;— 4 years. 

JoBir Q. Adams, Massachusetts, March 4, 1825. President. 

John C. Calhoun, South Carolina, do. 1825. Vice President. 

jSppoiiUed. 
Henry Clay, Kentucky, s March 8, 1825. Secretary of State. 

Richard Rush, Pennsylrania, March 7, 1825. Sec*y of the Treasury. 

i^t^;, 5Wo*. M.fvlli:iseereUH...rW„. 
Samuel L. Southard, N. J. (continued in office.) Secretary of the Navy. 
John McLean, Oiiio, (amiinued in office.) Post Master C^enertij,^ 
William Wirt, Virginia, (eonUnued in office.) Attorney General. 

Speakers of the House cf Representatives, 

John W. Taylor, New York, 19th Coneress, . 1827. 

Andrew Stephenson, Virginia, 20th do. 1827. 



Sevskth ADifurisTmATioir ; — 1829. — 

AiTDHBW Jacksox, Teooessee, March 4, 1829. President. 
John C. Calhoun, South CaroUna, do. 1829. Vice President. 



Martin Van Bure«» New York, March 6, 1829. Secretary of State. 

Saimiel D. Ingham, Pennsylvania, March 6, 1829. Sec'y of the Treasury. 

Jolm H. Eaton, Tennessee, Mapch 9, 1829. Secretary ef War. 

John Branch, N.Carolina, March 9, 1829. Secretary of the Navy. 

William T. Barry, Kentucky, March 9, 1829. Post Master General. 

John McP. Berrien, Georgia, March 9, 1829. Attorney General. 

Shaker of the Hotue of Representatives. 

Andrew Stephenson, Virginia, 2l8t Congress. 1328^ 

Note. The dates of the appoioAments of the principal executive officers, in the 
several adauaistrations, above eiehibited, arelM times when the several nemhm- 
tioas, ofiade by the Presideats, were con6rme«l by the Seaate, -as stated in the 
M Journal of the EiEecutive Preeeediiigs of the Seaete ofthe United States." 

* Inae Bhelby decRoed tbe appointment. 



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BXXCITTITX CM^VSRITMXNT. 



n^ 



VI. EXECUTIVE OOVERNBCENT. 

Thx term of the present administration will expire on the 8d of Ifarch. 
18W. 

ANDREW JACKSON, Tennessee, President, $^SfiSL 

Jk>u2f C. Calboux, South Carolina, Vtee'Preiident, 6,000. 

The following are the principal officers in the exeeutwe departmenU of 
the government, and all hold their offices at the will of die President. 

SakffT. 
#6,000. 



Blartin Van Boren, 
Samuel D. Ingham, 
John H. Eaton, 
John Branch, 
William T. Barry, 
John McP. Berrien, 



New York, 

Fennsyl 

Tennessee, 

N. Carolina, 

Kentucky, 

Georgia, 



Secretary of State, 
Secretary of the IVeaeury,'' 6^000 
Secretary of War, 6,000 

Secretary of the JVaw, 6,000 
Po»t Master Oeneral, 6,000 
JUtomey Oeneral, 8,500. 



Depaktmhitt of Statx. 

The Department of State was created by an actof Congress of the 16th of 
September, 1789 : by a previous act of the 27th of July, 1789, it was denom- 
inated the Department of Foreign Affidrs ; and it embraces what in some 
other governments are styled the Department of Foreign Affidrs and th« 
Home Department. 

liie Secretary of State conducts all treaties between the United States 
and Foreign Powers, and corresponds, officially, with the Public Ministen 
ci the United States at Foreign Courts, and with the Ministers of Foreign 
Powfa zeaident in the United States. He is entrusted with the publication 
and distribution of aD the acts and resoludonsof Congress, and of all treatiet 
with Foreign Powers and Indian Tribes ; preserves the originals of all laws 
and treaties, and of the public correspondence growing out of the intercourss 
between the United States and Foreign Nations ; is required to procure 
and preserve copies of the statutes of the several states ; grants passports 
to American citizens visiting foreign countries ; preserves the evidence of 
copy-rights, and has control of the office which issues patents for useful 
Inventions. He has the charge of the Seal of the United States, but can« 
not affix it to any commission until signed by the President, nor to any 
instrument or act without the special authority of the President 
Martin Van Buren, Secretary, 



Salary. 

Daniel Brent, Chief Clerk, ^2,000 
W. C.H. WaddeU, CUrk, 1,660 



Josias W. King, 


do. 


1,600 


Aaron Vail, 


do. 


1^500 


Andrew T. McCormic, 


do. 


1,400 


Nicholas P. Trist, 


do. 


1,400 


Arthur Shaaf; 


do. 


1^00 


H. B. Trist, 


do. 


1,400 


Thomas P. Jones, 


do. 


1,400 


Edward Stubbs^ 


do. 


1.150 


JobaM. Baker, 


do. 


1,000 


Wm. Hodgson, 


do. 


l/)00 



Salary. 

W. S. Derrick, CUrk, 900 

William Hunter, Jon. CUrk, *f 800 
Josepli R. Warren, Mtt^nger, 700 

W. H. Prentiss, AnUtamt do, 660 

J. N. Lovcgoy, Watdtmam, 900 

Patekt Officb. 

J. D. Craig, BuperintewUnt, l»fi00 

J. T. Temple, CUri, 1,000 

Alexander Mclntire, ' do, 1,000 

C. Bulfincb, Jun. do. 800 

J. Keller, Machinist, 700 

R. P. Fenwick, Jfe«sef^f«r, 400 



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TOHTBA flVATBl» 



Tkbasvrt Dbpartmsnt. 

Hie Treasury Department was created by an act of Congress of the 2it 
•f September, 1789. The Secretary of the Treasury superintends all the 
fiscal concerns of the government, and upon his own responsibility, recon>* 
mends to Congress measures for improving the condition of the revenue. 

Afl the accounts of the government are finally settled at the Treasury 
Department ; and for this purpose it is divided into the office of the Secre- 
Iny (who has a general superintendence of the whole), the offices of tw» 
Comptroflers, five Auditors, a Treasurer, and a Register. The Auditors of 
tfie public accounts are empowered to administer oaths or affirmations to 
witnesses in any caee in which they may deem it necessaiy ibr the doe ex- 
•minfttion of the accounts with yi^ch they are charged. 



Samuel D. ^ngham, Seerdary 



Salary. 

A Diddns, Chief Clerk, $2,000 

1. L. Aothoay, Clerk, 1,600 

Samuel M. McKeao, do, 1,600 

Thomas Dimgan, 'do, 1,400 

Robert Newell, do, 1,400 

John McGinnis, Jmu, So* 1,400 

Gilbert Rodman, Jub., do, 1,400 

Francis A. Dickios^ do, 1,400 

A. M. Lanb, do. 1,250 

Horace E. Wolf, «is. 1,160 
A. R. V/fttMm, S&uengtr, 750 

Charles Petit, Assistant do, 850 

Joseph Anderson, let ComptroL 8,500 

John Laub, First Clerk, 1,700 

Samuel Hanson, Clerk^ 1,400 

William Williamson, do, 1,400 

Lund Washington, do, 1,400 

James Laraed, do, 1,400 

John Woodside, do. 1,150 

Richard S. Briscoe, do, 1,150 

Wmiam Anderson do, 1,150 

Samuel Handy, Jm. dp. 1,150 

Benjamin Harrison, dot 1,150 

Thomas B. Reiley, do, 1,000 

iHiomas F. Anderson, do. 1,000 

Samuel P. Webster, do. 1,000 

George Johnson, do, 1,000 

George W. Burke, do, 1,000 
Jo^ N. Lovejoy, Messenger, 700 

Jacob Hines, AssistasU do, 350 

lames Thornton, 2d Oomptrol, 8,000 

E. Reynolds, Chie/ CUrit, 1,700 

J. N. Moulder, CUrk, 1,400 

Jonathan Sevier, do, 1,400 

John Davis, do. 1,150 

James L. Catheart, do. 1,000 



John M. Brodbead, do, 
Joseph Manahan» ils« 

James M. Cutta, do, 

John Sessford, Messenger, 



Salary. 

1,000 
700 



Richard Harrisen, Isi A^tditor, 


8,000 


W.Parker CTite/C&rA, 


1,700 


J. Williams, Oerk, 


1^400 


William Morton, do. 


1,409 


John Coyle» do. 


IJiW 


John Coyle, Jm. do. 


1,160 


John Underwood, do. 


1,150 


Jerem. W. Bronang^, do. 


1,150 


Thomas G. Slye, do. 


1,16# 


Daniel P. Porter, do. 


1>1M 


John A. BrigfatweU, do. 


1,000 


Thomas Barclay, do. ' 


800 


C. B. Davis, Messenger, 


700 


W. B. Lewis, 2rf Auditor, 


8,000 


J. Eakin, Chief Clerk, 


1,700 


J. Wells, Jun., (^erk. 


1,400 


John Peters, do. 


1,^ 


Samuel Lewis, do. 


1,150 


William Stewart, do. 


1,150 


R. M. BoyeTj do. 


146<^ 


Robert Ellis, do. 


1,160 


WUliam Mechlin, do. 


1,150 


Leonard Mackall, do. 


1450 


Andrew M. Kirk, do. 


1,000 


O. S. Han, do. 


1^000 


Henry S. Gardner, do. 


1,000 


P. Brady, do. 


1,000 


R. T. Queen, do. 


800 


William Ford, Messenger, 


70O 



Peter Hagner, 3d Auditor, 
J. Thompson, Cfdef Ckrk, 



9,tM 
1,700 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



MXKeVtWlt e^VXfttfllZNT. 



Charies Tinson, 
lofaiAbb•t^ 
Biotord Bilges 
Robert Read, 
Henry Whetcroft 
narcus LatiiBCTy 



TboBiai CrUBton, 
Henry C. Matthews, 
William Ramsay, 
S. B. Goddard, 
Il«iify RaodaU^ 
James Davidson, 
John S. Compton, 
R. T. Washington, 



Oerk, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Thomas Dove, Mesaengerf 

Amos Kendafl, 4ih Auditor^ 
T, H. GiUift, CSde/Oeri^ 
~ Clerk, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
t ^0. 

do. 



William Hunter, 
Joseph Mechlin, 
Robert Getty, 
fcnes H. Haoidy, 
OeoEgeGiUis, 
Richard Bennett, 
Robert Johnston, 
Robert T. McGiM, 
iieniy Forrest, 
Mm C. Rives, 
Greorge M. Head, 
William Gkrrett, Jmi, 
Bailey Buckner, 
Hampton C. WiOtaras, do. 
i. Sitifaerlaad, 3^s«gig§r^ 

Steph. Pleasanton, fith Auditor, 
T. Mustin, Chief Clerk, 



J« H. Homton, 
JiMepb Thaw, 
Nicholas Hai^r, 
Hemry W. Ball, 
BwU Waring, 
WilUam Deweet, 
David Easton, 
James D. Kmg, 
fiebert Bairy, fm. 
Samuel Baker, 
Samuel J. Carr, 



CUrk, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



1,400 
1«400 
1,400 
1,400 
1,1I»0 
UiO 
1,160 
1,150 
1,190 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,000 
800 
700 

8,000 
1,70# 
1,400 
1,400 
1,160 
1,150 
1460 
1,160 
1,150 
1,000 
1,^0 
1.000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
800 
700 

8,000 
1,700 
1/100 
1,400 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150. 
1,150 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
700 



G.W.DashieD, Clerk^ 

SmmmI Foorett, do. 

Andrew Smiti^ do. 

James Moore^ Messenger, 

T^moM L. fiWih, BegmUr^ 
M. Noarse, Chief CUrk^ 



Sakiy. 

1,000 
800 

700 



J. McClery, 
John D. Barclay, 
Janes Lawie, 
John S. Haw9, 
William Mackey, 



CUrk, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



WilKam B. Randolph, do. 



Edward Holland, Messenger, 

0MneftCainpbeB, TreoMn-er, 8,000 
P. G. Washiiigtevi, Chief CUrk, 1,760 
A. J. Watson, Citrk, 1,400 



Francis Lowndes, 
Lewis Salomon, 
Jose|^ Mountz, 
Wdliam James, 
Isaac K. Hanson, 
Beiij. F. Rittenfaouse, 
James D. Woodside, 
Edgar Patterson, 
Joseph Brewer, 
French T. Evans, 
John B. Blake, 
John Nourae, 
P. W. GaUaudet, 
A. McDonald, 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do 
do. 
do. 
Messenger, 



James Watson, Assistant do. 



1,700 
1,400 
1,400 
1,400 
1,400 
1,400 
1,150 
1,1M 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1>000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
800 
800 
800 
350 



Land Offici. 
ElMah Hayward, Commissioner, 3,000 



J. M. Moore, Chief Clerk, 



Robert Kins 



Ung, 
Eugeiie A. Vail, 
WiUiam Simmons, 
Sterling Gresham, 
Samuel D. King, 
James R. Jii. Bryant, 
William Otis, 
Charles Tyler, 
Frederick KeUer, 
WUlivn S. Smith, 
George Wood, 
Samuel Hanson, 
Joseph S. Collms, 
Wflham Sinn, 
Walter B. Beall, 
Walter H. Jenifer, 
J. S. Wilson, 

Rod. Hampton, Assistant do, 
Alex. R. Wataon, Watchmm, 
R. B. Boyd, do. 

John Kennedy, do. 



Clerk, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Messenger^ 



1,700 
1,150 
1,400 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,160 
1,150 
1,150 
1,150 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1.000 
1,000 
700 
350 
300 

aoo 
aoo 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



vm 



UHITXB WAVM- 



; , Wa* DEPAaTMKKT. 

The War DeputaiMit wm enttod by an met of Congrass of the 7^ of 
Aoguf t, 1789, and at fint embraced not only mifitary, but also naval affidis. 

The Secretary of War superintends eveiy branch of military afifidrs, and 
-has, under his immediate direction* a Requisition Bureau, a Bounty Land 
Office, a Pension Bureau, a Bureau of Indian A&irs, an Engineer Offiott, 
an Oidnance Office, an Office for the Commissary General of Subsistence, 
« Paymaster General's Office, and a Surgeon General's Office. 
' This Department has the superintendence of the erection of fortifications, 
of making topographical surveys, of surveying and leasing the nationd 
lead mines, and of the intercourse with Indian tribes. 

John H. Eaton, Secretary. 



Salwy. 
p. 6. Randolph, Chief Cierk, $2,000 
Gideon Davis, CUrk, 1,400 

James L. Addison, do. 1,000 

William Markward, Messenger, 650 
Francis Datcher, Assist, do. 400 

Peksioh Office. 

James L. Edwards, First Clerk, 1,600 
Benjamin L. Beall, Clerk, 1,400 
William S. Allison, do. 1,000 

Anthony G. Glynn, do, 1,000 
Daniel Brown, do, 800 



Salary. 
Requisition Bureau. 
L.L.yaBKleeck,PniM;»l>aZ, #1^00 

Indian Affairs. 

FrincipeU, IJ60$ 
Saro'l. S.Hamilton, Chief Clerk, 1,400 
Daniel Kurtz, Book-keeper^ 1,000 

Hezekiah Miller, CUrk, 1,000 

Bounty Land Office. 

William Gordon, First Clerk, 
Edward Stephens, Clerk, 



1,400 
1,000 



Navy Department. 



The Office of the Secretary of the Navy was created by an act of Con- 
gress of tlie 80th of April, 1798. The Secretary issues all orders to the 
Navy of the United States, and superintends the concerns of the NavY 
Establishment generally. 

A Board ofJVlavy Commistioners was established by an act of Con- 
gress of the 7th of February, 1815, and consists of three officers of the 
Navy, in rank not below that of a Post Captain. This Board is attached to 
the office of the Secretary of the Navy, is under his superintendence, and 
discharges all the ministerial duties of that office relative to the procure- 
ment of naval stores and materials, and the construction, armament, equip* 
ment, and employment of vessels of war, as well as other matters connected 
with the Navy. '^> 

John Branch, Secretary. 



Salaryc 

J.W.Clark, Chief Clerks $2,000 

John Boyle, Clerk, 1,600 

Christopher Andrews, do, 1,400 

Richard B. Maury, do, 1,400 

Thomas L. Ragsdale, do, 1,000 

Thomas Miller, do. 1,000 



Salary 

John D. Simon, Ckrk, ifl/M 
K.H, Bt»df6rd,84craanfN, 

Pen, emd HMpikU FundM - 

Ji^ S. Nevius, 800 

Nathan Eaton, Messenger, 700 
Lindsay Muse, Assist, do, S60 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



xxxemtnt sotbkniiknt. 



laa 



John Green, CUrk, 


nJSo 


Joseph P. McCorkle, do. 


1,000 


James Hutton, do. 


1,000 


Robert A. Slyei . do. 


1,000 


B. S. Randolph, (io. 


1,000 




1,000 


R. EUiott, Mksunger, 


700 



Board of Commissiovk&s for the 

NavT. Salary. 

John Rogers* ) rnntndM { $8*^0 
Oi. Stewart. } ^T^ \ 8,600 
D.T.Patterson,) "w^*^- ^ 8^500 
C. W. Goldsborongh, Secretary, 2,000 
Wb. 6. Ridgely, Chi^ Clerk, 1,000 

Gei7eral Post Office. 

Hiis Department is under the superintendence of the Post Master Gen- 
eral, who has two Assistants. 

The Post Master General has the sole appointment of all the Post Mas- 
ters throughout the United States, the making of all contracts for carrying 
flie mails, and the direction of every thing relating to the Department. 

The revenue arising from the General Post Office has been piincipally 
expended upon the extension and improvement of the establishment, by 
which means the regular convejrance, by mail, of letters, newspapers, pam- 
phlets, &c., has been extended to Ihe inhabitants of every part of the Union, 
even to the remotest territorial settlements. 

William T. Barry, Post Master General. 













Salary. 


S^^^UM^'"'' ] •^*'^'«'** ^^'^ •^«'^^' ^"^^^ 


i . 


$2,500 
«,500 






Salary. 






" 


O. B. Brown, Chief Oerk, 


#1,700 


Lemuel W. Rnggles, 


Clerk, 


1,000 


Thomas B. Dyer, 


Clerk, 


1,400 


John W. Overton, 


do. 


1,000 


Joseph W. Hand, 


do. 


1,400 


Samnel Gwin, 


do. 


1,000 


John Suter, 


do. 


1,400 


(George L. Douglass, 


do. 


1,000 


John McLeod. 


do. 


1,200 


P. L. Loughborough, 


do. 


1,000 


'WiUiam G. Eliot, 


do. 


1,200 


Alexander G. Morgan 


do. 


1,000 


M. T. Simpson, 


do. 


1,200 


Francis G. Blackford, 


do. 


. 800 


David Saunders, 


do. 


1,200 


John G. Whitwell, 


do. 


800 


Richard Element, 


do. 


1,100 


Thomas £. Wagg<»nai] 


f do. 


800 


Nicholas Tastet, 


do. 


1,100 


John A. Collins, 


do. 


800 


William Blair, 


do. 


1,100 


Joseph Sherrill, 


do. 


800 


William Deming, 


do. 


1,100 


John F. Boone, 


do. 


800 


Thomas ArbucUe, 


do. 


1,000 


Edmund F. Brown, 


do. 


800 


Josiah F. Caldwell, 


do. 


1,000 


John G. Johnson, 


do. 


800 


Joseph HaskeU, 


do. 


1.000 


William French, 


do. 


800 


Samuel Fitzhugh, 


do. 


1.000 


John L. Slorer, 


do. 


800 


'William O. Ellison, 


do. 


1,000 


James H. Doughty, 


do. 


800 


William C. Lipscomb 


, do. 


1,000. 


James Coolidge, 


do. 


800 


Matthias Ross, 


do. 


1,000 


Charles S. Williams, 


do. 


800 


Thomas B. Addison, 


do. 


1,000 


John Taylor^ 


do. - 


800 


David Koones, 


do. 


1,000 


Estwick Evans, 


do. 


800 


Presley Simpson, 


do. 


1,000 


Richard Emmons, 


do. 


800 


Grafton D. Hanson, 


do. 


1,000 


J. Borrows, Mettengtr, 


700 


Walter D. Addison, 


do. 


1,000 


Nathaniel Heihert, As*t. do. 


850 


Aiidrew McD Jackson, do. 


1,000 


William Jackson, do 


. do. 


350 


Arthur Nelson, 


do. 


1,000 









NoTX.— The information relating to the Exeeniwe government has been derived princi- 
pa&r ftom the " Natioaal Oaleaaar." the ** Reriater of OiBoers and Agenti in Ui»8errite 
of the United States," and the " Directory of the Twenty-first Congress.** 

12 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



WL 



immB tTAVBt.' 



VH. 



THE LEGISLATURE OR CONGRESS OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 



The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House el 
Representatives, and must assemble, at least, once every year, on the first 
llonday of Decen^r, unless it is otherwise provided by law. 

The Senate Is composed of two membeis from eadi state ; and •f eouns 
the present regular number is 4S. They are chosen by the legislatures of 
the several statea, for the term of six years, one third of them being elected 
Uennlalty. 

The Vice-President of the United Stotes is the President of the Senate, 
in which body he has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an 
equal division of the votes of the senators. In his absence, a President 
fTQ tempore is chosen by the Senate. 

The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several 
states, elected by the people for the term of two years. The representa- 
tives are apportioned amoug the different states according to population ; 
and in accordance with an act of Congress of the 3d of March, 1823, one 
representative is now returned for every 40,000 persons, computed according , 
to the Constitution. The present number is 216, inoludiog 3 delegates. 

Since the 4th of March, 1807, the compensation of each member of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, has been $8 a day, diuing the 
period of bis attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness ; 
and $S for every twenty miles' travel, in the usual road, in going to and 
returning from the seat of government. The compensation ot the Prendent 
of the Senate, pro tempore, and the Spedcer of the House of Representa- 
tives, is $ 16 a day. 

The Twenty-first Congress. — ^The Senate. 

John C. Calhoun, Vice-President of the United States, and President of 

the Senate. 

The 8enator$ voiith ^e expiration of their respective terms. 



Namef. Beiidence. 
Maine. 

John Holmes, 1833, Alfred. 

Peleg Spragne, 1885, Hallowell* 

JVew Hampshire. 
Samuel Bell, 1835, Chester. 
Levi Woodbury, 1881, PortamouA. 

Vermont. 

Horatio Seymour, 18^ Mid^abury. 
Dudley Chase, 1881, Randolph. 

Massachusetts. 
Nathaniel Stlsbee, 1885, Salem. 
Daniel Webster, 1838, Boston. 



Names. Resadenoe. 

IVwde Island. 

N. R. Enisht, 1835, Providence. 
A^erRobbins, 1833, Newport 

Conneeticist. 
Samuel A. Foot, 1838, 
CalvtoWiUey, 1831, 

JVtew York. 

Nalhan Sanford, 1888, 
Charles 1^. Dudky, 1881, 



Cheshire. 
Tolland. 



WUIwBy. 
Aftany; 



JVew Jersey. 
Mahkm Dickerson, 1883, SockatY. 
Th. Freliogfauyseo, 1883, Newaric. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



THE TWSlfTT*riEaT CaKORESS. 



Ids 



- Penfuyh 
Isaac D. Baraaid, 1833, W. Chester. 
William Marks, 1831, Pittsburg. 

Delaware, 
John M. Clayton, 1835, Dover. 
Arnold Naudain, 1833, Wilmington. 

Maryland. 
E. F. Chambers, 1831, Chestertown. 
Samuel Smith, 1833, Baltimore. 

Virginia, 
John Tyler, 1833, Charles City. 

Lltt. W.Tazewell, 1835, Norfolk. 

JVbrth Carolina. 
James Iredell, 1831, Raleigh. 
Bedford Brown, 1835, Milton. 

South Carolina, 
^■Robert Y. Hayne, 1835, Charfeston. 
William Smith, 1831. York. 

Georgia, 
George M. Tioup, 1835, Dublin. 
JohnTorsyth, 1831, Augusta. 

Jllabama, 
William R. King, 1835, Selma. 
John McKinley, 1831, Florence. 



Nanwf. 

JkR$8t88ippi, 
Powhatan Ellis, 1833, Winchester. 
George Adams, deceased, 

Louisiana, 
Josiah S. Johnson, 1831, Alexandria. 
Edward Livingston, 1833, N. Orleans. 

Tennessee, 
Hugh L. White, 1835, Knozville. 
Fel& Grundy, 1833, Nashville. 

Kentucky. 

George M. Bibb, 1835, Yellow BaDk0. 

John Rowan, 1831, Bardstown. ^ 

Ohio. 

Jacob Burnet, 1831, Cinciimati. 
Benji Buggies, 1833, St. Clairtville. 

Indiana, 

William Hendricks, 1831, Madison. 
James Noble, 1833, Brookville. 

lUinois, 

John K. Kane, 1831, Easkaskia. 
John McLean, 1833, Sliawneetown. 

Missouri, 

David Barton, 1831, St. Louis. 

Thomas H. Benton, 1833, St Louis. 



Qjficen of the Senate. 



Salary. 
Walter Lowrie, Secretary, $3,000 
J. G. McDonald, Chief Clerk, 1,800 
Lewis H. Machen, Clerk, 1,500 
William Hickey, do, 1,500 

M. S. Lowrie, do. 800 

James Hickey, do, ' 700 



Balaiy* 
Mountjoy Bafley, Sergeant at 

Arms and Door-keeper, |^ 1,600 
Heniy Tims, Assistant Door- 
keeper, 1,460 
Rev. H.Van D. Johns, Chaplain, 600 
John L. Ckib, Messenger, 700 



The Twentt-first Con0Rbss. — ^The House of Representa- 
tives. 

2%e term of the Xist Congress wiU expire on the Zd of March, 1881. 

Andrew Stephenson, of Virginia, Speakar. 



Maine, 
John Anderson, 
Samuel Butman, 
George Evans, 



Portland. 
Dixmont. 
Gardiner. 



Namei. 
Rufiu Mclntyre, 
James W. Ripley, 
Joseph F. Wingate, 
Onevacanty, 



^ Baiideiifle. 

Parsonsfield. 

Fryeburg. 

Bath. 



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136 



tJlVITED STATES. 



Names. Residence. 

JVeto Hampshire. 



John Brodhead, 
Thomas Chandler, 
Joseph Ham moos, 
Jonathan Harvey, 
Henry Hubbard, 
John W. Weeks, 

Vermont. 
William Gaboon, 
Horace Everett, 
Jonathan Hunt, 
RoUin C. Mallory, 
Benjamin Swift, 



New Market. 

Bedford. 

Farmiogton. 

Sutton. 

Charlestown. 

Lancaster. 



Lyndon. 
Windsor, 
firattleboro*. 
Poultney. 
St. Alban's. 



Miu$aehvsett8, 



John Bailey, 
Isaac C. Bates, 
B. W. Crowninshield, 
John' Davis, 
Henry W. Dwight, 
Edward Everett, 
George Grennell, jun. 
Benjamin Gorham, 
James L. Hodges, 
Joseph G. Kendall, 
John Reed, 
Joseph Richardson, 
John Varnum, 



Milton. 

Northampton. 

Salem. 

Worcester. 

Stockbridge. 

Charlestown. 

Greenfield. 

Boston. 

Taunton. 

Leominster. 

Yarmouth. 

Hingham. 

Haverhill. 



Rhode Island, 



Tristam Burges, 
Dutee J. Pearce, 



Providence. 
Newport. 



Connecticut, 

Noyes^ Barber, Groton. 

WiUiam W. Ellsworth, Hartford. 

Jabez W. Huntington, Litchfield. 

Ralph J. IngerpolU New Haven. 

William L. Storrs, Middletown. 

Ebenezer Young, Eijjjngly. 



J^ew York, 



Wllttun G. Ansel, 
Benedict Arnold, 
Thomas Beckman, 
Abraham Bockee, 
Peter I. Borst, 
C. C. Cambreling, 
Timothy Childs, 
Henry B. Cowles, 
Hector Craig, 
Jacob Crocheron, 
Charles G. Dewitt, 
John D. Dickinson, 



Burlington. 

Amsterdam. 

Peterboro*. 

Fed. Store. 

Middleburgh. 

New York. 

Rochester. 

Carmel. 

Craigsvilie. 

Richmond. 

Kingston. 

Troy. 



Names. 
Jonas Earll, jun. 
Isaac Finch, 
Jehiel H. Halsey, 
George Fisher, 
Joseph Hawkins, 
Michael Hoffman, 
Perkins King, 
James W. Lent, 
John Magee, 
Henry C. Martindale, 
Thomas Maxi^ell, 
Robert Monell, 
Ebenezer F. Norton, 
Gershom Powers, 
Robert S. Rose, 
Ambrose Spencer, 
James Strong, 
Henry R. Storrs, 
John W. Taylor, 
Phineas L. Tracy, 
Gulian Q. Verplanck, 
Campbell P. White, 



Onondago. 

Essex. 

Lodi. 

Oswego. 

Henderson. 

Herkimer. 

Freehold. 

New Town. 

Bath. 

Sandy HilL 

Elmira. 

Greene. 

Bufi&lo. 

Auburn. 

Geneva. 

Albany. 

Hudson. 

Whitestown. 

Bal'n Springs 

Batavia. 

New York. 

New York. 



^ew Jersey t 

Lewis Condict, Morristown. 

Richard M. Cooper, Camden. 

Thomas H. Hughes, Cape May 

Isaac Pierson, Orange. 

James F. Randolph, N.Brunswick. 

Samuel Swan, Boundbrook. 

Pewntyhoania, 

James Buchanan, Lancaster.' 
Thomas H. Craivford, Chambersburg. 

Richard Coulter, Greensburg. 

Harmar Denny, Pittsburg. 

Joshua Evans, Paoli. 

James Ford, Tioga. 

Chauncey Forward, Somerset 

Joseph Fry, Jr. Fryburg. 

John Gilmore, Butler. 

Innis Green, Dauphin. 

Joseph Hemphill, Philadelphia. 

Peter Ihrie, Jr. Easton. 

Thomas Irwin, Union Town. 

Adam King, York. 

George G. Leiper, Leiperville. 

Alem Marr, Danville. 

William McCreery, B's X Roads. 

Daniel H. Miller, Philadelphia. 
Henry A. Muhlenburg, Reading. 

William Ramsay, Carlisle. 

John Scott, Alexandria. 

Thomas H. Sill, Erie. 

Samuel Smith* Doylestown. - 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



THX TwsifTT-rnsT coireKKSs. 



137 



NtmM. Residence. 

Phflander Stepheni, Montrose. 

Xolm B. Steiigere, Norrutown. 

Joel B. Sutherland, Philadelphia. 

Delaware, 
Kensey Johns, Jr. Newcastle. 

Maryland, 

Elias Brown, Freedom. 

Clement Dorsey, Howard's R. 

Benjamin C. Howard, Baltimore. 

George E. Mitchell, Elkton. 

Benedict I. Semmes, Piscataway. 

Richard Spencer, Easton. 

Michael C. Sprigg, Frostburgh. 

George C.Washington, Rockville. 

Ephraim E. Wilson, Snow Hill. 

Virginia. 
Mark Alexander, Lombardy Grove 
Robert Allen, Mount JacKson. 

William S. Archer, Elkhill. 
William Armstrong Romney. 
Philip P. Barbour, Gordonsville. 
John S. Barbour, Culpeper C. H, 
Thomas T. Bouldin, Charlotte. 
Nath. H. Claiborne, Rocky Mount. 
Richard Coke, Jr. Williamsburg. 
Robert Craig, Montgomery. 

Thomas Davenport, Moadsville. 
Philip Doddcidge, Wheeling. 
William F. Gordon, Albemarfo. 
Lewis Maxwell, Weston. 
William McCoy, Franklin. 
Charles F. Mercer, Leesburg. 
Thomas Newton, Norfolk. 
John Roane, Rumford Acad. 

Ji» Smythe, deceased, 
Andrew Stephenson, Richmond. 
John Taliaferro, Fredericksburg. 

James Trezvant, Jerusalem. 

JVorth Carolina. 
Willis Alston, Fortune's Fork. 

Daniel L. Barringer, Raleigh. 
Samuel P; Carson, Pleas. Garden. 
Henry W. Conner, Sherrillsford. 
Edmund Deberry, Lawrencei^e. 
Edward B. Dudley, Wilmington. 
Thomas H. Hall, Tarborough. 
Robert Potter, Oxford. 

Abraham Rencher, Pittsborough. 
William B. Shepard, Elizabeth CUy. 
Augqs. H. Shepperd, Germantown. 
Jesse Speiffht, Speightsbridge. 

Lewb Wilhams, Pan&er Creek. 
12* 



Hunes. 

South Carolina* 

Robert W. Barnwell, Beaufoft 
James Blair, Camden. 

John Campbell, ' Brownsville. 
Warren R. Davis, Pendleton C.H. 
William Drayton, Charleston. 
William D. Sfartin, Barnwell C. H. 
George McDuffie, Edgefield C. H.^ 
WUliam T. Nuckolls, Hancocksville. 
Starling Tucker, Mount Shoalf. 

Oeorgia* 
Thomas F. Foster, Greensborough. 
Chkrles E. Hajrnes, Sparta. 
Henry G. Lamar, Macon. 
Wpson Lumpkin, Monroe. 
Wiley Thompson, Elbertbn. 
James M. Wayne, Savannah. 
Richard H. Wilde, Augusta. 

^dldbama, 
R. E. B. Baylor, Tuscaloosa. 
C. C. Clay, HuntsvlDe. 

Dixon H. Lewis, Montgomery. 

Missias^pi. 
Thomas Hinds, Greenville. 

Louisian($. 
Henry H. Gurley, Baton Rouge. 
Walter H. Overton, Alexandria. 
Edward D. Whfte, Donaldsonville. 



Tenne$8ee. 



John Bell, 
John Blair, 
David Crockett, 
Robert Desha, 
Jacob C. Isacks, 
Cave Johnson, 
Pryor Lea, 
James K. Polk, 
James Standifer, 



NashviUe. 

Jonesborough. 

Crockett's P.O. 

Gallatin. 

Winchester. 

Clarksville. 

Enoxville. 

Columbia. 

Mount Aiiy. 



Kentucky. 
Thomas Chilton, Elizabethtown« 
James Clarke, Winchester. 

Nic'las D. Coleman, Washington. 
Henry Daniel, Mount Sterling. 

Nathan Gaither, Columbia. 
Richard M. Johnson, Great Crossings 
John Kincaid, Stanford. 

Joseph Lecompte, Newcastle. 
Robert P. Letcher, Laneasten 
Chittenden Lyon, EddyviHe. 
Charles A. Wickliffe, Bardstown. 
Joel Yancey. Glasgow. 



Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



138 



UNITED STATES. 



Ohio. 
Mordecai Bartley, 
Joseph H. Crane, 
William Creighton, Jr. 
James Findlay, 
John M. Goodeoow, 
William W. Irwin, 
William Kennon, 
William Russell, 
James Shields, 
William Stanberiy, 
John Thompson, 
Joseph Vance, 
Samuel F. Vinton, 
Elisha Whittiesey, 



Befidenoe. 

Mansfield. 

Dayton. 

Chillicothe. 

Cincinnati. 

Steubenville. 

Lancaster. 

St. Clairsville. 

West Union. 

Dick's MiUs. 

Newark. 

Columbiana. 

Urbanna. 

Gallipolis. 

Canneld. 



Indiana. 
RatMBoon, Boonsville. 



NaiMi. Rerid^Boa* 

Jonathan Jennings, Charleston. 
John Test, LAwrencebmg. 

JUinoii. 
Joseph Duncan^ Brownsville. 

JtEsBOuri, 
Spencer Pettis, Fayette. 

DELEGATES. 
Michigan Territory. 
John Biddle, ~ Detroit. 

Jlrkanior Territory. 
Ambrose H. Sevier, Little Rock. 

Florida Territory. 
Joseph M. White, . Monticello. 



Officers of the House of Representatives. 



M. St. C.Clarke, CPk of House, 
Samuel Burch, Chief Clerk, 



John T. Frost, 
Benjamin Sprigg, 
Brooke M. Befry, 
Thomas Patterson, 
Noah Fletcher, 
Robert N. Johnson, 



Clerk, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Salary. 

;8;3,ooo 

1,800 
1,500 
1,500 
1,600 
1,500 
1,500 



Siklary. 
Oswald Dunn, Sergeant at 

Arms, $1,500 
Benjamin Burch, Door-keeper, 1,500 
Overton Carr, A$H. Door-keep. 1,460 
Rev. Reuben Post, Chaplain, 500 
Wm. J. McCormick, Post Mas- 
ter, $S per day, 



1,500 [James Barron, Messenger ^ 700 



VIII. THE JUDICIARY. 
The Chief Justices and .Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States since 1789, vnth the dates of their appointment, as stated 
in the" Journals of the Executive Proceedings of the Seriate." 



John Jay, 
John Rutledso.* 
William Coahing, 



John Entledffe, 
William Cuthiog, 
S. H. Harrison, 
Jamei Wikoa, 
John Blair, 
Jamet Iredell, 
Thomaa Johnson, 
William Patterson, 
Samuel Chase, 
Bosh. Washington, 
Willicm Johnson, 





Chief Justices. 






N. Y.j Sept. 96, 1789. Oliver Elsworth, 1 Mas*. March 4, 1796. 
S. C. July 1, 1795. John Jay,t N. Y. Dec 19, 1800. 


Biass.|jan. 87, 1796. Jo)m MarshaU, | Va. Jan. S7, 1801. 


Associate Justices. 


B.C. 


Sept. 96,1789. 


Brockh. Livingston, 
Thomas Todd, 


N.Y. 


Dec. 17, 1806. 


Mass. 


do. do. 


Va. 


March 9, 1807. 


Md. 


do. do. 


Levi Lincoln,! 


Mass. 


Jan. 3, 1811. 


Pa. 


do. do. 


John a. Adams,! 


u 


Feb. 29, 1811. 


Va, 


do. do. 


Gabriel Dnvall, 


Md. 


Not. 18, 1811. 


N.C. 


Feb. 10,1790. 


Joseph Story, 


Mass. 


do. do. 


Md. 


Not. 7, 1791. 


Smith Thompson, 
Robert Trimble, 


N.Y. 


Dec. 9, 18S3. 


N.J. 


March 4,1793. 


Ken. 


May 9, 1896. 


Md. 


Jan. 87,1796. 


John McLean, 


Ohio. 


March?, 1899. 


Va. 


Dec 90,1796. 


Henry Baldwin, 


Pa. 


Jan. 6, 1830. 


B.C. 


March 94, 1804. 









• Appointed by tho President, July 1, 1795 ; nominated to the Senate Dec. 10, 1795 ; but 
not confirmed. f Declined the appointment. 



Digitized by CjOOQr€ 



THE JUDICIAKT. 139 

The judicial power of the United States is vested in one Supreme Court, 
and in such inferior courts as Congress may, from time to time, establish. 
-The present judicial establishment of the United States, consists of a Supreme 
Court, thirty-one District Courts, ai^d seven Circuit Courts, which are fhos 
organized : the Supreme Court is composed of one Chief Justice, and six^ 
Associate Justices, who hold a court in the city of Washington, annually ; 
besides which, each of these justices attends in a certain circuit, com- 
prising two or more districts, appropriated to each; and, together with the 
judge of the district, composes a Circuit Court, which is held in each 
district of the circuit. 

The District Courts are held, respectively, by the District Judge alone. 
Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Courts in cases where 
the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of fifty 
dollars, and from the Circuit Courts to the Supreme Court, in cases wliere 
the matter in dispute, exclasive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of two 
thousand dollars ; and in some cases, where the inconvenience of attend- 
ing a court by a justice of the Supreme Court is very great, the District 
Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. Each state is one district* 
for the purpose of holding District and Circuit Courts therein, with the 
exception of New York, Pennsylvania, Vii^nia, Tennessee, Louisiana, 
«iid Alabama, each of which is divided into two Districts. There are, 
besides. Territorial Courts, which are temporary, and lose that character 
whenever a Territory becomes a State. In addition to the District Court 
for the District of Columbia, there is a Circuit Court for that District, which 
exercises, under the authority of Congress, common law and equity juris- 
diction similar to thftt of the County Courts of Maryland and Virginia. 

Each court has a clerk, a public attorney, or prosecutor, and a mar- 
shal ; all of whom are appoic/ted by the President of the United States, - 
with the exception of the clerks, who are appointed by the courts. Tl)e 
compensation of the judges is fixed by law ; that of the clerks, attorneys, 
and marshals, consists of fees, and in a few instances, as it regards attor- 
neys, and marshals, of a yeariy salary of about 200 dollars. It is very 
difi&cult to ascertain the amount peir annum of the fees received in each 
ease, as the payment of them is frequently procrastinated, and in some 
cases they are entirely lost. The appointments are made by the President, 
liy and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

By an act of Congress of the 16th of May, 1820, district attorneys are 
to be appointed for four years only, removable at pleasure. Marshals have 
always held their offices for four yean, removable at pleasure, in pursuance 
of the 27th section of an act of the 24th of September, 1789 ; so that the 
Marshals who have held their places from an earlier date, have been re- 
commiiiioned many times. The judges hold their offices during good 
behavior, and can be removed only on impeachment. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



140 


UiriTED STA^ff. 




SUP&SMS COXJUT. 








John Marshan, 


Richmond, Ya. 


Chief JtuHee, 


William Jolinsoo, 


Charleston, S. C 


A98oeiate Justice, 


Gabriel DuvaU, 


Marietta, Md. 


do. 


JoMph Slory, 


Cambridge, Mast. 


do. 


Smith Thompson, 


New York, N. Y. 


do. 


John McLean, 


Cincinnati, Ohio, 


do. 


Henry Baldwin, 


Pittsburg, Pa. 


do. 


John McP. Berrien, 


Washington, Cm. 


Jttomey General^ 


William T. CarroU, 


do. 


Clerk, 


Tench Ringgold, 


do. 


MarMhal. 



Salaiy. 
$5,000 
4,600 
4,600 
4,600 
4,600 
4,500 
4,600 
8,600 
Fees, &e. 



Hie Supreme Court of the United States has ezdusiTe jurisdietioa of 
afl eoBtroversies of a civil nature where a state is a party, except between 
a state and its dtixens ; and except also between a state and citizens of 
odier states, or aliens ; in which latter case it has original, but not exdu- 
sire, jurisdiction. It has, exdusively, all such jurisdiction of suits or 
proceedings against ambassadors, or other puUic ministers or their dookes- 
ticf , or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exerdse consist- 
ently with the law of nations ; and original, but not exclusive, jurisdiction 
of aU suits brought by ambassadors, or other public ministers, in which 
a consul, or vice-consul, is a party. The Supreme Court has appellate 
jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the Circuit Courts in cases 
where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of. 
2,000 dollars, and from final decrees and judgments of the highest courts 
of the several states in certain cases, as hereinafter mentioned. It has 
power to issue writs of prohibition to the District Courts, when proceeding 
as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and writs oIL mandamua, in 
cases warranted by the principles and usages of law, to any courts ^»-> 
pointed, or persons holding office, under the authority of the United StatM. 
— ^The trial of issues in fact in the Supreme Court, in all actions at law 
against citizens of the United States, is by jury. 

A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest cowt of law or 
equity of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had, v^hete Is 
drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute oC or ah autfaoiity 
exeidsed under the United States, and the decisi<m is against their vididitgr i 
or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute o^ or an authority 
ttcerdsed under any State, on the ground of their being repugnant to Ihe 
constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States* and the. dedsion is la 
&¥or of such their validity ; or where is drawn in question the conatmction 
of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty or statute oi^ or commissloD 
bdd under the United States, and the decision is against the titf e, ri|^ 
privilege, or exemption, specially set up or daimed by either^^party, imdor 
such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute, or rommiaaion ) may be re- 
examined, and reversed or affirmed, in the Supreme Court of the United 



Digitized by L^OOJ^lC 



. THE JUPICIAKT. 141 

States, upon a writ of error, tbe citatkm being signed by the Chief Justice, 
or Judge, or Chancellor, of the Court rendering or passing the judgment or 
decree complained of, or by a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ 
has the same effect, as if the judgment or decree complained of had been 
tendered or passed in a Circuit Court : and the proceeding upon the re- 
versal is also the same, except that the Supreme Court, instead of remand- 
ing the cause for a final decision, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall 
have been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, 
and award execution. But no other error can be assigned or regarded as a 
ground of reversal in any such case, than such as appears on the face of the 
record, and immediately respects the before-mentioned questions of validity 
or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or 
authorities, in dispute. 

ClRCiriT COXTRTS. 

The Circuit Courts of the United States have original cognizance, con- 
current with the courts of the several states, of all suits of a civil nature, 
«t common law, or in equity, where the matter in dispute exceeds, 
exclusive of costs, the sum or value of 500 dollars, and the United States 
are plaintifl& or petitioners, or an alien is a party, or the st^t is between 
a citizen of the state where the suit is brought and a citizen of another 
state. They have exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offences cog- 
nizable under the authority of the United States (except where the laws 
of the United States otherwu«e direct), and concurrent jurisdiction with the 
District Courts of the crimes and offences cognizable therein. But no 
person can be arrested in one district for trial in another, in any civil action, 
before a Circuit or District Court. No civil suit can be brought, before 
either of said courts, against an inhabitant of the United States, by any 
original process, in any other district than that whereof he Is an faihabitant, 
or in which he shall be found at the time of serving the writ : and no Dis- 
trict or Circuit Court has cognizance of any suit to recover the contents of 
any promissory note, or other cJiose in action, in favor of an assignee, un- 
less a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover the said 
contents if no assignment had been made, except in cases of foreign bills 
of exchange. 

The Circuit Courts have appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and 
judgments of the District Courts in all cases where the matter in dispute 
eixeeeds the sum or value of fifty dollars. They also have jurisdiction of cer- 
tain cases, which may be removed into them before trial from the State 
Courts. But no District Judge (sitting in a Circuit Court) can give a vote 
in any case of appeal, or error, from his own decision ; but may asldgn the 
reasons of such his decision.^The trial of issues in fact in the Circuit Courts 
in all suits, except those of equity and of admiralty and maritime jurisdic- 
tion, is by jury. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



14» 



VIIXTXD STATXS. 

DifTmicT Covmra. 



Tbe District Courts of the United States, have, exclusively of the courts of tht 
several states, cognizance of all crimes and offences that are cognizable under the 
authority of the United States, conmilted withm their respective district, or upon 
the high seas, where no other punishment than whipping, not exceeding thirty alripes, 
a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment not exceedb^ 
six months, is to be inflicted, and also have exclusive original cognizance of all 
civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures und^ laws 
of impost, navigation, or trade, of the United States, where the seizures are made on 
waters which are navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons* burden, 
witlnn their respective districts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in 
aU cases, the right of a common law remedy, where the common law is competent to 
give it ; and also have exchisive original cognizance of all seizures on land or oth^ 
waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties and forfeitures inoonred, 
under the laws of the United States^ And they also have cognizance, concuitent 

with 



Districts. 
Maine, 

N. Hampshire, 
VermoDt, 
Maasaehusetts, 
Rhode Island, 
Oonneetiout, 

^•^•jW.Diat. 
New Jersoy, 
p. i W. Dist. 
^* } E. Dist. 
Delaware, 
Maiyland, 
V- J E. Dist. 
^^ J W. Dist. 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Geor^a, 
.^ (S.Dist. 
^**' i N. Dist. 
Hiasissippi, 
T . ( £. Dist. 
*^ 5 W. Dist. 



m I E. Dist. 

*®"* jW.Dist. 

Kentucky, 

Ohio, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, 

Territory of 
Michigan. 

Territory of Ar- 



Saat Florida, 
Middle Florida, 
West Florida, 
South Florida, 



Judges. 
Anhor Ware, 

Elijah Paine, 
Jolin David, 
Joliii Pitman, 
William Bristol, 

A. Conklins, 

B. R. Betts^ 
William Ro<tacI, 
Jos. Hopkinson, 
Wm. Wilkiiis, 
Willard Hall, 
Eliag Glenn, 

P. P. Barbour, 
Alex. Caldwell, 
H. Potter, 
Thomas Lee, 
Jcr. Cuyler, 

Wm. Crawford, 

Peter Randolph, 

S. H. Harper, 

J. McNairy, 

John Boyle, 
J. W. Campbell, 
Benj. Parke, 
Nathaniel Pope, 
James H. Pock, 

' W.Woodbridge, 

Solomon Sibley, 

H. Chapman, 
^ James D. Doty, 
' Benj. Johnson, 

T. P. Eskridge, 

Wm. Trimble, 

J. W. Bates, 

J. L. Smith, 

T. Randal, 
H.M.Brackenridfa, 

James Webb, 



District Courts 

Residence, 
Portland, 



Williamstown, 

lioston. 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Albany, 

New York, 

Mi. Holly, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Belmont, 

Baltimore^ 

Gordonsville, 

Clarksburg, . 

Raleigh, 

Charleston, 

Savannah, 

Mobile, 

Natchez, 

New Orleans, 

Nashville, 

Harrodsbnrg, 
Wert Union, 
Salem, 
Vandalia, 
St. Jjouis, 

Detroit, 
do. '' 

do. 
do. 

P. of Arkansas, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

St. Augostine, 
Tallah&asee, 
Pensacola, 
Webbville, 



Salary, 
$1,800. 
1,000. 
1,300. 
2,500. 
1,500. 
1,500. 
3,000. 
3,500. 
1,500. 
2,500. 
1,800. 
1,500. 
2,000. 
1,800. 
1,600. 
2,000. 
2,500. 
2,500. 

2,500. j 

2,000. 

3,000. j 

1,500.1 

1,500. 
1,000. 
1,000. 

1,200. 

1,300.^ 

1,200. I 

1,200. j 

1,200. 

1,200.^ 

1,300. 

1,200. 

1,200., 

1,500. 

1,500. 

1,500. 

1,500. 



— JuDoss, Attobkxts. 
9300T 



jiUomeys, 
Ether Shepley, 
D. M. Dmell, 
Daniel Kellosg, 
Andrew Donlap, 
R. W. Green, 
Asa Child, 
Sam. Beardaley, 
J. A. Hamilton, 
G. D. Wall, 
G. M. Dallas, 

A. Brackenridge, 
Greo. Read, Jun. 
N. Williams, 

R. Stannard, 
W. A. Harrison, 
T. P. Devereanx, 
John Gadadeo, 
M. H.M'AUister, 
John Elliot, 
Joseph Scott, 
George Adams, 
John SUdell, 

B. F. Linton, 

J. A. M*Kinney, 
J. Collittsworth, 
J. S. Smith, 
Samoel Hcrrick, 
Samuel Judah, 
S. AlcRoberta, 
George SliannoQ, 



Daaittl Leroy, 



S. C. Roane, 

Th. Dovglaas, 
J. G. Ringgoto, 
B. D. Wi?ght, 
J. K. Campbell, 



fees. 

400 
200 do. 
Peea, iu^ 
200&;ftes. 
300 do. 
300 do. 
200 do. 
200 do. 
Fees. 

2008ctiMS. 
300 do. 
Fees,&o. 
380 ai feet. 
300 do. 
300 do. 
Fe«a,lkc. 
200^608. 
300 do.) 
300 do.) 
200 do. 
600 do. 
300 do. 
300 do 
SOO do. 
30D diw 
80O do. 
300 ds^ 

300 do. 






200 dft. 

800 do. 

210 do. 

2)0 do. 

300 do. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



•tm* jumcujiT. 



141 



witk die courts of tbe several states, or their dreuit courts, as the case may be, of all 
eanses mi^hmto an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations, or a 
treaty of the United States. Tbey also have cognizance, concurrent as last-mention- 
ed, ^ aU suits at common law, where the United States sue, and the matter in <!&§• 
pate amounts, exclusive of costs, to the sum or value of one hundred dollars. They 
also have junsdiciton, exclusively of the courts of the several states, of all suits 
against consuls or vice-cm»uls, except for oflfences above the description aforesaid. 
IHie trial of issues in fact, in the district courts, in all causes, except civil causes 
irf* admiralty and maritime juris<hction, is by jury. 

Ao act of the 18th of December, 1812, requires the district and territorial judges of 
the UnitoH States to reside within the disteicts and territories, respectively, for which 
they are appointed ; and makes it unlawful for any judge, appointed under the au- 
Aority of Uie United States, to exercise the profession or employment of counsel or 
attnney, or to be engaged in the practice of the law. And any person offending 
against die iiyunction or prohibition of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a x ' 



If AWHfAM, AWP 


Clkrks. 




1 


MarsJuds, 


Reridence, 


Pav. Clerks, Meaideiue. 


Pay. \ 


Albert Smith, 


Portland, 


90^kfi^. 


John Mussey, 


Portland, 


Fees,lM. 


^earaoa Cogswell, 


Gilmaaton, 


C. W. Cuttor, 


Portsmouth, 


do. 


Bemao Lowry, 


Buiiington, 


300 &. fees. 


Jesse Gove, 


Rutland, 


do. 


8. D. Harm, 
B. Anthony, 


Boston, 


Fees, aic. 


J. W. DavM, 


Boston, 


do. 


^rovidepce, 


dJ. 


Benjamin Cowell, 
C. A. Ingersoll, 


Providence, 


do. 


James Mitchell, 
|J.W. Uviogaton, 


Sew Haven, 


do. 


New Haven, 


do. 


Skeneatelea, 


900&£ms. 


R. R. Lansing, 


Utiea, 
New York, 


do. 


iThomas atoTrbr 
Zeph. Drake, 
lohn Conrad, 


New York, 


Fees, flic. 


P.J.Betts, 


do. 


N.Germantown 


do. 


W. Pennington, 
D. Caldwell, 


Newark, 


do. 


Philadelphia, 


do. 


Philadelphia, 


do. 


lohn M. Oavia, 


Pittsburg, 


SOO&fees. 


£. J. Roberts. 


Pittsburg, 


do. 


D.aWibon, 




900 do. 


T. Witherspoon, 


Wllmiaston, 


do. 


Thomaa Finley, 


Baltimore, 


Fees, Sec, 


Philip Moore, 


Baltimore, 


do. 


MhoFegram, 


Richmond, 


do. 


Richard Jeffties, 


Richmond, 


do. 




Clarksburg, 


SOOaifees. 


John Webster, 


Clarksburff, 


do. 


Beverly Daniel, 
jl.A.Varin,,' 


i.harleston. 


Fees, &;c. 


W. H. Haywood, 


Raleish, 
Charleston, 


do. 


d<^ 


James Jarvey, 


do. 


J. H. Morel, 


Savsnnah, 


do. 


George Glen, 


Savannah, 


eio. 


P. W. Armstrong, 


Claiborne, 


do. 


J. Aiiathi, 


Mobile, 


do. 


iobn H. Norton, 


Natchez, 
New Orleans, 


200 a fees. 


Wm. Burns, 


Natchez, 


do. 


J.Nicholson, 


300 do. 








P. H. Duperier, 
W^illiam Lyon, 


New Iberia, 


Fees, &c. 








Chueky Bend, 


900^ fees. 


W. C. Mynott, 


Knozville, 


d<k 


lobert Pordy, 
J.ll.McCanlt, 


Murfreesboro*, 


200 do. 


N. A. McNairy. 


Nashville, 


do. 


Lexington, 


300 do. 


J. H. Hanna, 


Frankfort, 


do. 


John Patterson, 


SteubenviUe, 


900 do. 


W. K. Bond, 




do, 


WilUam Marshall, 


Vernon, 


200 do. 


Henry Hurst, 


Corydon, 


do. 


Charlea Slad«, 


Kaskaskia, 


900 do. 








AegiHtas Jonas, 


St.Lrais, 


909 do. 


Isaac Barton, 


St. Louis, 


do. 


ThoTOs Rowland, 


Detroit, 


SOO do. 








G.W.Seott, 


P. of Arkansas, 


900 do. 








Waaers 0mitb, 


St. Augustine, 


90a do. 










I'allahassee, 


90O do. 








J. W, Exam, 


Peosaoola, 


900 do. 




- 




UM. Stone, 


Key West, 


200 do. 









Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



144 



UllITVn STATKS. 



Placbs Ain> Times or holdiko mt Supreme, District, ahd 
CiRCiriT CooRTs or trb Ujtited States. 

Supreme Court, 
The Supreme Court is held in the city of Washington, and has one sessiso 
ererj year, conunencing on the second Monday in January. 

DUtriet CourL 
C Wi»ea$8et—LMt Tuesday in Feb., and 2d Tuesday io 
( Sept 'y-^Portiand^Fint Tuesday in June and Dec 

i Portsmouth — Sd Tuesday in March and Sept. ; — JExC' 
ter — Sd Tuesday in June and Dec. 
i Windsor tf Rutland— -Ist Monday in Feb. and Aug. ; 
and 2d Monday in May and Nov. 
! Boston — 8d Tuesday in Bdbrch, 4th Tuesday in June, 
2d Tuesday in Sept., and 1st Tuesday in Dec 
iJVet^porf — 2d Tuesday in May, and 8d in October )— 
Providence — 1st Tuesday in Aug., aiid February. 
iJ^eu) Hcmer^—Aih Tuesday in Feb. and Aug. \ — 
Hartford-^ih Tuesday in May and Nov. 

S ^evD York — 1st Tuesday of each month. 

C Albany —^^ Tuesday in Jan. ;— CTKca— Last Tuesday 

\ in August. 

C JVew Brunswick — 2d Tuesday in March and Sept ; 

< — Burlington — 8d Tuesday in May and Novem- 
^ bar. 

! Philadelphia — 3d Monday in Febraary, May, Au- 
gust, and November. 
( Pittsburg — 1st Monday in May, and Sd Monday in 
I October. 
C JVewcastle ^ Dover — alternately, on the 4th Tuesday 

< in Nov. 1789 ; and three other sessions, progrcssive- 
( ly, on tho 4th Tuesday of every 3d calendar month. 
C Baltimore—on the Ist Tuesday in March, June, 
\ Sept., and Dec 

Washington — 1st Monday in June and December. 
C Richmond — 15th of May, and 15th of November ; — 
I JVorfolk—lsi of May, and 1st of November. 

(Staunton — 2d Monday in April and September; — 
Wythe Court HouseSd Monday in April and 
Sept. i^-Lewisburg — 4th Monday April and Sept ; 
— Claxksbiirg—Aih Monday in May and Oct 
C Edenton — 3d Monday in April and Oct; — J^ewhem-^ 

< 4th Monday in April and Oct ; — Wilmington — Ist 
^ Monday after the 4th Monday in April and Oct. 
C Charleston — Sd Monday in March and Sept; 1st 
I Monday in Joly, and 2d Monday in Dec. ;— XoM* 
I rens Court House — the next Tuesday after the 
l^ adjournment of the Circuit Court at ColumUa. 



Maihe. 

N. Hampshire. 

Vermont. 

Massachusetts. 

Rhode Islamd. 

Connecticut. 

New York, 
S. Disthict. 

New York, 
N. District. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania, 
E. District. 

Pennsylvania, 
W. District. 

Delaware. 

Martlaitd. 

Columbia. 
Virginia, 
£. District. 

Virginia, 
W. District^ 

N. Carolina. 



S. Carolina. 



y Google 



Oboroia. 
AiJl. N. District. 
Ala. S. Distbigt. 
Mississippi. ' . 
La. E. District. 
La. W. District. 

Tbihibsskb, 

' £. District. 
TsinrBssKE, 

W* District, 
Keictuckt. 

Ohio. 

Indiaita. 
Illinois. 
Missouri. 



lUDtCIART. 145 

Stwofmah^Td Tuewlay in Feb., May, Aug., and Nor. 
ffuntsviUe-^Ut Monday in March and October. 
Mobile — 1st Monday in May and December. 
Mams Co, Court House— 4th Mond. in Jan. & Jtnii, 
JVew Orleans — ^2d Monday in December. 
OpelouscLB Court House — Sd Monday in August. 
Khoxtfille — 8d Bionday in April, and 2d Monday in 
October. 

JVashville — 4th Monday in May and November. 

FrarU^ort^Ut Monday in Mxy and November. 
Columbus— 3d Monday in July, and 4th Monday in 

December. 
IhdianopoUs — 1st Monday in May and Novembec* 
VandaUa — 3d Monday in June and November. 
Jefferson — Ist Monday in March and September. 



Cireuit Courts, 

Maine. Portland— 1 st May ; — Wiseasset—Ut October. 

N. Hampshire. Portsmouth— 8ih May ;— Exeter— 8th October. 
Vermont. Windsor— 20ih May \—Rutland-^d October. 

Massachusetts. Boston — 16th May, and 15th October. 
Rhode Island. JVeujport^lbih June ; — Providence — 15th November. 
C JVew Haven — ^last Wednesday in April ; — Hartford^ 
\ 17th September. 
JVeto York — ^last Monday in Feb., May, July, and Oct. 
Trenton — Ist April, and 1st October. 
PhUadelphia-Wih AprU, and 11th October. 
Kewcastle ^ Dover ^ alternately, 8d June, k, 27th Oct 
Bedtimore—Q^ April, and 1st November. 
C Washingtonr—Ut Afonday in April-^2e«oti(2ria— Ist 
\ Monday in November and May. 
Rxehmondr—22A May, and 22d November. 
Rodtigh— 12^ May, and 12th November. 
Charleston"2d Tuesday, April \— Columbia— AHh Mon- 
day, November. 
C Savannah— ThvasAsy after the Ist Monday in May ; 
< —Jifi22edJ§^e9i2/e— Thursday after the Ist if onday in 
^ November. 

C JVashville— Isi Monday, Sept. \—KnoxmUe—2d Mon- 
\ day in October. 

Frankfort^Ui Monday in May and November. 

Cohmbus—7A Monday in July, & 8d Monday in Dee. 

18 



Connecticut. 

New York. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Delaware. 
Maryland. 

Columbia. 

Virginia. 
N. Carolina. 
S. Carolina. 



Georgia. 



TxxnrxssBB. 

Kbittucky. 
Ohio. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



146 



ViriTXS ITATSS. 



IX. INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN STATES. 

MiHisTSRs Plenipotentiary receive an annual salary of $9,000» besides 
99,000 for an outfit A Chaig^ d'Affidres receives a salary of $4,600, 
and a Secretary of Legation one of j2,000. These several officers are 
appointed ^y. the President, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. 

Public Ministers of thb Uitited States. 



Great Britain, 
9raao«, 
Rnnia, 
Spain, 
TetlM«iaiidi, 
Colombia, 



FoMignSuUs. 



Portogal, 

Swoden, 

Denmark, 

Mexico, 

Brazil, 

Cent. Rep. Am. 

Buenoa Ayna, 

Cliili, 

Pectt, 



nary and Mlnister» 



LouiB McLane, 
Wm. C. Bivet, 
Henry Middleton, 
C. P. Van NoM, 
Wm. P. Preble, 
Th. P. Moore, 
dCgid'Aff^es. 
Th. li. L. Brent, 
Christo. Hu^es, 
Henry Wheaton, 
Anthony Butler, 



J. M. Fottot, 
Samuel Lamed, 
J.Weat, 



State, 



Sir 

Vu. 

S.C. 

Vt. 

Me. 

Ken. 

Va. 
Md. 
N.Y. 



Fl. 
R.I. 

n. 



Dale. 



1889. 

isao, 

1829. 



1895. 

1819. 
1827. 



19Q5. 



Salary. 



OooT 

9,000. 
9,000. 
9,000. 
9,(KI0. 
9,000. 

4,500. 
4,500. 
4,500. 
4,500. 
4,500. 
4,500. 
4,500. 



1828. 4,500. 
1809. 4,500. 



Seeretarienif L^foHeiu^ 

iVaihington living, N.\. 
Caiarle* C. Harper, Md. 
B. T. WatU, S. C. 
Charles S. Wakh, Md. 
Auffuste Davezac, La. 
J. 0. Pickett, Ken. 



John Maaon, 






9,000. 
2,000. 
2,000. 
9,000. 



9,000. 



Foreign Ministers now in the Unified States. 
From 
Great Britain. Rt. Hon. Ch. R. Yauglian, Envoy Eztr. and Min. Plenq>. 
Count de Menou, Charg^ d'Afi&ires. 
Baron Erudener, Envoy Extr. and Minister Plenipotentiary. 
Don Francisco Tacon, Minister Resident. 
Chevalier Bengeman Huygens, Env. Extr. and Min.Plenip. 
Chevalier Torlade D*Azamhuja, Charg^ d'Affidres. 
L. Neiderstetter, Charg^ d'Afiaires. 
Baron Stacklebnrg, Char^^ d'Aflidres. 
Don J. M. Tomell, Envoy Extr. and Min. Plenipotentiaiy, 
Don Joaquin Campino, Minister Extr. and Plenipotentiary. 
De Araujo Ribeiro, Charg^ d*Aflkire8.< 
Don Xavier de Medina, Consul General, New Toik. 



France. 

Russia. 

Spain. 

Netherlands. 

Portugal. 

Prussia. 

Sweden. 

Mexieo. 

ChiU. 

Brazil. 

Colombia. 



X. THE ARMT. 

The military peace establishment of the United States was reduced by 
tn act of Congress^ of the 2d of March, 1821, from ten to six thousand men. 
The law went into operation the same year, on the first of June, and ttM- 
mahis unaltered* The anBy» m organized according to this law, is under tht 
eonunand of one m^or general and two brigadier geperals ; and it consists of 
four regiments of artillery and seven regiments of infantry, comprising of die 
geneial staff, 119, of artillery 2,240, and of Infantry 8,82»-4Dtal 6,186 men. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC' 



ARMT. 



147 



GKiTEmAi. Airs PiuifciPAL Staff Officem. 



Alexander Macomb, 
Edmund P. Gaines, 
Windfield Scott, 
Roger Jones, 
Thomas S. Jesup, 
John £. Wool, 
George Croghan, 
Geoige Gibson, 
Charles Gratiot, 



Major General, 
Brigadier General, 

do. 
Colonel, 

Brig. Gen., Maj. Gen. Bvt 
Colonel, Brig. Gen. B7t. 
Colonel, . 

Col.» Br. Gen. Bvt. 
Colonel, Brig. Gen. Bvt. 



Chief in command. 
Major Gen. Brevet. 

do. 
Adjutant (General. 
Quarter Mast. Gen. 
Inspector Genend. 

do. 

Com. Gen. of Subsist 

Chief Engineer. 



Compensation to Officers of the Jlrtny^ including Pay, Subsi&tenee, 
Forage y Fuel, Quarters, and Eaepensefor Servants, 



Major General, 
Brigadier General, 
Adjutant General, 
Inspector General, 
Com'yGen.ofSub. 
Col. of Ordnance, 
Lieut. Col. of Ord. 
Colonel, 
Lieut. Colonel, 



Per month. 

544,58i, 

870,12^, 

269,54, 

233,04, 

261,54, 

261,54, 

220,00, 

246,64, 

205,00, 



Per ann. 
6,535,00. 
4,441,50. 
3,234,48. 
2,796,48. 
3,138,48. 
3,138,48. 
2,640,00. 
2,958,48. 
8,460,00. 



Maj. of Staff, 
Major, 
Surgeon, 
As'l Surgeon, 
Capt. of Ord. 
Captain, 
Lieut, of Ord,. 
IstLieutenant, 
2d Lieutenant, 



Permonth. 
176,49J, 
182,83J, 
125,83J, 
102,37i, 
142,87|, 
132,87i, 
115,89|, 
112,56^ 
107,56^, 



Per. ann. 
2,117,92. 
2,194,00, 
1,610,00. 
1,228,60, 
1,714,60. 
1,694,60. 
1,390,74. 
1,860,75. 
1,290,75 



XI. MILITARY ACADEMY. 



Thx Military Academy consists of the Corps of Engineers ; of one pro- 
fessor and an assistant professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy ; 
one professor and an assistant professor of Mathematics ; one professor and 
8n assistant professor of the Art of Engineering in all its branches ; a chaplain 
and professor of ethics ; a teacher of drawing ; a surgeon ; and a sword« 
Blaster. The number of cadets is limited to two hundred and fifty. They 
may be attached, at the discretion of the President of the United States, as 
students to the military academy, and become subject to its regulations. 
They are arranged in companies of non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates, for the purposes of military instruction. There are four musicians to 
each company ; and the corps is trained and taught all the duties of a pri- 
vate, a non-commissioned officer, and an officer ; is encamped at least three 
months of each, year, and instructed in aH the duties incident to a regulai 
euasf. Candidates for cadets must not be under fourteen, nor above twenty- 
one years of age ; and each cadet, previously to his appointment by the 
Preddent, must be versed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and must 
•ign articles, with the consent of his parent and guardian, thereby engapng 
to serve five years, unless sooner discharged* The pay of a cadet Is fix- 
teen doUiufB per month, and two rations per day* When any cadet has 
Nceived a regular degjree from the academic staff, alter going through all 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



148 VlflTBD STATES. 

0ie dasMf, he is conddered as among the candidates for a commission ia 
any corps, according to the duties he may he judged competent to perform ; 
and if ^re is not, at the time, a vacancy in such corps, he may be attached 
to ft at the discretion of the President, by brevet of the lowest rank until a 
Tacancy shall happen. The military academy is seated at West Point, in 
flie State of New York, on the river Hudson. The chief engineer is, s« 
qffidOf inspector of the military academy. 

Academic Staff. 

Sylvanus Thayer, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, of the Corps of Engineers 
Superintendent and Commandant, 

David B. Douglass, A. M. Professor of Engineering. 

Charies Mason, Brevet 2d Lieut. Corps of Engineers, '.^swfont do» 

Charies Davies> A. M. Professor of Mathematics, 

E. C. Ross, 1st Lieut. 4th Artillery, Jissist. Professor of Mathematki. 
L. B. Webster, 2d Lieut 1st Artillery, do. do. 

A. E. Church, 2d Lieut. 3d Artillery, do. do. 

J. B. Smith, Brevet 2d Lieut. 4th Artillery, do, do. 

C, W. Hackley, Brevet 2d Lieut. 2d Artillery, do. do. 

0. McK. Mitchell, Brevet 2d Lieut. 3d Artillery, do, do. 

Roswell Park, Cadet, 2d Class, do. do. 

Rev. Thomas Warner, Chaplain and Professor of Ethics. 

Joseph A. Smith, Brevet 2d Lieut. 3d Artillery, .Assistant Professor. 

Edward H. Courtenay, Professor ofJVatural Philosophy. 
. Thomas J. Cram, 2d Lieut. 4th Artillery, Assistant Professor. 

Claudius Berard, 1st Teacher of the French Language. 

Joseph Du Commun, 2d^ Teacher of the French Language. 

James Barnes, Brevet 2d Lieut. 4th Artillery, Assistant Teacher, 

Thomas Girabrede, Teacher of Drawing. 

Theophilus B. Brown, 2d Lieut. 3d Artillery, Assistant Teacher. 

Ethan A. Hitchcock, Capt. 1st Inf^try^ Instructerin Tactics and Com- 
mandant of the Corps of Cadets, 

Charles F. Smith, 2d Lieut. 2d Artillery, Assistant Instructer. 

Ludan J. Bibb, 2d Lieut. Ist Artillery, do. 

Joseph L. Locke, Brevet 2d Lieut. 2d Artillery, do, 

Z. J. D. Kinsley* Ist Lieut. 8d Artillery, Instrueter in ArtiUery. 

William F. Hopkins, 2d Lieut. 4th Artillery, Acting Professor i>/ Chem- 
istry and Mineralogy, 

William. W. Mather, 2d Lieut. 7th Infantry, Asstitant Professor. 

Louis S. Simon, Sword-master. 

Military Staff. 
John L. Gardner, Captain, 4th ArtHlery, Quarter Master. 
Thomas J. Leslie, 1st Lieut. Corps of Engineers, Paymaster and Treas. 

F. L. Griffith, 1st Lieut. 2d ArUllery, Adjutant. 
Doctor Walter V. Wheaton, Surgeon. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



▼SMBL8 or WAK. 



146 



Xn. VESSELS OF WAR. 



Name and Rate. 


"Wheie and when built. 


Whore emptoywk. 


AfM^CiULaie. 4 


G4m«. 










74 


Cbariestown, 


1814 


In ordinary, at Boston. 


Franklin, 


74 


Philadelphia, 


1815 


do. at New York. 


Washington, 


74 


Portsmouth, 


1816 


do. at New York. 


Cohmibiis, 


74 


Washington, 


1819 


do. at Boston. 


Ohio, 


74 


New York, 


1820 


do. at New York. 


North ParoUna, 


74 




1820 


do. at Gosport. 


Delaware, 


74 


Gosport, Va. 


1820 


do. at Norfolk. 


Mgmtm, Ut CUm. 








United States, 


44 




1797 


In ordinary, at New Yoik. 


Constitution, 


44 


Charlestown, 


1797 


do. at New Yoric. 


Gneriiere, 


44 


PhUaddphia, 


1814 


Jn the Pacific. 


JaTa. 


44 


Baltimore, 


1814 




Potomac, 


44 


Washington, 


1821 


In ordinary, at Washington. 


Brandywine, 


44 


Washington, 


1825 


In the West Indies. 


Hudson, 


44 


Purchased, 


1826 


On the coast of Brazil. 


Frigates, 5U Cla$$. 
Congress, 36 


Portsmouth, 


1799 


Receiving Ship at Norfolk. 




86 


Baltimore, 


1797 


In the Mediterranean. 


Macedonian, 


36 


Captured, 


1812 


In orduiary, at Norfolk. 


Sldoft qf War, 
John Adams, 


24 


^Charie8ton,S.C.1799 


In ordmary, at Norfolk. 


Cyane, 


24 


Captured, 


1815 


do. at Philadelphia. 


Erie, 


18 


Baltimore, 


1813 


In the West Indies. 


Ontario, 


18 


Baltimore, 


1813 


In the Mediterranean. 


Peacock, 


18 


NewYoric, 


1813 


In the West Indies. 


Boston, 


18 


Chariestown, 


1825 


In ordinary, at New York. 


Lexington, 


18 


New York, 


1825 




Vincennes, 


18 


New York, 


1826 


In the Pacific. 


Warren, 


18 


Boston, 


1826 




Natchez, 


18 


Norfolk, 


1827 


In the West Indies. 


Falmouth, 


18 


Charlestown, 


1827 


In the West Indies. 


Fairfield, 


18 


New York, 


1828 


In the Mediterranean. 


Vandalia, 


18 


Philadelphia, 


1828 


On the coast of Brazil. 


St. Louis, 


18 


Washmgton, 


1828 


In the Pacific. 


Concord, 


18 


Portsmouth, 


1828 


Fitting out at Portsmouth. 


Sekoanen,^. 










Dolphin, 


12 


PUbdelphia, 


1821 


In the Pacific. 


Qampos, 


12 


Washington, 


1821 


In the West Indiei. 


Porpoise, 


12 


Portsmouth, 


1820 


In ordinary, at Norfolk. 


Shark, 


12 


Washington, 


^821 


In the West Indies. 


Fo«, 


3 


Purchased, 


1823 


Used as a receiv*g ship at Baat 


AWi, (store skip) 


Captured, 


1812 


do. NoHblk. 


Sea Chill, (galtiot) 


Pwefaased, 


1823 


do. PhU. 



The numiber of Captmm k the Navy List is 97 : MaUerf Conmumiant 8S : 
Lhtitmrntt g&t, 

The United States have 7 Navy Ymrd§, vis. at Portsmouth, N. H., Chariei- 
town, Mass., on Long Island near the city of New York, at Philadelphia, tit 
Washington, at Gosport, Va., and at Pensacola. 
13* 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



w 



VmTXD BTATBfl* 



Xin. THE CUSTOMS. 

Ths prindpal officer employed in the collectioQ of the duties on importf 
nd tonnage, if die CoUecitor, to whom the Naval Officer is M once an aid 
and a check. The Surveyor superintends and directs the inferior officers 
ef die customs ; and all'three are appointed hy the President and Senate. — 
lliey fbrmeriy held their offices for an indefinite period ; hut, hy an act 
of the 15th May, 1820, their appointment is now limited to four years. 

Weighers, gaugers, measurers, and inspectors, are appointed hy the Col- - 
lector, with the approbation of the principal officer of the treasury depart- . 
ment. For the duties of these several officers, see the act of Congress of the 
2d of March, 1799. Public appraisers are authorized by an act of the 20th 
of April, 1818. Their business is to appraise imported goods subject to 
duty ad valorem, when they are suspected to have been invoiced below the 
true value. They are appointed by the President and Senate, and hold 
their commissions during the pleasure of the President 

Collectors or the Customs. 



NAMES. 



Leonard Jarvis, 
Samuel A. Morse, 
Edward S. Jarvis, 
Joshua Carpenter, 
Denny McCobb, 
Thomas McCrate, 
William King, 
John Chandler, 
John F. Scamman, 
Barnabas Palmer, 
Marie Dennet, 
Daniel Lane, 

WUliam Pickering, 

Archibald W. Hyde, 

Samuel Phillips, 
William Beach, 
Timothy Souther, 
James Miller, 
Benjamin Knight, 
David Henshaw, 
Schuyler Sampson, 
William Wood, 
Isaiah L. Greene. 
Lemuel Williams, 
John P. Norton, 
|M. T.Morton, 



Where employed. Date of appointment. 



Maine. 
Passamaquoddy, 
Machias, 

Frenchman's Bay, 
Penobscot, 
Waldoborough, 
Wiscasset, 
Bath, 
Portland, 
Saco, 

Kennebunk, 
York, 
Belfast, 

JVew Hampshire. 
Portsmouth, 

Vermont. 
Allburg, 

Masaaehwetta. 
Newbury port, 
Gloucester, 
Ipswich, 
Salem, 
Marblehead, 
Boston, 
Plymouth, 
Dighton, 
Barnstable, 
New Bedford, 
Edgartown,^ 
Nantucket, 



April 

January 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

Nov. 



Gom] 



Dpena»> 
tion. 



1, 1830, 
28, 1828, 

2, 1827, 
19, 1830, 

3, 1829, 
11, 1829, 
23, 1830, 
11, 1829, 
11, 1829, 
11, 1829. 
11, 1829, 
30, 1826, 



April 8, 1830, 
February 16, 1830, 



March 24, 
March 24, 
April 1, 
January 3, 
February 19, 
April 7, 
March 11, 
March 22, 
March 8, 
March 8, 
February 19, 
January 28, 



1830, 
1830, 
1830, 
1829, 
1830, 
1829, 



1830, 
1830, 
1830, 
i8.W, 

1830, 



1652 88. 

471 77. 

431 72. 

956 00. 
1285 15. 

843 88. 
2084 97. 
3400 00. 

590 57. 

717 96. 

296 03. 

906 84. 

2186 30. 

1368 53. 

1154 45. 
2992 24. 

250 00. 
238104. 
1238 42. 
4000 00. 
1068 41. 

513 48. 

887 67. 
2588 45. 

779 22. 

674 00. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



C0LLBCT0A8 Or t^E CUSTOMS. 



lOL 



MAMES. 



Walter R. Danibrth, 
Nathaniel Bullock, 
Christopher Ellery, 

Noah A. Phelptf, 
Richard Law, 
William H. Ellis, 
Walter Bradley, 

Thomas Loomis, 
Jacob Gould, 
John Grant, Juo. 
Seymour Scovell, 
Pierce A. Barker, 
Baron S. Doty, 
John P. Osborne, 
Samuel Swartwout, 
Aaron Ogden, (assistant) 
David B. McNeil, 
Jere Carrier, 

James Parker, 
Ebenezer Elmer, 
Gresham Mott, 
Mahlon D. Canfield, 
George W. Tucker, 

James N. Barker, 
Thomas Forster, 

Henry Whiteley, 

J. H. McCulloch, 
'Alexander Randall, 
|George Hudson, 
fjohn Willis, 
John Ennalls, 
Thomas R. Johnson, 

Thomas Turner, 
George Brent, 

James Gibbon, 
Robert S. Garnet, 
Conway Whittle, 
John B. Roberts, 
Nathaniel Holland, 
William Nelson, 
Charies Mclndoe, 
William P. Curtis, 

Stephen Charles, 



Where emptojred. 



Rhode Island, 
Providence, 
Bristol & Warren, 
Newport, 

Connecticut, 
Middletown, 
New London, 
New Haven, 
Fairfield, 

JV*eu) York, 
Sftckett's Harbor, 
Genesee, 
Oswego, 
Niagara, 
Buroilo Creek, 
Osweeatchie, 
Sag ilarbor. 
New York, 
Jersey City, 
Champlain, 
Cape Vincent, 

^ew Jersey, 
Perth Amboy, 
Bridgetown, 
Burhngton, 
Great Egg Harbor, 
Little Egg Harbor, 

Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia, 
Presque Isle, 
Delaware, 
Newcastle, 

Maryland, 
Baltimore, 
Annapolis, 
Snowhill, 
Oxford, 
Vienna, 
St. Maiy's, 
Dist. of Columbia. 
Georgetown, 
Alexandria, 

Virginia. 
Richmond, 
Tappahannock, 
Norfolk, 
East River, 
Cherry Stone; 
York Town, 
Petersburg, 
Folly Landing, 
JVorth Carolina, 
Camden, 



March 11, 1829, 
January 2, 1828, 
April 6, 1828, 

March 11, 1829, 
Dec. 24, 1826, 
March 11, 1829, 
January 28, 1890, 



I>at« ofappointaMnt. 



Coomoea. 
tioo. 



March 

March 

May 

March , 

March 

March 

March 

March 

March 

May 

March 



S3, 1880, 

23, 1830 

2, 1830, 

23, 1830, 

22, 1830, 

28, 1830, 
10, 1880, 

29, 1830 

23, 1830, 
2, 1830, 

23, 1830, 



March 11, 1829. 

May 6, 1830 

March 28, 1828, 

January 28, 1830, 

March 11, 1829, 

March 11, 1829, 
March 9, 1729, 

February 16, 1830, 

May 1, 1830, 

Dec. 19, 1826. 
January 26, 1829. 
March 9, 1829, 
January 4, 1829, 
April 9, 1829 

March 1, 1830, 
February 16, 1830, 



January 4, 
January 9, 
March 19, 
January 28, 
March 8, 
April 8, 

March 28, 
January 10, 



1829, 

1830, 
1830, 
1830, 
1829, 
1830, 
1830, 
1829, 



March 28, 1830, 



2518 7». 

116917. 

48189. 

245152. 
922 42. 

2305 09. 
880 26. 

886 07. 

767 21. 

680 08. 

416 40. 
108158. 

980 94. 

594 79. 
4000 00. 
1000 00. 
1104 84. 

480 00. 

2459 04. 
463 03. 
188 42. 

482 71. 
800 82. 

4000 00. 
486 18. 

344 89. 

3672 48. 
365 71. 
888 42. 
5.37 68. 
200 00. 
278 00. 

1304 91.' 



1702 96. 
685 79. 
904 88. 
330 82. 
315 88. 
251 91. 
666 90. 
858 46. 

200 00. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



UmTBD tTATBt. 



NAMES. 



Duncan McDonald, 
LeriFaean, 
Thomaa H. Blount, 
Fiandt Hawkt, 
Joahua Tayloe, 
Hanry M. Cook, 
Jamaa Owen, 

Jamea R. Pringle, 
Thomas L. Shaw, 
William Joyner, 

John Stephena, 
Samuel S. Law, 
John N. Mclntoah, 
Aicliibald Clark, 
Alexander Netherditt, 

John Rodman, 
Gabriel J. Floyd, 
Algernon S. Thruiton, 
lease H. Willis, 
Robert Mitchell, 

0«0fge W. Owen, 

P. R. R. Pray, 

Martin Gordon, 
Joaeph Abom, 

Lemuel T. Lloyd, 
William Hunter, 
Samuel Starkweather, 

Adam D. Stewart, 
Andrew Mack, 



Where MBplojad. 



Edenton, 

Phrmouth, 

Washington* 

Newbem, 

Ocracoke, 

Beaufort, 

Wilmington, 

South CaroUnOf 

Charleston, 

Georgetown, 

BeauTort, 

Georgia. 
Savannah, 
Sunbury, 
Brunswick, > 
St Mary's, 
Hard wick, 

Florida. 
St Augustine, 
Apalachicola, 
Key West, 
St Marks, 
Pensacola, 

Alabama, 
Mobile, 

Mississippi. 
Pearl River, 

Lomsiatia. 
New Orleans, 
Teche, 

Ohio. 
Miami, 
Sandusky, 
Cuyahoga, 

Jilichigan. 
Michilimackinac, 
Detroit, 



February 29, 
February 19, 
February 19, 
March 8, 
January 10, 
March 23^ 
January 10, 



DftU of appointment. 



1826, 
1830, 
1^0, 
1829, 
1829, 
1830, 
1829, 



January 29, 1828. 
January 8, 1830, 
March 22, 1830, 

April 1, 1880, 
lifarch 17, 1830, 
January 19, 1829, 
May 6, 1830, 

Dec. 28, 1826, 

March 8, 1827, 
March 28, 1830, 
March 23, 1880, 
February 20, 1829, 
April 3, 1830, 

March 11, 1829, 

March 11, 1829, 

March 28, 1830, 
February 8, 1828, 

March 28, 1830, 
March 23, 1830, 
March 11, 1829, 

January 23, 1830, 
March 23, 1830, 



Compenss^' 



772 82. 

854 84. 

260 00. 
18W77. 
1140 04. 

367 00. 
1500 00. 

8018 00. 
880 79. 
260 00. 

1596 83. 
865 00. 
545 52. 
535 82. 
200 00. 

517 60. 
900 00. 

2ooaoo. 

544 74. 
652 22. 

2844 87. 

250 00. 

4000 00. 
252 61. 

250 00. 
474 41. 
477 86. 

897 85. 
772 66. 



XIV. LAND OFFICES 
miih the J^ames of the lUgisters attd Iteeeioera of the Pubiie Moneyw. 



OffiooT 



l^teubenville, Ohio, 

Muietta, do. 

Cincinnati, do. 

ChOlicothe, do. 

Zanasvilie, do. 

Wooater, do. 

nflm, do. 



Rcgiitew. 



David Hoge, 
Joseph Wood* 
Peyton S. Symmea, 
Thomas Seott, 
Thomas Flood, 
Joseph S. Lake, 
Thomas B. Van Home,' 
James B. Gardner, 



Receiv'i of Publie Mon^el 



Samuel S. Stokely. 
David C. Skinner. 
Moses Dawson. 
Isaiah Inriiam. 
Bernard Van Ht>rae. 
Samuel Quinby« 
Robert Young. 
Joseph H. Larwill. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



iMXP orncxa. 



ISS 



Oflloe* 



Jeflfersonville, Indiana, 
Vincennes, do. 

Indianopolis, do. 
CrawfordsviUe, do. 
Fort Wayne, do. 
Kaskaskia, lUinois, 
Shawneetown, do. 
Edwardsville, do. 
Yandalia, do. 

Palestine, do. 

Springfield, do. 
Detroit, Mich. Ten 

Monroe, do. 

St Louis, Missouri, 
Franklin, do. 

Cape Girardeau, do. 
Lexington, do. 

Palmyra, do. 

Batesville, Ark. Ter. 
Little Rock, do. 
Ouachita, Loubiana, 
Opelousas, do. 

New Orleans, do. 
St. Helena, C. H. 
Washington, Mississippi; 
Augusta, do. 

Mount Salus, do. 
St Stephens, Alabama, 
Huntsville, do. 

Tuscaloosa. do. 
Cahawba, do. 

Sparta, do. 

Tallahassee, Flor. Ter. 
St Augustine, do. 



Regirtew. 



William Lewis, 
John Badollet, 
Arthur St. Clair, 
Samuel Mihroy, 
Robert Brackenridge, 
Shadrach Bond, 
James C. Sloo, 
William P. McKee, 
Charles Prentice, 
Joseph Kitchell, 
William L. May, 
John Biddle, 
Robert Clark, 
WUliam Christy, 
Hampton L. Boon, 
Georee Bullit, 
Jonatnan S. Findlay, 
William Carson, 
Hart well Boswell, 
Bernard Smith, 
John Hughesj 
Valentine King, 
Hilary B. Cenas^ 
Thomas P. Davidson, 
B. L. C. WaUes, 
William Howze, 
Gideon Fltz, 
John B. Hazard, 
Benjamin S. Pope, 
John H. Vincent, 
Gurdon Saltonstall, 
Wade H. Greening, 
Georee W. Ward, 
Charles Downing, 



Reoeiv»» at PabUc lioneyJ 



WilUam H. Hurst 
John D. Wolverton. 
James P. Drake. 
Israel T. Canby. 
Jonathan McCarty. 
Edward Humphreys. 
John Caldwell. 
Benjamin F. Edwards. 
William L. D. Ewing. 
Guy W. Smith. 
John Taylor. 
Jonathan Kearsley. 
Charles J. Lanman. 
Bernard Pratte. 
Uriel Sebree. 
John Hays. 
Andrew S. McGhk. 
Henry Lane. 
John Redman. 
Benjamin Desha. 
Henry Bry. 
Benj*n Robert Rogers. 
William L. Robeson. 
Alexander Gordon. 
James Duncan. 
George B. Dameron. 
James C. Dickson. 
John Henry Owen. 
Samuel Cruse. 
William G. Parrish. . 
Uriah G. MitcheU. 
John S. Hunter. 
Richard K. Call. 
WUUam H.Allen. 



XV. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Thk charter of the Bank of the United States was granted on the 10th of 
April, 1816 J and it will expire on the 3d of March, 1836. The original capital 
amounted to $35,iH)0,000 ; and the government became a stockholder of 
;|r7,000,000, or one fiAh of the whole stock. 

Nicholas Biddle of Philadelphia, Preiident. 

Willi \M McIlvaine, do. Ctitkier. 

The bank is in niiladelphia ; and besides the principal bank, there were hn 
January, 1830, 22 offices of discount ; namely, at Portland, Portsmouth, Bos- 
ton, Providence, Hartford, New York, Buffalo, Pittsburg, Baltimore, Washing- . 
ton, Richmond, Norfolk, Fayetteville, Charieston, Savannah, Mobile^ New 
Orleans, Nashville, Lexington, Louisnllo, Cincinnati, and StiLouis. 



Kotet diMMnted, 
Domeitic bilk dtiooanted, 

Bed debt held by the Bank, llv^9,»0 00. 
eetmte, 2JBflO90 75. 

■ iliEvrope, ettoal to Bpecie^7W,49e M. 



SiaU of the BofOr, April 1, 1880. 

$33,138^0 89. 
10^^06,68954. 



Specie, 

Pabliedepoeite, 
Private depoe' 
Circulation, 



$9,043,74897. 

8,905,50187. 

7,704,!U687. 
16,063,8M0O. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



IM 



UlflTBD STATES. 



XVX. PUBLIC DEBT. 



A Tabu 9hovfingthe amount qf the PubUc Debt of the UnUed States, 
at eeveral periodt, from 1791 to 1830, reckoned on the Ut of January 
qf^ different years, [ParUy from NUes's Register,] 



In 1791 
1796 

1799 
1801 
1803 

1804 
1809 

1810 
1812 

1813 
1816 
1817 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 



$70,160^4 
61,«43,973 

77,399,909 
83,000,lff7 
74,781,933 

86,363,643 
66,733,379 

63,166^3 
46^,133 

66,907,463 
133,016 376 

116,807,806 
91,016,666 
89,937,437 
98,646,676 
90^76,877 
90,369,777 
88,786,433 
81,064,069 
73,987,357 
67,476,633 
68,363,136 
43,666,406 



( There was vome increase of the Debt in each of these six 
) years, except 1794, in which there was a raductioa of it. 

f The Debt was increased in consequence of Uie military 
> preparations against France, before the year 1801, when Mr. 
\ Jefferson's administration commenced. 

iThe Debt was increased by the purchase of Louisiana, in 
1803, for the sum of $15,000,000. Mr. Jeflferson's admiW 
tration ended March 3d, 1809. 

i The Debt was at its lowest amount in 1812, in Mr. Madi- 
) son's administration, and before the war* 

} ^ The Debt greatly augmented by the Mrar : — highest KoxmA 
\ in 1816. 



Mr. Monroe's administration. Ra^ reduetioo <^ the 
Debt since 1816, the receipts from the customs, 4bc being 
large. 



The Debt increased in consequence of the porehase of 
. Florida, in 1824, for the sum of $5,000,000 j and a dimiautioa 
in the receipts from the customs &c. in the years 1890, 182L 
&c. Bfr. Monroe's administration ended in 1825. 



Mr. Adams*s administration commenced on the 4tlk of 
' March, 1835, and ended on the 3d of March, 1829. 



General Andrew Jackson's administraticm began on the 4th 
of March, 1829. 



LEAD 



Produced at the United States Lead Mines, annually, from 1823 to th€ 
Both of September, 1829. 



To 80th of September, 1823, 
To do. do. 1824, 
To do. do. 1825, 
To do. do. 1826, 
To do. do. 1827, 
To do. do. 1828, 
To do. do. 1829, 

Total pounds. 


Fever River. 


Missouri. 


Total. 


335,130 

175,220 

664,530 

958,842 

6482480 

11,105310 

18,343450 


386.590 
1,374,962 

910,380 
1,205,920 
1,198460 


335480 

175,220 

1,051420 

2,388,804 

6,092,660 

12,311,780 

14,541,810 


81,764,862 


6,076,012 


86,840374 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



POST orricss aits postaok. 



XVII. 


POST OFFICES AND POSTAGE. 




I^ost Offices in 1790, 


75 ; Extent of Post Roads in miles 


1379. 


Po. do. 1800, 


903; Do. do. do. 


2031T. 


Bo. do. 1810, 


2,300; Do. do. do. 


86,406L 


Do. do. 1820, 


4,500; Do. do. do. 


72,492. 


Do. do. 1829, 


8,004; Do. do. do. 


115,000. 



Rates or Postage. 
JFor Single letters, composed of One Piece of Paper. 
Any distance, not exceeding 30 miles, 6 cents. 
Over 30, and not exceeding 80 ** 10 
Over 80, and not exceeding 150 " 12* 
Over 150, and not exceeding 400 ♦* 18 
Over 400 miles . . . 25 '• 

Double Letters, or those composed of two pieces of paper, are charged 
with double the above rates. 

Triple Letters, or those composed of three pieces of paper, are chaigecl 
with triple the above rates. 

Quadruple Letters, or those composed of four pieces of paper, «b» 
dMrged with quadruple the above rates. 

jiU Letters, weighing one ounce avoirdupois, or more, are charged dl 
the rate of single postage for each quarter of an ounce, or quadruple postage 
for each ounce, according to their weight ; and no letter can be charged 
with more than quadruple postage, unless its weight exceeds one ounce 
cnfoirdupois. 

The postage on Ship Letters, if delivered at the office where the vessel 
arrives, is six cents ; if conveyed by post, two cents in addition to the o»- 
dinary postage. 

JVewspaper Postage. 
For each Newspaper, not carried out of the state in which it is published, 
or if carried out of the state, but not carried over 100 miles, I cent 
Over 100 miles, and out of the state in which it is published, 1^ cents. 

Magazines and Pamphlets. 

If published periodically, dist. not exceeding 100 miles, IJ cents p. sheet 
Ditto do. distance over 100 '« 2j " <• 

If tM< pub. periodically, dist not exceeding 100 « 4 « v** 

Ditto do. distance ovet 100 " 6 «* " 

SntU Pamphlets, containing not more than a half sheet royal, are charged 

with half the above rates. Eight pages quarto are rated as one sheet, and 

an other ^es in the same proportion. 
The number of sheets in a pamphlet sent by mail must be printed or 

written on one of the outer pages. When the number of rfieets is not truly 

stated, double postage is charged. 

. Every ^ng not coming under the denomination of newspapers or pam^ 

pUeiBi ie charged wiA letter postage. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



1S6 



imiTED STATES. 



XVXIL KECEIPTS OF THE UNITED STATES, 
JU stated in a Letter from the Seerectary of the Treasury to ih€ 



TXAM. 

FnMB March 4, 


Cuitoma. 


Internal Beva- 
nue. 


Direct Taxea. 


Postage. 


1789. to 










Dec. 


81, 1791 


$4,899,473 09 


• 


. 


. 


u 


« 1793 


8,443,070 85 


$208,943 81 








. 


u 


« 1793 


4,355,306 56 


837,705 70 








$ 11,090 61 


u 


« 1794 


4,801,065 28 


274,089 62 








39,478 40 


u 


« 1795 


5,588,461 36 


337,755 36 








23,400 OO 


u 


« 1796 


6,567,987 94 


475,389 60 








72,909 84 


u 


" 1797 


7,549,649 66 


576,491 45 








64,500 00 


u 


" 1798 


7,106,0^1 93 










89,50Q 00 


(C 


« 1899 


6,610,449 81 


779,136 44 








41,000 00 


u 


« 1800 


9,080,933 73 


809,396 68 


$734,338 97 


78,000 00 


u 


« 1801 


10,750,778 98 


1,048,083 43 


634,843 88 


79,500 00 


u 


« 1803 


13,438,335 74 


631,898 80 


306,566 44 


86,600 00 


u 


" 1808 


10,479,417 61 


215,179 69 


71,879 20 


16,437 36 


u 


« 1804 


J 1,098,666 88 


60,941 29 


50,198 44 


36,500 00 


it 


" 1805 


13,936,487 04 


21,747 15 


31,883 91 


91,343 60 


u 


« 1806 


14,667,698 17 


20,101 45 


56,763 86 


41,117 67 


u 


« 1807 


15,845,531 61 


13,051 40 


84,733 U 


3,614 73 


u 


« 1808 


16,363,550 58 


8,210 73 


19,159 31 


• • 


u 


« 1809 


7,396,030 58 


4,044 89 


7,617 81 


• t 


u 


" 1810 


8,583,309 81 


7,430 63 


13,448 68 


. 


(( 


« 1811 


13,313,333 73 


2,296 96 


7,666 66 


37 70 


u 


" 1813 


8,958,777 68 


4,908 06 


859 33 


85,089 70 


ti 


" 1813 


13,334,6^ 35 


4,766 04 


8,805 53 


86,000 00 


u 


« 1814 


6,993,773 03 


1,662,984 83 


2,319,497 36 


45,000 00 


u 


« 1815 


7,383,943 33 


4,678,059 07 


2,163,673 41 


186,000 10 


it 


« 1816 


86,306,874 88 


6,124,708 81 


4,353,635 09 


149,787 74 


u 


« 1817 


26,383,348 49 


2,678,100 77 


1,834,187 04 


29,871 91 


u 


" 1818 


17,176,386 00 


966,279 30 


364,333 36 


20^070 00 


u 


« 1819 


20,283,608 76 


339,593 68 


83,660 78 


71 83 


ti 


" 1830 


15,005,612 16 


106,360 68 


31,686 83 ■ 


6,465 95 


it 


« 1831 


13,004,447 15 


69,037 68 


39,349 05 ~ 


616 91 


it 


" 1833 


17,689,761 94 


67,666 71 


20,961 66 


■ 603 04 


u 


" 1838 


19,088,438 44 


34,343 17 


10,887 71 


110 09 


it 


" 1834 


17,878,336 71 


84,663 37 


6,201 96 


• 


u 


" 1835 


20,098,713 45 


25,771 36 


,2,330 86 


469 66 


it 


« 1836 


23,341,331 77 


3) ,589 98 


6,638 76 


800 14 


tt 


" 1837 


19,712,383 39 


19,886 68 


2,636 90 


101 00 


ti 


« 1838 


33,305,523 64 


17,451 64 


3,218 81 


90 16 


ti 


" 1839 


23,681,965 91 


14,404 74 


11,331 39 


• 




630,396,996 69 


33,304,488 03 


13,702,697 11 


1,090,276 91 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



KKCIilPTS. 



IV. 



BVOlf MARCH 4, 178$, TO DECEMBER SI. 1829; 
Chmrman qfthe Committee on BetrenehmefU ; Utprtf 9, 1880. 



PnbUe Land*. 


Loans and Trea»- 
uiy Notes, Jbo. 


IHvidaoJgaml 

nakMofBank 

Stock arid Bonds. 


Miseellaneoas. 


Total. 




$6,791,113 66 


. 


$ 19,440 10 


$10,910,036 76 


• • 


6,070,806 46 


$ 8,038 00 


9,918 66 


8,740,766 77 


• • 


1^067,701 14 


38,600 00 


10,890 87 


6,790,634 98 


• ' • 


4,609,196 78 


303,479 00 


98,790 48 


10,041,101 66 




8,806,968 90 


160,000 00 


6,9n 97 


9,419,809 79 


$'4^ IS 


863,800 00 


1,940,000 00 


16,606 14 


8,740,899 06 


89,640 00 


70,136 41 


385,930 00 


80,379 98 


8,768,916 40 


11,963 11 


808,674 97 


79,930 00 


18,699 81 


8,909,070 07 


^ 


5,074,646 68 


71,040 00 


46,187 66 


19,831,469 84 


443 75 


1,603,485 04 


71,040 00 


74,719 18 


19,461,184 14 


167,796 06 


10,136 CO 


88,800 00 


966,149 16 


19,946,456 96 


188,638 03 


6,697 86 


1,337,660 00 


177,906 86 


16,001,891 31 


165,675 60 


. , 


. ' . 


116,618 18 


11,064,097 68 


487,536 79 


9,683 64 








119,676 68 


11,886,840 09 


i 640,193 80 


138,814 94 








19,089 80 


18,689,608 14 


766,246 73 


48,897 71 








10,004 19 


16,608,033 78 


466,163 97 


t • 








34,985 69 


16,898,019 96 


047,939 06 


1,893 16 








91,809 86 


17,063,644 09 


443,363 83 


. . 








93,638 61 


7,773,473 13 


e96,548t 83 


9,769,999 36 








84,476 84 


19,144,906 63 


1,040,237 63 


8,309 06 








60,068 63 


14,ai,838 14 


710,437 78 


13,837,900 00 








41,196 47 


99,889,039 76 


836,686 14 


96,184,436 00 








936,571 00 




1,136^971 09 


38,377,911 79 








119,399 81 


84,659,636 96 


1,987,960 38 


36,364,330 78 








160,989 74 


60,961,987 60 


1,717,986 03 


9,494,436 16 








193,994 61 


67,171,491 89 


1,991,336 06 


734,649 69 


303,436 80 


80,889 17 


83,833,699 88 


9,606,664 77 


8,765 63 


636,000 00 


37,647 71 


91,693,936 66 


8,974,433 78 


9,991 00 


676,000 00 


67,037 10 


94,606,666 87 


1,636,871 61 


3,040,834 13 


1,000,000 00 


64,873 49 


90,881,498 68 


1,913,966 46 


6,000,334 00 


108,000 00 


163,079 09 


19,673,708 73 


1,803,681 64 


• • 


997,500 00 


463,866 16 


90,989,437 94 


916,633 10 


. 


360,000 00 


141,019 16 


90,640,666 96 


984^18 16 


6,000,000 00 


360,000 00 


197,608 60 


94,881,919 79 


1^16,090 66 


6,000,000 00 


367,600 00 


199,983 96 


98,840,868 03 


• 1,893,786 09 


. ' . 


403,600 00 


94,988 09 


90,960,484 91 


1,496,846 36 


• • 


490,000 00 


1,816,681 88 


99,966868 96 


1^)19,306 76 


, , 


465,000 00 


65,106 84 


94,763,039 98 


1,4CT,004 66 


• 


490,000 00 


119,498 M 


91,767,199 99 


13,403,537 80 


166,181,078 67 


9,418,006 80 


4,679,744 17 


766,966,664 78 



14 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



iH inmCB» tTATSS. 

XDL EXFENDITUBE OF THE UNITED 8TATEB» 
Aitete<iifiaX€(eerA«» ike Shereka/y ^the g Vww wry l# Oe 



TSAli. 


CiTULiit. 


Foraigo 
Isterooane. 




PoMielMrt. 


NaTslEstmb- 
IkbnumC 


1789, la 

pec. 11, n9i 












♦U7,184 46 


$ 14,788 88 


$311,888 88 


$6,367,949 60 


$ fflOOO 


«* « nta 


WO^lTflS 


78,700 07 


194,673 89 


7^M3,066 99 


' 6903 


« •* im 


816,94108 


88,800 00 


34,709 40 


6,819,606 39 


• • 


** •* M»4 


440,948 68 


140,403 81 


118,946 80 


6,601,676 09 


91,409 97 


** ** m6 


881,81186 


919,986 13 


93,716 60 


9,064,411 91 


419,5<n08 


♦* ** nw 


447,188 06 


184,969 94 


160,470 14 


6,836,649 44 


374,784 04 


*• « WI 


488,3»10 


009,766 H 


108,690 93 


6,793,43183 


383,63180 


« « 17» 


884,006 17 


4ftM36 74 


149,894 16 


9,990,394 14 


1,381,347 76 


^ •• w» 


88S,80176 


371,874 11 


176,111 81 


4,696,879 78 


3,858,081 84 


"^ « 1800 


748,088 4ft 


390,989 16 


193,030 69 


4,476,309 96 


3,448,719 03 


« « ISM 


#40,908 81 


396/r79 73 


909,893 41 


7,391,707 04 


3,111,434 00 


« « laoB 


886,881 11 


660,936 98 


316,033.30 


9,639/)04 76 


916,661 87 


•^ « laoB 


896,088 19 


1,110,SP4 77 


306,317 91 


7,366,169 43 


1,316,339 68 


'** '* ISM 


864^786 88 


1,180,^ 67 


379,666 S3 


6,171,787 46 


1,188,839 76 


^ ^' 1M0 


08ft,849 79 


9,798,0?8 77 


364,790 19 


7,309,880 79 


1,697,600 00 


« ♦* 1806 


864,880 68 


1,7«0,4?1 30 


446,486.18 


8,989,884 01 


1,649,641 44 


« « IW 


065,694 66 


677,688 34 




0,307,730 10 


1,733,064 47 


** « iao8 


081,167 80 


304,993 63 


437,134 98 


10,300,346 36 


1,884,067 80 


« « 18(0 


713,486 13 


106,800 04 


337,083 63 


0,463,664 16 


3,427,768 80 


^ « 1810 


708,894 08 


81,867 48 


316,783 47 


6^)06,904 46 


1,664,344 30 


" ** 1811 


044,407 37 


364,904 47 


467^919 66 


6,009,304 06 


1,966,666 39 


*♦ « 1813 


686,37166 


347,703 39 


609,113 37 


4,449,033 46 


3,969,366 19 


*< " 1813 


780^ft4ft4ft 


309,941 01 


736,949 16 


11,108,136 44 


6,446,600 10 


*« " WW 


997,494 38 


177,179 97 


1,103,436 60 


7,900,643 94 


7,311,290 00 


«* « 181ft 


8ft3,947 H 


390,693 04 


1,766,731 37 


13^039,933 36 


8,660/X»36 


^ " 181« 


i;U6,196 77 


304,930 40 


1,416,996 00 


34,671,003 93 


3,908,378 30 


« " isn 


094ift69 17 
1,109^660 79 


381,996 97 


3,343,384 03 


36,433,036 13 


3,314,696 49 


« ♦* 1818 


430y439 90 


3,306,849 63 


31,390,301 03 


3,953,699 00 


*♦ " WW 


1,143,160 41 


364,113 94 


1,640,917 06 


7,703,936 39 


8,847,640 43 


- ^ ^ 1800 


I^M6,810^96 


363>879 04 


1,090,341 66 


6,636,494 36 


4,387,990 00 


** ^* im 


1,413,809 84 


301,419 75 


903,718 16 


6,367y00a03 


8,319,349 09 


; ♦♦ « i8ia 


1,166,18166 


164>979 61 


644,996 16 


7,648,1949 13 


3,334,466 98 


U «* ,88, 


1^888,914 Oft 


39%1]9 66 


071,983 78 


6,630^016 41 


3,608,769 89 


! W w 1884 


1,888,986.94 


6^140^ 8a 


078,943 74 


10,606,389 76 


9,904,68166 


! ^ " .18» 


1,980^.94 


371,969 36 


1,0^,131 40 


13,096,944 76 


9,049,989 86 


1 « « Ian 


l,96^•i4»49 


33%219 08 


1,110,713 33 


lI,041/)63 19 


4,318,906 49 


^ '^ 18V 


i^m^mn 


66i^ll 67 


030,133*67 


10^009^66639 


4,96S,8n49 


i « " 1818 


1,498,499 69 


l/)0l9l99 90 


1,319,866 40 


13,163,438 07 


3,918;769 44 


! *^ « W^ 


1,898,809 89 


309,060 39 


1,670,«6««6 


19,388,809 77 




- 


33,400,706 44 


33,336,074 49 


36,991,617 98 


869,719,791^84 


101,669,Urr9l 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



KxrBRDiTvmaB. 



1» 



MaECH 4, 1780, TO DECEBfBER SI, 1829; 



Ckaifman qfthe C^mmiitee an Metrenchmeni ; JiprU 9, 1880. 









Military services, 
iocbi^af Forti- 
















Balances in 


fications, Arsen- 
• als, Armories, 


ReTohition 
Pensioiii 


ary Other 
Pensions. 


Indian 
Department. 


Total. 


tli«TiM«»r 
at the end of 
each Year. 


tenal Xn^rove- 












BMOto, &.C. 












$633,804 08 




$176,813 8P 


$37,000 00 


$7,307,589 03 


$978,906 76 


1,100,702 09 




109,343 16 


13,648 85 


9,141,569 67 


788,4U61 


1,130,34» 06 




80/)87 81 


37,383 83 


7,689,675 66 


758,661 60 


9,ft30/)97 S9 




81,399 34 


13,043 46 


9,803,134 74 


1,151,934 17 


%480,910 IS 




69,673 33 


33,476 68 


10,485,069 66 


616,443 61 


l,a60,?63 84 




100,843 71 


113,563 98 


8,867,776 84 


888,996a 


1,039,403 60 




92,256 97 


63,396 38 


8,636,013 78 


1,021,899 04 


3,009^33 SO 




104,846 88 


16,470 09 


8,613,617 68 


617,461 U 


3,466,946 98 






30,803 19 


n/)77,048 50 


3,161,867 77 


3,460,878 77 




64,130 73 


31 33 


11,969,789 93 


3,638,81199 


1,673,944 08 




73,533 37 


9,000 00 


13,378,876 94 


8,396,89166 


1,179,148 36 




85,440 39 


94,000 00 


18,376,084 67 


6,030,697 64 


833,05d 86 




62,902 10 


60,000 00 


11,358,963 67 


4,836,811 60 


876,423 93 




80,092 80 


116,500 00 


13,624,646 86 


4,087,006 96 


713,781 28 




81,854 69 


196,600 00 


13,727,134 41 


8,999,388 90 


1^134,366 38 




81,875 68 


334,300 00 


15,070,008 97 


4,638,133 80 


1,388,686 91 




70,500 00 


305,436 00 


11,393,393 99 


9,643,850 07 


3,900,834 40 




82,676 04 


313,576 00 


16,764,664 20 


9,941,809 96 


3,346,773 17 




87,833 64 


837,508 84 


13,867,336 30 


8,848,066 78 


3,394,323 94 




83,744 16 


177,626 00 


13,319,966 74 


3,673,276 57 


3,033,828 19 




75,043 88 


161,876 00 


13,601,808 91 


3,5C2,306 80 


11,817,798 34 




91,402 10 


377,845 00 


32,279,121 15 


8,862,217 41 


19,662/)13 03 




86,989 91 


167,358 38 


89,190,620 36 


5,196,643 00 


30,360,806 86 




90,164 36 


167,894 86 


38,028,380 83 


1,727,848 66 


14,794,394 33 




09,666 06 


680,750 00 


80,663,493 35 


18,106,592 88 


16,013,096 80 




188,804 16 


374,513 16 




23,033,519 19 


8,004^236 63 




297,374 43 


819,468 71 


40,877,646 04 


14,9S9yl66 48 


6,623,716 10 


$300,000 


00 690,719 90 


605,704 37 


36,104,875 40 


1,478,526 71 


6^,300 37 


1,847,900 


85 668,038 00 


463,181 39 


34,004,199 73 


3,079,993 88 


3,630,393 31 


3,766,440 


00 441,986 31 


815,760 01 


31,763/)34 85 


1,198,461 31 


4*461,391 78 


. 


343,817 35 


477,006 44 


19,090,673 69 


1,681,593 34 


S,U1,981 48 


1,643,590 


94 306,606 46 


675,007 41 


17/r76,690 63 


4,337,437 66 


«,i9P,9iH.4S 


1^,097 


•4 331,491 48 


880,78183 


06,814,171 06 


9^463,993 81 


S,H0,9a6 86 


1,267,600 


41 331,736 18 


439,967 90 


81,8»8,688 47 


1,946,697 19 


VW,914 IS , 


1,308,810 


67 


734,106 44 


38,665,804 73 


6,3Dl»650a 


1^,194 ?7 


1,306,194 


83 351,399 01 


, 748,447 83 


34,103,896 46 


6,868,686 18 


l,«!8,977 88 


796,013 


63 180,126 34 


760,634 88 


33,666,766 04 


6,668,286 Iff 


4,146,644 66 


728,184 


80 137,438 77 


706,084 34 


36,469^9 63 


6,973,436 8t 


4,3M,606 03 


.7W,493 


88 166,844 96 


669,169 41 


35,071,017 69 


o,^M^w w 


178,489,967 86 


14,174,314 


88 6,119,179 44 


10,630,563 57 


768,397,134 84 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



im 



URITXOt STATBf. 



XX. IMPORTS, EXPORTS, AND TONNAGE 

Cftotk StaU and Territory : the ImporU and ExporU during the Teat 
tndmg September 80, 1829 ; and the Tonnage reckoned on the Slat 
of December, 1828. ^ 





Valneoflm- 


Valae of ExporU. 


Total valae 


Tons and 


Statot and Terri- 
torief. 


port.. 






ofDomesUc 
and Forei^ 


95Um. 










Domestic 


Foreign 


Produce. 








Produce. 


Produce. 






Maine . . . 


$ 743,781 


$ 729,106 


$ 8,726 


$737,888 


283,9S»ST 


N. Hampehire 


179,889 


98,364 


7,476 


106,740 


30,268 18 


Vennont . . 


205,392 


808,079 


. 


808,079 


764 61 


Massachusetts 


12,620,744 


8,949,751 


4,805,186 


8,954,9^ 


434,61109 


Rhode [sland 


428,811 


837,468 


52,913 


890,881 


43,406 61 


Connecticut 


800,638 


460,966 


6,895 


457,970 


60,869 W 


New York 


84,743,807 


Ufi86,66l 


8,082,460 


20,119,011 


855,634 66 


New Jersey 


786,247 


8,023 




8,023 


43,772 19 


Pennsylvania 


10,100,163 


2,617,163 


1,472,878 


4,080,986 


104,114 48 


Delaware . . 


24,179 


7,196 


. 


7,196 


18,318 41 


Maryland . . 


4,804,186 


8,663,378 


1,143,192 


4,W4;466 


170,947 71 


Columbia Dist. 


306,931 


914,286 


18,813 


938/)97 


33^ 73 


Virginia . . 


896,863 


8,783,498 


8,986 


8,787^1 


67,10116 


North Carolina 


238,847 


664,506 




664;506 


54,004 46 


South Carolina 


1,139,618 


8,134,676 


40,910 


8,175,586 


83,688 71 


Georgia . . 


880,293 


4,980,642 


784 


4,961,876 


13,969 94 


Alabama . . 


238,720 


1,679,886 


14,578 


1,693,963 


10,473 03 


Louisiana . . 


6,857,209 


10,898,183 


1,487,877 


13,886,060 


51,008 83 


Ohio . . '. 


293 


3,004 


. 


3,004 


3,888 86 


Michigan Ter. 
Florida . . 


2,957 


, 


. 


• 


470 98 


158,642 


88,163 


17,938 


56,086 


2,781 91 


Total . 


74yl03,537 


65,700,198 


16,668y*78 


73,868,671 


1,741,191 



Steam-boat Tontsabe, 
In the different States in 1827. 





Tons. 95ths. 




Tons. 9511m. 


Maine . . 


350 00 


Maiyland . . 


. 2^07 49 


Bhodelduid. 


» 178 07 


District of Columbia 


878 18 


Connecticut 


. 1,652 72 


Virginia . 


946 67 


N^w York , 


.10,264 88 


South Carottna 


8,288 79 


New Jersey 


. 1,078 92 


Georgia 


. 719 ^ 


PeniMylvania 


. 1,580 04 


Alabama 


8406 21, 


Delawara , 


872 56 


Loviiiaiia . 


. 17,008 87 



JbUa, 48,556 17 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



AOXHKIM?^. 



let 



XXI. COMMERCE!. 

mti^ ^hiiport9 m4 Jbep&rU 0f ihe VhiHd SMw^ dmtng 4he fkw 
ending September SO, 1829, from and to each Foreign Omnhy. 









CX)UNTEIE8. 


TAi.t>x or 
iMrtfwn. 














PoiDfiiii* 

Produce. 


MS. 


Total 


Kussia .... 


$2,2i8,995 


^51^ 


#•84^43 


f886^1126 


i>ra0sia .... 


22,935 


14,411 


a . 


14,411 


Sweden and Norway 


1,020,910 


122,663 


126,971 


249^634 


Swedish West Indies 


2$8,049 


684,523 


28,791 


708,314 


Denmark . . 


$2,911 


73,697 


18,166 


86,76$ 


Damish West Indies . 


2,053,266 


1,942,010 


282,401 


2,224,411 


Netherlands . 


1,067,854 


8,095357 


889,330 


3,985,187 


Dutch East Indies . 


121,348 


62,074 


176,318 


238392 


Dutch West Indies . 


438,132 


379,874 


18,667 


398,541 


England .... 


28,8f2,768 


21,281,334 


1,767,457 


23,048,791 


Scotland .... 


1,024,215 


895315 


19,493 


914,808 


Ireland .... 


362,511 


327,728 


866 


828,094 


Gibraltar .... 


247,471 


301,132 


160480 


' 461,262 


Bittish East Indies . 


1,229,660 


6»i070 


477,629 


546399 


British West Indies . 


240,224 


1,463 


5,058 


6,§21 


British American Colonies 


577,542 


2,724.104 


40,805 


. 2,764,909 


Hanse Towns, &c. 


2,274,375 


1,998,176 


1,278,984 


3377,160 


France .... 


8,838,978 


8395,045 


2,854350 


1U749395 


French West Imdks 


777,992 


1,056,639 


16,768 


1,072.407 


Bourbon .... 


. 


10,502 


, , 


10,g02 


Hayti .... 


1,799,809 


814,987 


160,171 


975,168 


Spain .... 
Tenerifie and other Canaries 


803,529 


731,(505 


185,432 


917,137 


^,283 


42339 


23317 


66466 


Bfanilla & PhiUppine Islands 


209,206 


10,802 


66,430 


77,232 


Cuba .... 


4,866,524 


3,719,263 


1,869,626 


5,578389 


Other Spanish West Indies 
Portugal .... 
Mademi .... 


898332 


209,780 


88300 


248380 


287,351 


42,088 


628 


42,716 


403,056 


176,074 


15,089 


190,163 


Italy and Malta 


1,409,588 


289,756 


611,267 


901,012 


Trieste ^ other AdriaUc Ports 


191,896 


409,288 


280,200 


689,488 


Turkey^ Levant, add Egypt 


293,237 


2r,600 


47,884 


74354 


lifezico ... 


6,026,761 


496,626 


.1335,526 


2,3Bl,l5l 


Central Republic of America 


811,931 


M»,631 


11#,2» 


2S93«4 


Honduras, Campeachy, Sec. 
Colombia 


64,847 
1,265,810 


12;693 
525;783 


8,229 
241,565 


7rf348 


Brazil . ' . 


2,535,467 


1,610;260 


419,7W 


^329,927 




912,114 


444,716 


181,336 


626,052 


416,118 


890^866 


560^778 


1,421,134 


Peru .... 


1,004,458 


91,542 


U931« 


21U57 


Chhia .... 


4,680347 


260;769 


1.094,103 


1,35436a 


Odier Countries 

Tdtol . 


433,623 


■ 884;44tr 


337,777 


l«22232d 


74,492,527 


55,700;193 


16,658,478 


T2,859,«7i 



14» 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



im 



VinTCD ITATKB. 



XXn. EXPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1820. 
aummary 8UUement of the Value of the Exports f J^trS]^^ 

SOftA i{f S^t^ mher, 1829. 

The Sea. 



Dried fifth, or cod fishenes . - 
Pickled fitb, or river fisheries, hemng, 

sbtd, saliAOQ, madterel 
Whale (common) oil, and whalehone 
Spermaceti oU and candles • 

The Forest, 
Skins and furs 
Ginseng . • . • 

Product ofwood^ 

Staves, shinp;]es, boards, &c. 

Oak baric, and other dye • , * 

Naval stores, tar, pitch, rosin, and tur 

pentine . . • • 
Ashes, pot and peart 



$747,641 

220/>27 
4d5,168 
858,869 



J|l,680,408 
166,406 

377,618 
817,484 



626,507 
114,896 



Agriculture. 
Product of Animals— 

Beef, uUow, hides, and homed cattle 

Butter and cheese . • • 

Folk (pickled), bacoD, lard, live hogs 

Horses and mides . 

Sheep 

Vegetable food — 

Wheat, flour, and biscuit 

Indian com and meal 

Bye meal . . • , • . , 

Rye, oats, and other small gram and 
pulse .... 

Potatoes .... 

Apples 

Bice . . • 



Tobacco 
Cotton 
M other t 



674,965 

176,205 

1,493,629 

207,868 

10,644 



#1^17,100 



3,040,866 



6,972,920 
974,536 
127,004 

74,896 

30,079 

16,958 

2,514,370 






2,568,291 



8,681,769' 



itural products^ 



Hope 
Brown sugar 



Manufactures. 

3oap and tallow candles 
' ither, boots, and flhoes 



Hats 
IWmc 
{Spirits from grain, beer, ale, and porter 



9,709,761 



118,040 
6,917 
8,289 



692,691 
866,668 
86,766 
270,78« 
182,989 
tl5,494t 



12,278,053 

4,982,974 

26,676,311 



128,246 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



DOmBBTtC eitPOAfTf. 



Mft 



Wood (inciudiiig coacbe* and other ear- 
• ) 



tndtobtcoo 
Lead 
Liiweed oil and q»irita of tuq^ntine 

Cordag« 

Iron 

Spirits from molassea . . . - 

Sugar refined 

Chocolate 

Gunpowder 

Copper and brass .... 
Medicioal dnigs .... 
Chtton piece goods—' 

Printed and colored 

White 

Nankeens 

Twist, yarn, and thread . 

All other manufactures of 
Flax and hemp — 

Cloth and thread .... 

Bags, and all manufactures of 
Wearing apparel .... 

Combs and buttons .... 

Brushes ...... 

Billiard tables and apparatus 

Umbrellas and parasols 

Leather and morocco skins, not sold, 

per pound 

Fire engines and apparatus 
Printing presses and types 
Musical instruments .... 
Books and maps .... 
Paper, and other stationery 
Paints and varnish .... 
Vinegar . . . . . 
Earthen and stone ware . 
Manufectures of glass 

Do. tin ... 

Do. pewter and lead 

Do. marble and stone 

Do. gold and silver, and 

gold leaf 

Gold and sirer coin .... 
Artificial flowers and jewelry . 
Molasses . 

TVoBk« 

Biick and Kme 

Satt 

jSrHclet not di$tmgui$hed m retumo — 

MuMoAietand 

Bawptodued 



145,024 

981,370 

1,878 

3,849 

127,336 



$501,940 

202,396 

8,417 

80,442 

' 7,984 

228,706 

166,740 

50,789 

1,769 

171,924 

129,647 

101,624 



1,259,457 

2,166 

14,964 

91,108 

^ 76,250 

8,160 

8,448 

22,067 

80,178 

2,832 

12,908 

8,868 

29,010 

23,629 

21,133 

6,953 

5,692 

49,900 

1,757 

5,186 

2,647 

11,250 

612JBS6 

21,627 

1,992 

11,248 

8,717 

27,648 



809,100 
221,644 



Total 



58,801,650 



2^14,650 
oB0|iOo9 



»65 J00>I98 



Digitized, by LjOOQ IC 



m 



OTtTBP STATBf* 



XXm. POPUX^TION . 
CfA€ different l^ee and Territories, according to Tour SnwneraUon$, 





. 


• 




Infcreaae 




fltitw ■nil Terri- 


Ptop. 


pp^ 


?•?: 


Jbp. 


foe tea 
yean. 


fOatiV. 


tories. 


1790. . 


18pO. 


.1810. 


.1820. 


1920. 


Maine. . . 


96.640 


161.719 


228,706 


298,33* 


to'4 


• « 


N. Hampshire 


141,886 


183.858 


214,460 


.244.161 


1S*J» 


# • 


Termont . . 


86,639 


164.486 


217,895 


.235,764 


. 8-2 


* • 


Massachuaetto 


•78,787 


422,845 


472,040 


.623,287 


.10-9 


■ • • 


R. Island. . 


68.82St 


69,122 


76,931 


. 83,069 


7-# 


4S 


CoDuecticvt 


237,946. 


251,002 


261,942 


275,^18 


§1; 


97 


New York . 


340,120 


686,050 


959,049 


1.372,81^ 


431 


10V»68 


New Jersey 


184439 


211,149 


245,562 


277,57^ 


IS 


7,567 


PeDDsylvania 


434,373 


602,546 


810,091 


i;049,813 


29-5 


2n 


Delaware • . 


69/)94 


64,273 


72,674 


72,749 


01 


4,599 


Maryland • . 


319,728 


345,824 


380,546 


407^50 


7 


107,398 


Virainia . . 
N.Carolina . 


747,610 


880,200 


974,622 


1,065,366 


9-3 


425,163 


893^61 


478,103 


566,500 


638,829 


15 


205,417 


8. Carolina . 


249,073 


345,591 


415,115 


502,741 


211 


258,075 


Georgia . . 


82,j648 


162,686 


262,433 


340,989 


851 


149,656 


Alabama 7. 
Mississippi 5. 


• • 


8,860 


: 40,352 


( 127,901 
} 76,448 


404 


C 41,879 
I 32,814 


I^uislana . . 


. • 


. . 


76,656 


163,407 


100-3 


69/J64 


Tennessee . 


, , 


106,602 


261,727 


420,813 


61 


80,107 


Kentucky . 


73,677 


220,959 


406,511 


664,317 


38-8 


126,732 


Ohio . . . 


. . 


45,366 


230,760 


581,434 


152 


, , 


Indiana . . 


. . 


4,651 


24,520 


147,178 


600 


190 


Illinois . . 


, , 


215 


12,282 


65,211 


351 


917 


Missouri . . 


• 


,■ . 


19,783 


66,586 


236 


10,222 


Michigan Ter. 


. . 


661 


4,762 


8,896 


83 


, 


Arkansis Ter. 


. , 


, ' . 


1.062 


14,273 


1244 


1,617 


D. ofColumb. 
Ibtal . 


• • 


14,093 


24,023 


33,039 


37-6 


6,377 


3.929,326 


5,809,768 


7i2S9,903 


9,638,166 


331 


1,538,036 



t^ru «0lbil« inhahiUnUs. 

Malta, . FemaUi, 

045,990. li0O,55O. 

619,535. 005,348. 



776,150. 
766,083. 
485,065. 

3,d95,053. 



Under 10 years, 
From 10tol& 
From 16 to 96, 
Ftom 96 to 45, 
Over 45, 



tinder 14 years, 343,&'». 

From 14toa6i 903,088. 

rrom 96 to 45, 163,733. 

Orel 45, 77,365. 

788,098. 
iVee white inhabitants, 
me ptfbtuMi of color. 



781,371 
790,600. 
469,788, 




9,633,996. 

, ^llna*», not taxed, 4,631. 

FoiMgnflra not natoraliaad, 53,697. 



Total pop. fai tJ. S.exoept Indlaiw, l^,aat-<w< ^ 
according to the oensoi of IWO, J***^»"^'*|j 



Tablb showinf tfie incre«0e of the fetal pt^ 
. nlation, of. the slvret, and olao of the ftee 

people of color, for each period of 10 

yeaci, firoih 1790 to 1800, ttbm 1800 to 

1810, and fhim vm to 1890. 

TdMpop, Jneriiut BaU 

1790 3,939,396 in 10 r^ pr.eU 

1800 5,309,559 I7M to 1600 1,306,239 35*1 
1810 7,239,903 1800 to IfilO 1^,346 96^3 



1890 9,638,166 1810 to 1890 1 

Slovev. 
1790 ^97,696 
1800 896,840 1790 to 1800 
;810 ],;|91,364 1800 to 1810 
1890 1,538,036 1810 to 1890 
Fn» glacis, 
69j5» * 
1800 104,880 1790 to 1805* 
1810 186, 14jS 1800 to 181% 
1800 993,510 1810 to 1890 



33*1 



190.153 »7 
9M^15 »t 
346,673 9»'l 



49^ 70i2 

mm ms 

37|064 19*8 



AbCe. The Fffth Cennuof the U. 8. iato , 
be completed on or before the lit of Dec, 
ISatL.. A iiill acconnt jf this may -be-ea.. ' 
pected in the next volame of the Almanac. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



KUMBER OF UTBIAKSt — BSKEFOLEKT SOCIETIES. 



165 



XXIY. NUMBER OF INDIANS 

within tJie United StcUes, a$ e$timated by the War Departtnent, 



Within 




Within 








New England and Va. 


- 2,57S 


Michigan Peninsula, - 9,840 


New York, - 


4,820 


Arkansas Territory, - 7,200 


Pennsylvania, 


800 


Florida Territory, - - 4,000 


North Carofina, 


3,100 


North-west or Huron Ter. 20,200 


South Carolina, - 


900 


Between the Mhisissippi and 


Georgia, 


5,000 


the Rocky Mountains, ex- 


Tennessee, 


- 1,000 


clusive of the states of Lou- 


Alabama, 


19,200 


isiana and Missouri, and 


Mlssbsippi, 


- 28,400 


Arkansas Territory, 94,800 


Louisiana, 


939 


Within the Rocky Mountains, 20,000 


Ohio, 


- 1,877 


West of the Rocky Moun- 


Indiana, 


4,050 


taUis between Lat. 44<» k, 


HUnois, - 


. 6,900 


490, - . . 80.000 


Missouri, 

Tota 


5,631 




i wUkin the UnUed State$, - - 818,180. 


XXV. 


BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 


NAME. 


Pretidents, 


For- 
ma. 


Income, 
1838-9. 


ISSfiSft. 


<^iiecticatMiB..goc. 


Hon. Jonathan Brace, 


l79r 


93,070 33 


•3,013 to 


Philadelphia Bible Soc. 


Rt. Rev. Wm. White, d. ». 


1808 


7,794 41 




Am. Board For. Min. 


John C. Smith, ll. d. 


1810 


103,00090 


106,99696 


Am. Bap. Bd. For. Min. 


Rev. Jesse Mercer, 


1814 


16,061 90 


90,000 00 


Am. Traet Sooiety, Boet» 


Hon. William Reed, 


1814 


13,89618 


11,108 06 


Am. Education Society, 


Samuel Hnbbaid, ll. o. 
Hon. Nathaniel Terry, 


1816 


30,43418 


30,71014 


Am. Asy. Deaf and Dumb, 


18J6 


3,34155 




American Bible Society, 
Presby. Br. Am. Ed. Soc. 
Board Min. Gen. Auem. 


Ck>l. Richard Varick, 


I81« 


143,184 33 


170,067 55 


Arthur Tappan, Esq. 


1817 




19,63900 


A. Green, ». o. ll. d. 


1818 


8,00000 


19,63943 


Methodist Bliss. Society, 


Rev. Elijah Heddmg, 
Th. McAuley. ». d. 
Charles Canoll, 


1819 


14,176 11 


13,198 00 


Board Edu. Gen. Atsem. 


1819 






Am. Colonization Soc 


1819 


19,56193 


99^00 


Dutch Ref. Miss. Soc. 




]8» 


4,470 71 


4^06 


American S. S. Union, 
BMtist Gen. Tract Soc. 
Ptnson Discipltne Soc. 
Mass. S.S. Union, 


Alexander Henry, Esq. 


1894 


18,597 00 


70,591 7« 


Rev. Wm. T. Bmntly, 


1834 


5,35676 


^^'^^S 


Hon. William Jay, 


1835 


3,53100 


?^2 


Hon. William Reed, 


1895 


1,01880 


J14SS 


American Tract Society, 


S. V. S. WUder, Esq. 


1835 


60,00000 


60,91009 


Am; Temperance Socie^, 


Marcus Morton, ll. d. 


1890 






Am. Home Mist. Society, 
Am* SMmon** Friend Bo. 




1896 


96,997 31 


3^»?S22 


8. Thompson, ll. o. 
Leonard Woods, o. o. 


1896 


1,914 38 


4,15087 


MaM. Miss. Soc. reorg. 


I8S7 


5,947 39 




American Peace Society, 




1898 




48685 




Rt. Rev. 3Vm. Meade, t>. t>. 


1890 












•485,714 90 


•584,08499 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



166 



UmTEB tTATXB, 



XXVI. COLLEGER IN THE" 
HU StaUmenU care moMily gktnfor the Yemr 1890 ; nnd arm 



7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 
IS 
14 
16 
16 



Id 

20 
21 



24 Madison, 



28 
24 
25 
26 

27 



84 
85 
88 
87 E. 

88 



40 
41 
42 
48 
44 



Name. 



L Bowdoin, 

1 Watenrille, 

\ Dartiflouth, 

. df Vermont, 

^MiddUbarir, 

\ Harvard University, 

r Williams, 

I Amherst, 

} Brovra UaiTersity, 

)Ya]e, 

1 WashiDgton, 

t Colombia, 

\ Unioo, 

[ Harailton, 

i Geneva, 

» College of N.J. 
~17 Rutgers, 
18 Univ. of Pennsylv. 

> DickiDsoD, 

) Jefferson, 
Western Univers. 
22 Washington, 
'^l Alleghany, 



St. Mary's, 
26 Columbian, 

WHHam & Mary, 

Hampden Sydney, 
29 Washington, 
80UniverJtyof Va. 

UnlversityofN.C. 
82 Charleston, 
88[Coilege of S. C. 

Unir. of Georgia, 

Greenville, 

UniY.ofNashvtUe, 
Tennessee, 

Transylvania, 

Centre, 

Augusta, 

Cum/berland, 

Univers. of Ohio, 

Miami University, 

Western Reserve, 
45[Kenyon, 
46|Bloomington^ 



Plae«. 



Brunswick, Me. 
Waterville, do. 
Hanover, N. H. 
Buriington, Vt. 
MiddleiMiry* do. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Williamstown, do. 
Amherst, do. 

Providence, R. I. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Hartford, do. 

New York, N. Y. 
Schenectady, do. 
CUnton, do. 

Geneva, do. 

Princeton, N. J. 
N. Brunswick, do. 
Philadelphia, Penn. 
Carlisle, do. 

Canonsburg, do. 
Pittsburg, do. 

Washington, do. 
Meadville, do. 
Union Town, do. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Washington, Ca. 
Williamsburar, Va. 
Prince Ed. Co. do. 
Lexington, do. - 
Charlottesville, do. 
Chapel HUl, N. C. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Columbia, do. 
Athens, Ga. 

Greenville, Tenn. 
Nashville, , do. 
Knoxville, do. 
Lexington, Ken. 
Danville, do. 

Augusta, do. 

Princeton, do. 
Athens, Ohio. 

Oxford, do. 

Hudson, do. 

Gambier, do. 

Bloomihgton, Ind. 



Presidents, 



William Allen, D. D. 
Jeremiah Chaplin, D. D. 
Nathan Lord, D. D. 
James^ Marsh, A. M. 
Joshua Bates, D. D. 
Josiah Quincy, LL. D. 
Edward D. Griffin, D. D. 
Hcman Humphrey, D. D. 
Francis Way land, D. D. 
Jeremiah Day, D. D. 
T. C. Brownell. D. D. 
William A. Duer, LL. D. 
Eliphalet Nott, D. D. 
Henry Davis, -D. D. 
R. S. Mason, 
James Carnahan, D. D. 
Philip Milledoller, D. D. 
W: H. De Lancey, D. D. 
Samuel B. How, D. D. 
M. Brown, D. D. 
R. Bruce, 

Thnothy AMen, 
Henry B. Bascom, 

E. Damphoux, D. D. 
Stephen Chapin, D. D. 
Adam Empie, 

J. P. Cusbing, A. M. 
G. A. Baxter, 
James Madison, LL. 0. 
J. Caldwell, D. D. 
Jasper Adams, D. D. 
Thomas Cooper, M. D. 
Alonzo Church, D. D. 
Henry Ho«8, Esq. 
Philip Lindsley, D. D. 
Charles Coffin, D. D. 
Alva Woods, D. D. 
Gideon Blackburn, D. D. 
Martin Ruter, D. D. 

F. R. Cossif, 

R. G. WUson, D. D. 
R. H. Bishop, i>. D. 

Philander Chase, p. D. 
A. Wylie, D. D. 



^a^ooxmn^QJU pioomingion, ina. a. wyue, u. u, isz 

*«* ThoM axe Mvoral other rnlfcy , h a ri i l — th e >b a y», j«^ye»ti«»w foa wie dt «« at 
MdHetown, Good. : Oeorgetown^ Oa. : T^usetUooaa, Al. ; Waahingtony Miss. ; A>» Or- 
Uema and JaOmm^ La.| Bardattm and 0«9>y«Ce«m, Ken. ; JmiktmoUle^ U., fce. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



'«0liI.KOB», 



imi 



UMITED STATES. 

i trvMd dti^fi^m the ** Journal tfHte American EdueaHon SoeUi^J 





root- 
en. 


No. or 

Alomai. 


Mintg- 
ters. 

-"85 


♦flta. 
dMtf* 


Vol«:!a 
CoIfefQ 


VoU.j;», 

Studetitfl* 
UbMriM 




1 


ii2 


8,000 


4,860 


n«t Wednesil^y In Sept 


a 


4 


54 


17 


81 


1,700 


800 


Lait Wednesday in July. 


8 


8 


1,687 


897 


187 


8,606 


8,000 


Last Wed. but one in Ancivt 


4 


4 


178 


. . 


89 


1,000 


. 


First Wednesday in August 


6 


9 


508 


198 


86 


1,846 


2,322 


Third Wednesday in AttgtmL 


6 


24 


5,079 


1877 


247 


85,000 


4,605 


Last Wednesday in August 


7 


7 


721 


196 


m 


2,250 


1,769 


First Wednesday in Sept 
Fourth Wednesday in August. 
First Wednesday In Sept 


8 


8 


209 


86 


267 


2,200 


3,780 


9 


6 


1,788 


287 


105 


6,100 


5,562 


10 


14 


4,428 


1257 


359 


8,500 


■ 9,000 


Second Wednesday in Sept 


11 


9 


25 


. •. 


74 


5,000 


1,200 


First Wednesday in August 


12 


9 


880 


. . 


140 


4,000 


680 


First Tuesday in August. 


18 


n 


1,202 


248 


227 


5,100 


8,250 


Fourth Wednesday lo July. 


14 


, , 


160 


20 


, , 


■ ', 


, , 


Fourth Wednesday in August 
First Wednesday in August 


15 


9 


16 


6 


^ 


520 


690 


16 


7 


1,918 


408 


73 


8,000 


, , ■ 


Last Wednesday ip Sept 


17 

18 


9 
9 


• • 


• • 


60 
97 




* 


Third Wednesdayin August. 
Last day, not Sunday, in July. 


1» 


. . 


. . 


. . 


20 


2,000 


5,000 


Fourth Wednesday in Sept 


20 


5 


819 


186 


116 


700 


1,800 


Last Thursday in September. 


21 


4 


84 


,1« 


50 




50 


Last Friday in Jufte. 


22 


9 


148 


26 


81 


400 


625 


Last Thursday in September. 
First Wednesday in July. 


28 


8 


9 


. . ' 


6 


8,000 


. , 


24 


9 


. • 


. , 


70 


; , 


, , 


July 15th. 


2& 


18 


, . 




120 


10,600 


, , 


. 


26 


, , 


. . 


, , 


60 


4,000 


, 


Fourth Wednesday in Dee. , 


27 


7 


, , 


, , 


100 


3,600 


606 


July 4eh. 


28 


4 


• . 


, . 


90 


, , 


, , 


Fourth Wednesday in S6pt. , 
Third Wednesday ro Apiii. 


29 


, , 


380 


9 


23 


700 


1,500 


30 


9 


538 


, , 


181 


8,000 


, , 


• . . 


81 


« 


484 


, 


69 


1,800 


3,000 


Fourth lliursday in June. 


82 


8 


19 


8 


69 


8,000 


1,000 


Last Tuesday in October. 


88 


8 


470 


11 


97 


7,000 


, , 


8dMon. after 4th Men. Not. ' 


84 


7 


281 


10 


117 


t,500 


2,260 


First Wednesday in August 


85 




- SO 


• • 


, , 


8,500 


, , 


Third Wednesday in Sept 


86 


4' 


85 


, , 


Tl 


2,000 


500 


First Wednesday hi OrtobW. 


87 


2 


, , 


, . 


21 


340 


200 


First Wednesday ^ October. 


88 


6 


. , 


, 


81 


2,850 


1,500 


Last Wednesday ih Sept 


89 


4 


19 


9 


66 


1,258 


108 


July 4th. 


40 


7 


, , 


, , 


102 


1,600 


560 


Thursday after 1st Wed. Aug. 
Second Thursday In Sept 


41 


6- 


18 


5 


120 


1,000 


600 


42 


5 


, , ■ 


' , 


46 


,■ 


, 


Wed. after 3d Tuesday Sept . 


48 


ir 


' '4*' 


29 


m 


i,oo<r 


1,206 


Last Wednesday lA Sept. 
Fourth Wednesday in August 


44 




, , 


. , 


.17 


800 


. . 


46 


i 


, . .* • 


. • • 


80 


, ' , 


■ , , 


, • . • 


46 




. . 


. . 


. . 


. . 


. . 


. ' 




ST 


21,fSB 


rwo^ 


t<S4r 


I^^W4 


i^ssr 


Total. 



♦ V< 4s Hl i dM > m, M Mioli^lit Wis<»eal,.thwlogictti, and l»iy rtodatfp. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



10ft 



▼ACATIOiri Jir ^CQLLXGXS. 



Hairard. 
Williams. 



Brown. 
Tale. 



Columbia. 

Union. 

Hamilton. 

Geneva. 



VAOATiovt ur Coi.z«Besa« 
Bowdoin. 1. Com., 8 weeks;— 2. Fri. ut Sd Wed. D^., 8 weeks ;^ 

8, Fti. a£. Sd Wed./May, 2 weeks. 
Watenrille. 1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. last Wed. ]^ov., d weeks. 
BMaetitk. 1. Com., S weeks ;•— 2. last Mond. Dec, 6J| weeks;—- S» Thocs* 

I day prodding the last Wed. May, 2i| weeks. 

Vt. Univ. 1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. 1st Wed. Jan., 8 weeks. 
Middlebury. 1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. Ist Wed. Jan., 7 weeks ;~3. 3d Wed. 

May, 2 weeks. 
1. Wed. preceding 25th Dec, 2 weeks ;— 2. 1st Wed» April, 

2 weeks ;— 3. preceding Conunencement, 6 weeks. 
1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. Wed. after 4th Wed. Dec, 6 weeks ;-^ 

8. 3d Wed. May, 3 weeks. 
Amherst. 1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. 4th Wed. Dec, 6 we^ ;— 3. 2d Wed. 

May, 3 weeks. 
1. Com., 4 weeks ;-*^. last Friday in Dec, 6 weeks ; — 3. 2d 

Friday in May, 3 weeks. 
1. Com., 6 weeks ;— 2. 2d Wed. Jan., 2 weeks ;— 3. Ist Wed. 

May, 4 weeks. 
Washington.!. Com., 6 weeks ;^-2. Thurs. before Christmas, 2 weeks ;^ 

3. Thuif . before 20 April, 3 weeks.. 
1. Com. to the Ist Monday ki October. . 
1. Cora., 7 w. ;— 2. in Dec. 3 or 4 w. ;— 3. in April, Sr w. 
1. Com., e.weeks;^^. 2d Wed. Jan., 3 weeks^^— 3. 2d Wed. 

May, 4 weeks. 
1. Com., ^ weeks ;*-2. at Chijistmas and New Year, 2 weeks; 

— 3. in April, 3 weeks. ^ 
Coll. N. J. 1. Com., 6 w. -,—2. Ist Thurs. after 2d Tues. April, 6 w. 
Rutgers. 1. Com. to Sept. 16 ;— 2, Dec. 21. to Jan< 7 ;-r3. Ap. 7 to May 1. 
Penn.Uniy. J., Com., 6 weeks ; — 2. 2 weeks ; — 3. 2 weeks. 
Dickinson. 1. In Sept. and Oct., 5 weeks , — 2. in< April and May, 5 weeks. 
Jefferson. 1. 1st Mond. Oct., 4 weeks ;— -2. 1st Mond. May^ 4 w. 
Madison. 1. Com., 6 weeks(-— 2'. Dec. 25th to Jan. 16. ' 
Washington.!. Month of October; — 2. Month of May. 
Columbian. L Com. to 2d Wed. Jan. ;— 2. 2d Wed. June to 2d July. 
Wm &M*y.l. Com. to the last Monday in October. 
Hamp. S'y 1. Month of October ; — 2. Month of May. 
Washineton.l. Com. to 3d Wed. May ;— 2. 3d Wed. Oct. to 3d Wed. Nov. 
Univ: Va. 1. July 20 to September 1. 
Univ. N. C. 1. Com., 6 weeks ;— 2. Dec. 15, 4 weeks. 
Charleston. 1. Month of December y'-^i. in April, 3 weeks 
Coll. S. C. 1. July 1 to the 1st Monday in October. 
Univ. o(Ga.l. Com., 1 week ;— 2. Wed. before 2d Mond. Nov. to Jan. L*,; 

—3. April 1 to April 15. 
Greenville. 1. Com., 6 weeks ;— 2. 3d Wed. March, 6 weeks. 
Nashville. 1. Com., 5^ weeks;— 2. 1st Wed. April, H weeks. 
£. Tenn. 1. Com., 4 weeks ;— 2. 1st Thurs. April, 4 weeks. 
IVansylva. 1. Com., to 1st. Mond. Nov. ;— 2. 2d Mond. March, 6 weeks. 
Centre. 1. Com., to 1st. Mond. Sept. ; — 2. a recess in March.' 
Augusta. 1. Com., 6 wks ;^2. in Feb. 21 wks from 1st mcalMNv 4 wki. . . 
Cumberi'd. h Coo^ to the last day of October. 
Univ. Ohio. 1. Com. to 1st Wed. Nov. ;— 2. 2d Tues. April, 4 weeks. 
MiamL 1. Com. to 1st Mo. Nov. ;— 2. last. Wed. Mar. to 1st Mo: May. 
ExpLAWATiojr. Vacations of Bowdoin College ; iBtfrom Ofmmme^ 
me9U, 8 w€€k» ;— 2d,yrom the Friday e^er the 3d Wednesday in Dec. 8 
weeke ;— 8d, from the Friday t^er me 8<f • Wedne§diiy in Muy, 2 weeks. 



d by Google 



THEOLOGICAL fSlflirAmilt. 



m 



XXYIL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARIES. 



Name. 


Plaee. 


UeooBina. 

tiOD. 


(Co.. 
oper- 
stioo. 

1816 
1829 
1808 
1824 
1825 
1822 
1819 
1821 
1820 
1816 

1812 
1826 
1825 
1828 

1824 
1829 
1821 
1829 
1827 
1829 


So, 

eated 
50 

505 
87 
25 
53 

181 

122 
92 
16 

501 

8 

24 
41 


Ht^: 

iD 
1830. 


ToST 

in 
Lib. 


Bangor Thedl. Bern. 
Acad. & Theul. Inst. 
Theological Seminary, 
Theological School, 
Theol. institution, 
Theol. Dep. Yale Col. 
TheoL Ins. Epis. Ch. 
Th. Sem. of Auburn, 
HamiltonLit.&Th.Ins. 
Hartwick Seminary, 
Th. Sem. Da. Ref. Ch. 
Th. Sem Pr.Ch.U.S. 
Sem. Luth. Ch. U. S. 
German Reformed, 
West. Th. Seminary, 
Epis. Th. School Va. 
Union Th. Seminary, 
South. Th. Seminary, 
South. West.Th. Sem. 
Lane Seminary, 
Rock Spring, 
Hanover, 


Bangor, Me. 
N. Hampton, N. H. 
Andover, Mass. 
Cambridge, do. 
Newton, do. 
New Haven, Con. 
New York, N.Y. 
Auburn, do. 
Hamilton, do. 
Hartwick, do. 
N.Brunswick, N.J. 
Princeton, do. 
Gettysbui^, Pa. 
Yoric, do. 
AUeghanyT. do. 
Fairfax Co. Va. 
Pr. Ed. Co. do. 
Columbia, S. C. 
Maryville, Ten. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Elock Spring, U. 
New Madison, In. 


Cong. 

Baptist, 

Cong. 

Cong.Unit. 

Baptis^ 

Cong. 

Prot. Epis. 

Presbyt 

Baptist. 

Lutheran, 

Dutch Ref. 

Presbyt. 

Evang. L. 

G.Ref. Ch. 

Presbyt. 

Prot. Epis. 

Presbyt. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Baptist, 
Presbyt 
Tctal, 


14 
14 

188 
86 
16 
49 
20 
58 
76 
9 
24 

124 

8, 

14 
85 

22 


1,200 

100 

6,000 

1,500 

8,000 
3,650 
8,550 
1,300 
900 

6,000 
6.000 
8,500 

550 
1,200 


1,655|657 1 


43,450| 



XXVIII. MEDICAL SCHOOLS. 



Name. 


l^koe. 


Prof." 


StodenU. 


Maine Medical School, 


iSrunswick, 




99 


New Hampshire Medical School, 


Hanover, 




103 


Medical Society Univ. Vermont, 


Burlington, 




40 


Vermont Academy of Med. 
Mass. Med. Col. Harv. Univ. 


Castleton, 






Boston, 




91 


Berkshire Med. Ins., Wm. Col. 


Pittsfield, 




100 


Med. Dep. Yale CoUege, 
Col. Phys. & Suig. N. Y. 


New Haven, 




61 


New York, 




118 


Rutgers Med. Fac. Gen. Col. 


New York, 






Col. Phys. &. Surg. W. DisU 
Med. Dep. Univ. Penn. 


Fairfield, N. Y. 




160 


Philadelphia, 




420 


Med. Dep. Jcfierson CoUege, 


Canonsburg, 




121 


Med. Dep. Univ. Md. 


Baltimore, 






Med. Col. Charieston, S. C. 


Charleston, 




130 


Med. Dep. Transylvania, Univ. 
Med. College of Ohio, 


Lexington, 




200 


Cmcinnati, 




118 



ft*« Law Schools. At Cambridge ; 2 professors, and 81 students ; Nevt 
Haoen, 2 professors, and 21 students; LHehfield^ Ct ; PhOaddphia: WUUcmt 
Am^^ Va.y9stwl0&ts$ CAcr{esftm,S.C.j Zexii^iteii, Km.* 20 students. 
»% BludiM9imcoUtgeim f ir^pert km iopop&da^^ 

oflht Ameriean EdmetOum Society,** 
Eastern States, 1 student to 1,231 inhabitants. 
BfiddleStetes^ 1 do. 3,46S do.* 
Seuthem States, 1 do. 7,282 do. 
Western StatM, 1 do. 6,060 4*. 
15 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



190 



ViriTBlit STATBt* 



XXOL RELIQKKJS DENOMINATIONS. 



1 1 




Mewben\ 




Minis. 


Ofanreb- 


OCCOBk- 




tars. 


et. . 


cut*. 


CtlvioUtic or AMOcUktod IBuptwtf, ") 


• 


2,»U 


4,:i84 


804,827 


Christian Society, 




300 


1,000 


80,000 






250 


, , 


30,000 






800 


. 


16,500 




» Baptists ^ 


80 


40 


8,600 


Seventh Day Baptiata, 




30 


. 


8,000 


Tunkera, 




40 


, , 


3,000 


Six Principle Baptists, 




25 


, , 


1,700 


£iDAncipators, J 




10 


• • 


400 


Methodist Episcopal Churchy 17 Corrfkrenees, 


1,900 


. 


476,000 


Presbyterians, (Gen. ^8s«f>i.) 19 Synods 9S Presbyt 
Reformed Dutch Church, 1 Gen. Synod ; 16 Claaiet 


1,491 


3,168 


178,329 


I 150 


185 


11,713 


German Reformed Church, 1 Synod, 7 Cla$$e8, 
Associate Presbyterians, 


120 
72 


500 
104 


15,000 


Congregationalists, (JV. E. Orthodox,) 


800 


1,000 


120,000 


Protestant Episcopal Church, 15 DiaeeseM, 
Roman Catholic Churqh, 1 jSr^hbishftp, 


628 


, 


. 


280 


, 


. , 


Friends or Quakers, 


. , 


500 


, , 


Evangelical Lutheraa Church» One Oenerai Synod 


, 200 


800 


, , 


Universalists, 


160 


800 


^ 




150 


160 


, ^ 


United Brethren or l^iamos» 


23 


23 


2,000 


New Jerusalem Church, 


29 


80 


. , 


Millennial Church or Shakera, 


45 


16 


, 


Cumberland Presbyterians. | . . 




• • 



Protestant IJpiscopal Church. 



Dioceges. 


Biahopi. 


Cong. 


M 


Dioceses. 


Bishops. 


Coos. 


43 

36 

a 

4 
3 
4 

14 


E. Diocese, 
Connec*t, 
N. York, 
N. Jerwy, 

Peniuyl. 

Delaware, 
Maryland, 
N. Carol. 


A. V.Griswold,D D. 
Th. C. Brownell, D.D. 
B.T.Omlerdonk,D.D. 
John Croea, D. D. 
William White, D. D. 
H. U.Onderdonk, D.D. 

Win! M. Stone, D.*D. 


1811 
1819 

1815 

1787/ 
1837 { 

1830 


63 
57 
134 

19 

67 

6 

58 
11 


Virginia, 1 

S. Carolina, 

Greorgio, 

Mississippi, 

Tenn^seo, 

Kentucky, 

Ohio, 


R.C. Muor«, D.D. 
Wm. Meade, D. D. 
N. Bowen, D. D. 

Phil.Chue, D. D. 


18J4| 

1829 

1818 

1819 



JB^H|ifin CaffMHe Bithop$. J. V^JM^I5i^> D. D., abp., Baltimore ; B. F«p- 
wick, D.D, Bp^tpi^i J. Dubois,, D.D., NewYoik; H. CoDwell, D. D^ 
£hiU49lphia; --nr..7rr-p-T, ^f^Ommd; ^. ClDgl^nd, D. D., qi^airkwtiwu 
II. Porttof» Mobile^.^^LT^^^.^,*, N^mOdttmi BiFl^^et, Ik D„ Bi«|i* 
tom; E. FoRwic^.tB»)P^.<TinriBfiti4 J9iLJ^MktH «t» LMi»| BMi|pl|» 
Detroit. 



Bithopg qfthe Metho^ml^ekurek. 
Mhna Soule, andBiijah Keddin^r. 



Wm. McS^ndm^ H, H. Rob«ta, 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



INDIVIDUAL STATES- 



I. MAINE. 

Tbm first pennanent settlenient in Maine was formed about the few 
1680 ; and for several years the goverament of the colony was admin i i t eid i 
la the name of Sir Ferdinando Gorges as proprietor of the country. 

In 1662, the inhabitants of Maine were placed under the jurtsdietioii of 
liassachusetts. The country was, bowevert afterwards daioMd by the 
Mn of Gorges, but was, in 16T7, pinrehased by the colony of Bfassach» 
setts. From that time the territory formed a part of the colony and after- 
wards of the state of Masssachusetts, and was styled, the District «f 
Maine, tUl the year 1820, when it was erected into an independent staler 

GOTSRNORS. 

Wm King, entered upon office 1920 I E. Lincob, entered upon office 1826 
Albion K. Paris, do^ 1821 1 Jonatett B. Hunton. do, 1880 

OuTLurxs or tks CoirsTiTVTioih 

The Constitution of thie state was formed in 1610, knd weM into epem* 
<i0blnl82O. 

- The legislative poWer is vested in n Senate and a House of Rep(«M«ilab 
MfM, both elected annually by ^tm people, om the secdnd Monday in Sep* 
tember. These two bodies are together styled The Legislature of Maine. 

The number of representatives cannot be less than 100, nor more than 
flOO. A town having 1,500 Inhabitants is entitled to send 1 representa^ 
tftife^ having 3,760, 2; 6,t76, 8; 10,600. 4; 15,000, 6; 20,250, 6; 
28;260, 7 ; but. no town can ever be entitled to more than t representa* 
tires. — ^The number of senators cannot be less than 20, nor more than 81. 

The Legislature meets (at Portland, — after the present year, 1881, at 
jtugtuta) annuaHy, on the first of Wednesday in Jaauaty. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, whn is elected annually by 
tile people, on the second Monday in September, and his term of ^c6 
eottimences on the first Wednesday in January. A Council of seven mem* 
hero it eleelad annually on the first Wednesday in January, by joint ballot 
of thi senators and representatives, to advise ttie governor hi the executfr^ 
ptrt of government 

Th6 right of snOage is g raa la d to ei^ery mide dttien aged 21 years or 
WtmH6» (excepting paupers, pe»on» uoder guar^anthip, and Indhmtf not 
lized), having bad his residence estabHshed in the state for the term of 
Ihste months next preceding an election. 
' The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Judicial Court, and fodi t 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC^ 



m 



MAime. 



courts af the legisUture may, from time to time, establith. All the Judgw 
•re appointed hy the goyernor, with the advice and convent of the council ; 
and they hold their offices during good behavior, but not beyond the age of 
70 years. 

OavemmetUfor the Year ending December 81, 1880. 

Sftlwy. 
Cfovemor, - - - - $1,500 

Secretary of State, - - - 900 

Treasurer of ^tate, ... 900 

Adjutant General, ... 700 

Warden of the State Prison, - - 700 

President of the Senate. 
Speaker of the House of Reprtsentatwes. 
The members of the Senate and House of Representatives receive each 

fl a day; and the President of the Senate and the Spealier of the 

House, 5^* 



Jonathan O. Hunton, 
Edward Russell, 
EHas Thomas, 
Samuel Cony, 
Joel Bfiller, 
Joshua Hall, 
Daniel Goodenow, 





JUDICXABT. 






Supreme Judiekd Court. 




Prentiss Mellon , 
Nathan Weston 
Albion K. Paris 
Erastus Foote 
Simon Greenleaf 


of Portland, ChitfJustke, - 
of Augusta, MsociaU JusHee, ' 
of Portland, do. 
of Wiscasset, Attorney Qeneral, - 
of PorUand, Reporter, 

Court of Common Pleas. 


SalArr. 

1,500 

1,500 

1,000 

., 600 


Ezekiel Whitman 
Samuel E. Smith 
Daniel Perham 


of Portland, Chief Justiee, 
of Wiscassety Associate Justiee, 
of Brewer, do. - 


1,200 

1,200 

, 1,200 



Baitks. 



Bank of PorUand, Portland, 200,000 
Canal Bank, do. 800,000 

Casco Bank, do. 200,000 

Cumberiand Bank, do. 200,000 
Merchants' Bank, do. 150,000 
Baco Bank, Saco, 120,000 

Manufacturers' B'k do. 100,000 

Bath Bank, Bath, 100,000 

Lfaicoln Bank, do. 100,000 

KennebunkB'k Kenneb. 100,000 
The Bank of the Uidted States has 
Portland. 



Augusta Bank, Augusta, 100,i0#0 
Gardiner Bank, Gardiner, 100,000 
Waterville Bank, Waterville, 75,000 
Bangor Bank, Bangor, 75,000 
Thomaston Bank,Thomaston, 50,000 
S. Berwick B'k S. B. 50,000 

Union Bank, Bruns'k, 50,00Q 
Vassalboro' B'k Vassalboro* 50,000 
Winthrop Bank, Winthrop, 50,000 

an office of Discount and Deposit at 



Digitized by LnOOQlC 



iCAiinL ITS 



Edvcatioit. 



The principal literary ■eminariea in Hajne are Bowdoin College at BruBf^ 
wick ; WaterviUe College at Waterville ; the Bangor Theological SemiDaiJ 
at Bangor ; the Gardiner Lyceum at Gardiner, which was established ** for 
the purpose of giving to fiurmers and mechanics, such a scientific education 
as may enable ihem to become skilful in their professions '* ; the llaiiiM 
Wedeyan Seminary at Retdfield ; add 89 incorporated iu»demies. 

Every town is required by law to raise annually, for the support of conk* 
mon schools, a sum equal at least to 40 cents for each person in the town* 
and to distribute this sum among the several school districts according to 
^ number of scholars in each. According to the reports made in 1826« 
there were, in the state, 8,499 lehool diatricts ; 197^1 children between 
the ages of 4 and 21 ; of which 101,325 usually attended school ; the sum 
required by law to be annually raised, $119,334; annual expenditure 
$137,878,57. 



IL NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Thc earliest grant of the territory of New Hampshire was made in 16229 
to John Mason and Ferdinando Gorges ; and (he first settlements were 
begun, in 1623, at Dover and Portsmouth. 

In 1641, the settlements in New Hampshire voluntarily put themselves 
tfMw the government of the cdlofiy of MMwehinetts, tund were affiowed 
to ietid representativet to the General Court at Boston, tin 1679, when a 
new government was formed, and New Hampshire was made a separate 
province. 

In 1686, New Hampshlie was i^heed, together with the rest of New 
EngiaDd, under the gevemment of Sir Edmund Andros; in 1689, the 
jM&tm with MassadiuseCts was revived, and eonfinued tOl 1692. From 
1699 to 1702, it was united with Massachusetts and New York; in 170t» 
it WM t/gda imifad wttk MhS08di(isettB,'^aad so eofttimied (fll 1741, wliena 
final separation took place. 

GovxjRiroRs^ ke. 
Under the JRoyof Chtfemmen^, 



JohnCuif, JPresiderU, 1680 



Walter Barefoot, Dep. Cfov, 1685 
Joseph Dudley, Prtiidenl, 1686 



Richard Waldron, do, 1681 

Edward Oranfield, lAeul. Gov, 1682 

fn 11f°ir imifr- f^rxrrrrmmmf %f%\% Fdwunit Andrea 
iia 1689 the vnion u)Uk MMtaehuatttt rmmed* 

John Usher, LUui. Got. 1692 I Samuel Allen, Govimar^ 1661 

WiBlam Partridge, do. 16971 
15* 



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174 HEW HAMFtHI&S. 

In 1699 united with Ma$$aeku$HU tmd ^tw York, 
JH 1702 UMted tbith Ma$Baehu$ett$, ' 

Banning Wentworth, Gov. 1741 | Jobn WeDtwarOi, Goo. 1767 
The English government terminated in 1776, and in 1776 a temporary 
government waa formed, which continued during the war; Meshech 
Weare being annually elected President. 

Prendente under the Constitution o/1784. 



Mesbech Weare, 


eUeted 


1784 


John Langdon, 


tUcted 


1788 


John Langdon, 


do. 


1785 


John Sullivan, 


do. 


1789 


John Sullivan, 


do. 


1786 


Josiah Bartlett, 


do. 


1790 


Governors under the Constitution </1792 




- 


Josiah Bartlett, 


elected 


1792 


Samuel Bell, 


eUeted 


1819 


John Taylor Gibnan, 


do. 


1794 


Levi Woodbury, 


do. 


1823 


John Langdon, 


do. 


1805 


David L.Morril, 


dQ. 


1824 


Jeremiah Smith, 


do. 


1809 


Benjamin Pierce, 


do. 


1827 


John Langdon, 


do. 


1810 


John Bell, 


do. 


1828 


William Plumer, 


do. 


1812 


Benjamin Pierce, 


do. 


1829 


John Taylor Gilman, 


do. 


1813 


Matthew Harvey, 


do. 


1830 


William Plumer, 


do. 


1816 









Ol7TLIirE8 or THE CoNSTITtmON. 

A Constitution wu estahUsbed in 1784; and in 1792, this Constitutioii 
was altered and amended, by a convention of delegates held at Concord* 
and is now iq force. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, 
which, together, are styled The Oenercd Court ofJVew Hampshire. 

Every town, or incorporated township, having 150 ratable polls, may 
send one representative ; and for every 300 additional polls, it is entitled to 
an additional representative. 

The Senate consists of 12 members, who are choien by the peoi^ io 
districts* 

The executive power is vested in a Governor and a Council, which 
eonfbts of five members. ' 

The governor, councU, senators, and representatives are all elected annii- 
ally, by the people, on the second Tuesday in March ; and their term of 
service commences on thg first Wednesday in June. 

Hie General Court meets annually (at Concord) on the first Wednes^y 
in June. 

The riglH of flidfrage is granted to every male inhabitant of 21 ]rears of 
age, excepting paupers and persons excused fipom paying taxes at tiieir own 
lowest* 



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. iraW UAMBBUIMM, ITS 

The judidtiy power is retted in a Superior Court and a Court of Com- 
Dkon Pleas. The judges are appointed by the governor and council, and 
hold their offices during good behavior, but not beyond the age of 70 jrears. 

Government fir the Year ending on the firtt 2\iesrfay m /ime, 1881. 



EzxciTTiyx. 



Matthew Harvey, ofHopkinton, 



Francis N. Fisk 
Thozna9 E. Sawyer 
Jesse Bowers 
Joseph Healy 
Stephen P.Webster 
Dudley S. Palmer 
William Pickering 



of Concord, 
of Dover, 
of Dunstable, 
of Washington, 
of Haverhill, 
of Concord, 
do. 



Oovemor,'' Salary $1,200, 
Diftiieti. 

CouneeUor for Rockingham, 

do, for Strafford. 

do, for Hillsborough. 

do, for Cheshire 

do, fiw Grafton. 

Secretary of State, Saiaiy $800 

Treasurer, Do. 600 



LXOISLATTTRE. 



Senators. Reridence. 

1. John F. Parrot, Portsmouth. 

2. Jacob Freeze, Deerfield. 
8. Frederic G. Stark, Manchester. 
4. Joseph M. Harper, Canterbury. 

6. Henry B. Rust, Wolfeborough. 
6. EzekielWentworth, Ossipee. 



Senator!. Residence. 

7. William Bixby, Francestown. 

8. Benjamin Evans, Warner. 

9. Levi Chamberiain, Fitzwilliam. 

10. Eleazar Jackson, Jr. Cornish. 

11. Elijah Miller, Hanover. 

12. Samuel Cartland, Haverhill. 



Joseph M. Harper, President of the Senate, 
Samuel C. Webster, of Plymouth, Speaker of the House of Representor 

tives. 
Pay of the eounsellois, senators, and representatives, $2,00 a day, for 
attendance during the session of the legislature, and 10 cents a mile for 
tiavel : of the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, also the counsellors (when in service, except during the 
tesiioD of the legislature,) 52,50 a day. 

JUDICXART. 

Superior Couri, 

Wniiam M. Richardson of Chester, ChirfJustiu^ 

Samuel Green of Concord, Associate Justice, 1819 

John Harris ofHopkinton, do, 1828 

GwNge SuUivaa of Exeter, Attorney General, 

Court of Common Pleas, 

Arthur Livermore* ofCampton, 
Timothy Farrar, of Hanover, 
Joiiah Butler, of Deerfield, 



Appointed. 
1816 



Chief Justice, 1825 

Associate Justice, do. 

do, do. 



Salary. 

$1,400 

1,200 

1,200 

800 

Sidary. 

»i;8oo 

1,600 
1,000 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



inw HAxrsKims. 





BARKa. 








Num. 


Plaet. 


in. 


tk«i. 


"V^. 


Mew Haapiliira BMk« 
N. Hampshiro Union Bank, 
RocUDgbam Bank, 


do. 


|^166,MJ0 
160,000 


60,764 
24,614 


7.678 28 

6.679 00 


do. 


100,000 


16.034 


6,671 00 


PortnDOQth Bank, - 


do. 


100,000 


26,623 


20,814 71 


Pbcataqua Bank, - 


do. 


160300 


66,419 


19,718 68 


Commercial Bank, - 


do. 


100/)00 


16,000 


6,249 48 


Exeter Bank, 


Exeter, 


100,000 


26^1 


10.620 67 


Deny Bank, - 
Strafibrd Bank, - 


Derry, 


100,000 


61,171 42387 96 1 


Dover, 


100,000 


28,018 


4326 22 


Dover Bank, . - • 


do. 


126,000 


16,774 


4,336 70 




MeredUk, 


84,000 


34,787 


19,181 85 


Concord Bank, 


Concord, 


100,000 


87,690 


10346 44 


Merrimack Co. Bank, - 


do. 


100,000 


86,012 


32,067 63 


Faimers* Bank, 


JSmherBt, 


66,000 


32,489 


8,694 27 


Mana&ctnrers* Bank, - 




88,266 


48,068 


22,486 29 


Cbeahire Bank, 


Eeene, 


100,000 


61,366 


11,286 41 


Comiectleut Rirer Bank, 


C^tarleBtoum, 


60,000 


60,616 


12,076 40 


Claremont Bank, - 


Claremont. 


60,000 


28,466 


7316 79 


Grafton Bank, ... 


Hxnerhm, 


100,000 


84,406 


48,413 88 


Pemigeivasset Bank, * 


Plymouth, 
Lebanon, 


60,000 


17,479 


3,912 69 


Lebanon Bank, - 


106,000 


36,706 


10,988 49 



»% The Bank of the United Stalea has an office of Discount and De- 
posit at Portsmouth 

EnircATioir. 

New Hampshire haa a coUege at Hanover, styled Dartmouth CoDege, 
widi which a medical school is connected ; a small academical theological 
Institution at New Hampton; and about 80 incorporated academies, of 
which the oldest and best endowed is Phillips Academy at Exeter. 

Common schools are established throughout the state, and for their sup- 
port a sum, amounting, each year since 1818, to $90,000, is annually raised 
by a separate tax. The state has a Literary Fund amounting to ;f 64,000» 
fonned by a tax of one halfper cent, on the capital of the banks. The pro- 
ceeds of tfab fund, and abo an annual income of j9,000 derived from a ta^-^ 
on banks, are appropriated to aid the support of schools. 



lit VERMONT. 

FomT DuMMXB, hi fhe eoiiflieast part of Veiuont, wag Mft in Vm ; 
and Bennington, the oldest town is tbeatate^ was chaitoied in 1749, by 
BMBiog Weotwovtil^ governor of New Hampshire. 
" The tanitory of Vermont was oiiginaBy claimed bodi by New HampdiiM 
VidlSrewTork; and its pofiUcal condition was, for » coMtd^abfo tae. 



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ts&moht. 



177 



nnsetlM ; tnit the people preferring to have a fepartto govemmeiit, formed 
a Constittitioe io 17T7, under which a government was organized in March, 
1788 ; and in 1791 » Vermont waa admitted into the Union. 

OoTERiroKa. 



Thomas Chittenden, 


elected 


1778 


Martin Chittenden, 


elected 


1818 


Moses Robinson, 


do. 


1789 


Jonas Galniha, 


do. 


1815 


Thomas Chittenden, 


do. 


1790 


Richard SIcinner, 


do. 


im 


Isaac Tichenor, 


do. 


1797 


C. P. Van Ness, 


do. 


1828 


Israel* Smith, 


do. 


1807 


Ezra Butler, 


do. 


1826 


Isaac Tichenor, 


do. 


1808 


Samuel C. Crafts, 


. do. 


1888 


Joaas Galusha, 


- 


1809 









OuTIilNES or THE CoiTSTITVTIOK. 

The first Constitution of this state was formed in 1777 ; the one now ilk 
opeiatioD was adopted on the 4th of July, 1793. 

The legislative power is vested in a single body, a House of Represen- 
tatives, elected annually, on the first Tuesday in September, every town in 
tibe state being entitled to send one representative. The representatives 
meet (at Montpelier) annually on the second Thursday of the October 
succeeding their election, and are styled The General A»»emhly qfthe 
State of Vermont. 

• The executive power is vested in a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and 
a Council of 12 persons, who are all chosen annually by the freemen on the 
first Tuesday in September, and their term of office commences on the second 
Thursday in October. They are empowered to commission all officers ; to 
sit as judges to consider and determine on impeachments ; to prepare and 
lay before the Geneial Assembly such business as shall appear to them 
necessary ; and have power to revise and propose amendments to the laws 
passed by the House of Representatives. ~ 

The Constitutioi^ grants the right of suffiage toeveiy man of the full age 
of 21 yeara, who has resided in the state for the space of one whole year, 
next before the election of representatives, and is of quiet and peaceable 
behavior. 

The judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court consisting of three 
judges ; and of a County Court of three judges for each county. The judges 
of the Supreme, County, and Probate Courts, sheriffii, and justices of the 
peace, are elected annually by the General Assembly; 

A Council of Censors, consisting of 18 penons, are chosen every eeven 
years (first elected in 1799) on the last Wednesday in March, and meat on 
the first Wednesday in June. Their duty is to inquire whether the Consti- 
totioii has been preserved inviolate; whether the legislative and exeotttim 



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m 



btmchct •f gflTBmn w t hay pwfe i Bw ii their ^uty—t 
fie; whether the pidiiktaMh>f«beettJiirt^liM«iideall6etM; in wh^ 
BMumer die pttblie meaeye hsve been 4iipeee4 «€| end whetfier the Itilfe 
ha?e been duly exeenled. 



GoTKRlflfXlIT 

for ike Year ending October, 1831. 
Samuel C. Crtfts, of CrafUbuiy, Governor , 



Ifuk Richards, 

Ifjrron Clarfc, 
Samuel Claik, 
Wm. G. Hunter, 
Robert Pierpoint, 
Henry F. Jones, 
E2i% zLirftf 



Korman Williams 
I Swan 



Bennington 

Windham 

Rutland 

do. 
Windsor 
Addison 



lieuU Governor^ 

Jedediah H. Harris, 
John C. Thompson, 
George Worthington, 
Benj. F. Demfaig, 
James Davis, 
Ira H. Allen, 



Salary jf750 

Orange 

Chittend^ 

Washington 

Caledonia 

Franklin 

Orleans 



Oiiaiy. 

of Woodstock, Secretary of SMe, $4ffO 

do. lYeaeurtr of the SUUtt 4M 



Robert B. Bates, Shaker qftke Howe rf RepreeenUUioee. 
Thnothy Merrill, Clerkofihe JUeemhly. Sahoy |a7B. 

~ The Counsellors and Representatives receive #1^ a day, duroig atten- 
dance, and six cents a mile for travel in going and returning. The lienl 
Governor and Speaker of the House receive #2,60 a day. 





JunicxART. 






Judgee of the Supreme Court, 


systy. 


Titus Hutchinson, 


Chief JuittcCf 


|1,M0 


Charles K. WiUiams, 


jieaistant Jiigtiee, 


• 1,0M 


Stephen Royoe, 


do. 


. 1,0W 


Ephraim Paddock, 


do. > 


1,050 




do. 


- 1,060 



The Supreme Court is a court for the determination of questions of law 
and petitions, and other matters not triable by jury. Each Judge receives, 
in addition to his salary, $126 per annum, for preparing reports of di6 
decisions of the Supreme Court, to be published by the state* 

The Legislature appoints annually two assistant judges in each eountyg 
trho, with one judge of the Supreme Court, compose the County Court. 
The County Court has original and exclnsive jurisdiction In etset tdallke by 



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199 



Jwgr» iriMM tfk^BMMif #r '4Ublg'iB ^MSdMI OBBMdt tf|6 Tita^ •C OM iMlll- 

4rad doOan ; and in some cases, wlwiv — aBit daiaagaa are clataed. Tli» 
aailflMit judgaa of lUi eawt lMf»Bo aabriat^ b«t aM paM l>]^ieei, wlMi 
imry pnkMf fiom #60 to 0260 par aomm, ftceofdteg to iSbm amoimt of 
b o i u ies s doue fai tha thirteen didbrent County Cavrta. 



Bauks ur Vermoht. 

ne ievercU items are taken from the Report submitted to the Legii' 
lature, October 13, 1829. 



Name. 


Nominal 
capital. 


Stock 
paid io. 


MUfiB 
circnla- 

UOD. 


Depoa. Fcuida k. 


Bank of Burlington, 
" of Windsor, - 
«« ofBrattleborough, 
" ofRuUand, 
«« ofMontpeUer, - 
** of St. Albans, - 
« of Caledonia, 
" of Vcrgennes, - 
'« of Orange County, 
** of Bennington, - 


$150,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 


63,000 
80,000 
50,000 
60,000 
30,000 
20,000 
30,000 
30,000 
29,625 
40,000 


122,273 
81,050 
67,044 

125,003 
52,831 
64,634 
25,506 
40,218 
21,959 
79,763 


36307 261,789 

176,176 

22,415148,687 

33,998 221,548 

4,141 91,472 

9,577 96,626 
ll,6t7 69,056 

5,277 77,091 
11,586 65,761 

4,073 128,031 



^^^ The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and De- 
poaite at Burlington. 

Educatioit. 

There are two colleges in Vermont, at BurlingtQQ and Middlebury ; med- 
ical schools at Burlington and Castleton; and about 20 incorporated 
academies in the state, where young men may be fitted for college. 

Common schools are supported throughout the state. The money raised 
by the general law for the suppoK of schools, at 8 per cent, on die Grand 
list [the valuation for taxes], would be about $51,119 42 ; and about as 
much more is supposed to be raised by. sohool district taxes. The state 
has a Literary Fund, derived principally from a tax of 6 per cent on the 
ammal profits of the hanks ; the amount on loan in September, 1829, was 
|28,763 32. 



IV. MASSACHUSETTS. 

Thb tMiHory of Matsadiiisettt comprised; for many years after its first 
•illlaniiit, two separate colonies, styled the Plymouih Colony and the 
mim^ efMa$maM99H9 Bay. 

• The first Englsb settlement tint was made in New England, was formed 
1l|^I01.p«teaoawlM» fled from rattgloas persecution in England, landed 
ittmfmonOk on tfie tM of Deeember, 1820, and laid the foandation oT 



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180 



MASSACBOtBTVS. 



TIm tettleiiMiit of the Coloiqr of Mmathmtft Bty m 
MemlnttflS. Boftoa wm tottled in 1«90. 

The two eokmies coatfoaod Mptmta and eleetod tboir own goyaniMft 
aimumlly tiU 1689-6, whon ihej were deprived of their charters, and warn 
placed under tlie govemoMnt of Joeepb Dudley, and afterwards of Sir £d« 
mund Androt. In 1692, they were united into one colony under a i 
charter; and the governors were afterwards appointed by the king. 

GoVERiroiis. 

Colonial OovemorB elected annuaRy by the People, 



Plymouth Colony. 



John Carver, 
WilHam Bradford, 
Edward Wbslow, 
Thomas Prince, 
\rilUain Bradford, 
Edward Winslow, 
William Bradford, 
Thomas Prince, 
William Bradford, 
, Edward Winslow, 
William Bradford, 
Thomas Prince, 
Josiah Winslow, 
Thomas Hinckley, 



elected 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



1620 
1621 
1638 
1634 
1635 
1686 
1637 
1638 
1639 
1644 
1645 
1657 
1673 
1680 



Colony of MauachusetU Bay. 



John Wmthrop, 


eUcted 


1630 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1634 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1635 


Henry Vane, 


do. 


1636 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1637 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1640 


Richard Bellingham, 


do. 


1641 


John Wmthrop, 


do. 


1642 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1644 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1645 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1646 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1649 


Richard Bellingham, 


do. 


1654 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1655 


Richard Bellipgham, 


do. 


1665 


John Leverett, 


do. 


1673 


Simon Bradstreet, 


do. 


1679 



4fter (be Diaeoluiion of the Fir$t Charter. 

[Joseph Dudley, appointed President of New England, Oct 8, 1685. 

Sir Edmund Andros qesumes the government of Jfeto England, Dee, 
90, 1686— is deposed by the people, AprU 18, 1689.] 
Thomas Hinckley, elected 1689 | Simon Bradstreet, elected 1689 

Chvemors of Ma$$achu$etts under the Second extorter, appointed 
hy ike Xing. 



Appoiotsd, 
Sir WilUam Phips, 1692 

Wm. Stoughton, Lieut. Gov, 1694 
BailofBeUamont, 1699 

Wm. Stoughton, Lietil^OM. 1700 
Joeepfa Dudley, 1702 



AppstalMb 
WUUam Taylor, Lieut. Gov. 1715 
Samuel Shute, ITie 

William Domner, UemL Gmf. 1728' 
WiUiam Bumel, ' . IIMl 

Wilfiaa DMiBMr, LituL Om,- l«Hk 



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IfASBACHlJBSVmw' 



1^ 



WiUittB Taylor, JUeut. Gov. 1780 

lemtlaB BM^her, 1780 

^ittUKiin^hirie^ 1741 

Spencer Phips, ZAeut, Gov, 1740 

Xbomas (PotRaaU, 1767 



Thonaf Hutchinfffi, U, Gap. 1700 
Fninck Benacd, 1T60 

Thomu HutehioMD, £d. Gmt. ano 
ThomM HrtehtBion, 17T0 

Tho«M8 Gage, 17114 



t/n QeUbeTf 1774, a Provmeial Congrt— a$$mud tke gmsemmetdf 
amd in Juhf, 1776, eUtied counseUor$ ; in 1780, tfie ConsUhUi^ 
tDOB formed.'l 

GovemoTM under the ConstUuiion, 



John Hancock, 


elected 


1780 


Christopher Gore, 


elected 


1809 


James Bowdoin, 


do. 


1785 


Elbridge Gerry, 


do. 


1810 


John Hancock, 


do. 


1787 


Caleb Strong, 


do. 


1812 


Samuel Adams, 


do. 


1794 


John Brooks, 


do. 


1816 


Increase Sumner, 


do. 


1797 


Wilfiam Eustis, 


do. 


1828 


Caleb Strong, 


do. . 


1800 


Levi Lincoln, 


do. 


1825 


James Sullivan, 


do. 


1807 









OuTLurss or thb CoirsTiTUTioir. 

The Constitution of this state was formed in 1780, and amended in 1321. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, which together are styled The General Court o/Massachv^setts. 

The members of the House of Representatives are elected annually in 
May ; and they must be chosen ten days at least before the last Wednes- 
day of that month. Every corporate town having 150 ratable polls may 
elect one representative, and another for every additional 225 ratable polls. 

The Senate consists of 40 members, who are chosen, by districts, annu- 
ally, on the first Monday in April. 

The supreme executive magistrate is styled The Governor of the Com>' 
mompealth of Ma$$achiuetts, and has the title of << Mis Excellency." 
The 'Governor U elected annually by the people on the firft Monday of 
April, and at the same time a Lieutenant Governor is chosen, who has th9 
tftle of ** Sis Honor. ^* The Governor is assisted in the executive part <^ 
government by a Council of nine members, who are chosen by the joint 
ballot of the Senators and Representatives, from the Senators ; and in ease 
the pefaons elected, or any of them, decline the appointment, the deficiency 
ia-Mippliod from among the people at large. 

The General Court meets (at Boston) on the last Wednesday of Mayi 
and also in January. 

The ri^ of suffrage is granted to erwy male citizen, 21 years of age 
' and tipw»rd8 (excepting. piwiptn end peraou under gaaidi«Mhi|i),^o ba 
MfldedfvflhiD^tbd coBUBomrMMiotte year, and withfai the town «r dislriel 
16 



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m 



VAMACBVSXTTf. 



In wUdi hi may daim a right to YOte» dx calandar iionGbB next praeeAof 
any al ec t ian, and who haa paid a atate or county tex» a iae w ed upon Uaa 
wityn two yeait next pieeeding aoch election ; and alao eteiy cttiian wha 
may be by law exempted from taxation, and who may be» in all otfaar 
latpecti qualified aa above mentioned. 

The Judidary ia veated in a Snprame Court, a Court of Common Plaaa, 
and anch other courta aa the Legislative may eataUish. Hie judgea are 
appointed by the Goveroor by and with the advice and consent of Htut 
Councfl, and hold their offices during good behavior. 



Qavemment for the Year ending on the last Tuesday in May, 1881. 

EXKOUTITZ. 



Levi Lincoln, 
Thomas L. Winthrop, 
Edward D. Bangs, 
Joseph Sewall, 
William H. Sumner, 



CoameUon. 
Sanrael C. Allen, 
Nathan Brooks, 
John Endicott, 
Russell Freeman, 
Aaron Hobart, 



of Worcester, 
of Boston, 
of Boston, 
of Boston, 
of Boston, 



Greenfield. 
Concord. 
Dedham. 
N. Bedford. 
E. Bridgewater. 



Oavemor, 
Lieut, OovemoTf 
See. of the Common'thf 
7}rea$. if Beceioer Oen, 
Adjutant General, 



George Hull, 
James Savage, 
Joseph £. Sprague, 
Bezaleel Taift, Jun. 



Sftlaiy. 
ffofvoo oT 
588 38 
2,000 00 
2,000 0(f 
1,500 00 



Sandisfield. 
Boston. 
Salem. 
Uxbridge. 



LXGISLATURX. 



Francis C. Gray, 
Alexander H. Everett, 
Thomas Motl^, 
Charles Wells, 
Pliny Cutler, 
Daniel Baxter, 
Amos Spalding, 
John Merrill, 
William Thomdike, 
James H. Duncan, 
Stolen White, 
Stephen PhiUips, 
Bern. F. Yamum, 
Asahel Steams, 
John Locke, 
Fiands WiiMhip, 
Thomas J. Goodwin, 



The Senate. 
Samuel Lathrop, President of the Senate. 



.Suffolk 
District 



.Essex 
'District. 



Afiddlesex 
DisUict 



Solomon Lincoln, Jun. 
Charies J. Holmes, 

EUsha Pope, 

Christopher Webb, 
Henry A. 8. Dearborn, 
Moses Tbacher, 
Elyah lonaham, 
Howard Lothrop, 
John A. Parker, 
John W. Lincoln, 
LoveU Walker, 
David WUder, 
Samuel Mixter, 
Waiiam S. Hastings, 
OKver Warner, 
John Warner, 



> Plymouth 
5 District 
) Barnstable 
I District. 

^Norfolk 
[District 

Bristol 
[District* 



Woreeater 
District 



Hampahire 
District 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



VAMACHTTSXTTS. 



SohXk Fowler, > Hampden 

\ LathMpi 5 Distriet 
iHoyt, >Fra»Ute 

SyJNrefter Maxw^3 Diiliiel. 

Chailes CftUi«iin, 
W. P. Gngg, 



Samuel M. McKay, ) Berkshire ' 
5Diftiiet. 
\Nmtodui 

CUrk. 



Rmtett Brown, 

Barker BumeD, 



The Hoi^e of RepreitnUUieei, 
WiUiam B. Calhoun, - 

Pelham W. Warren, - . - 

Present number of members 889. 
The pay of each member of the Senate and of the House of Representa- 
tives, is 1^2 for each day's attendance, and $2 for every ten miles' triyel. 



Clerk, 



Judiciary. 
Supreme Court, 



Lemuel Shaw, 
Samuel Putnam, 
Bami S. Wilde, 
Marcus Morton, 
Perez Morton, 
Daniel Davis, 



of Boston, 
of Salem; 
ofNewburyport, 
of Taunton, 
of Dorchester, 
of Cambridge; 



Octavius Pickering, of Boston, 



Ch^fJuitiee, 
Aisoeiate JuiUee, 

do, 

do. 
Attorney Oeneral, 
Solicitor Qenerdl, 
Reporter, 



Court of Common Pleas, 
Artemas Ward, of Boston, Chief Justice, 

Solomon Strong, of Leominster, Associate Justice^ 

John M. Williams, of Taunton, do. 

David Cummins, of Salem, do. 



Salaqr. 

$s,tm 

8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
9,000 
2,000 
1,000 



2,100 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 



Municipal Court qf Boston, 
Peter O. Thacher, - - Judge, - 1,200 

1. Justices of the Peace have original and exclusive jurisdiction in all 
eitil cases in which the debt or damages demanded do not exceed $20, 
except where the title to real estate comes in question. They have eon- 
current criminaZ jurisdiction as to breaches of the peace, not aggravated In 
their nature, and in cases of larceny, where the goods stolen do not exceed 
&e Tiilue of $5, 

2. The Court of Common Pleas has appellate jurisdiction in all eivtf 
and ariminal cases tried originally before a justice of the peace. It his 
origifidl and exclusive jurisdiction in all civU, common-law cases, where 
the debt or damage demanded exceeds the sum of jf20 ; and^noi jorkcBe- 
tion where the damages demanded do not exceed $100. Its criminal 
jurisdiction depends generally on particular statutes. In relation to offen- 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



164 uM99JkeMvtmTm, 

C60 at common law, its juntdictioQ includes eyery thing, where the puniflh« 
ment does not extend to life, member, or banishmwit, eicefi Whom tbe 
puniifaBMBt Is, by statute, to be administered by the Supreme Gvurt. In 
case of morfga^ and forfeitures annexed to contracts, (hii coifrt &a#a 
eanewrrent thanury jurisdtctkm. 

8. The Supreme Judicial C&wrt has appellate jurisdiction in all civil 
eases where the debt or damage exceeds $100, and in all criminal cases 
originally tried in the Court of Common Pleas or the Municipal Court of 
the cky of Boston. It has conewrrent jurisdiction in all erimihal cases 
cognizable by the inferior courts, and original and ercZtmoe jurisdiction in 
all capital cases. It has also original and excZusioe jurisdiction in •all cases 
tfoHmony and divorce ; and chancery powers in cases of trustBt tpecific 
pcfformance of contracts in tDriiing, mortgageit settlement of pmther' 
ship accounts, wastes nuisance, and forfeitures annexed to contracts. It 
b the Supreme Court of Probate, entertains appeals from the Probate 
Courts of the counties, and has a general superintending power over all 
Inferior tribunals by writ of error, certiorari, quo warranto, &c. 

4. The Probate Courts, of which there is one in each county, consisting 
of a single judge, have original and exclusive jurisdiction in tbe probate of 
wills, settlement of estates, and guardianship of minors, idiots, lunatics, &c. 

5. There is, in Boston, a court consisting of three justices, styled the 
police Court for the city of Boston, and a Justices'* Court for the county of 
Suffolk, whith has the same ciwl jurisdiction as justices of the peace in 
other counties, and the same criminal jurisdiction as justices of the peace, 
concurrently with the Municipal Court 

%m There is also in Boston a Municipal Court, consisting of one judge, 
which has cognizance of all crimes, not capital, committed within the 
county of Suffolk, and appellate jurisdiction in all criminal cases tried before 
tiie Police Court. v 

Banks. 

The state of the Banks as reported to the General Court in January, 

1830. 







(Jiii>itiii j Bills in 




Kate pr. ot. & 


Placo. 


Name. 


Stock piiid' circula- 


Specie. 


amount of the 






iti. 


tion. 




lust dividend. 


Aiidover, 


Andover, 


100,0U0 


44,252 


4,403 79 


3 3,000 


Beveily, 


Beverly, 


100,0(10 


35,016 


2,366 96 


3 3,009 


Belchertown, 


Farmers', 


100,000 


42,527 


422 31 


3 3.000 


Boston, 


State, 


1,800,000 


256,886 


59,728 55 


2i 45,000 


Boston, 


New England, 


1,000,000 


97,704 


S7,121 63 


3 30.000 


Boston, 


Globe, 


1,000.000 


255,164 


51,595 17 


3 30,000 


Boston, 


City, 


1,000.0001152,741 


19,624 44 


21 25,000 


Boston, 


Boston, 


900.000' 94.441 


26,785 03 


21 24,000 


Boston, 


Massachusetts, 


SOO.COO 106.818 


66.056 71 


2^ 20,000 


Boston, 


Union, 


800.000 108,930 


51,796 79 


24 20,000 


Boston, 


Manu. and Mec. 


750,000 50,790 


32.355 03 


3 22,500 


Boston, 


North Bank, 


750.000144,255 


20,340 05 


34 24,375 


Boston, 


Suffolk, 


750.000 192,879 


154.313 04 


3 22,500 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



MASSACSUaSTTf. 



186 



Place. 


Name. 


Boston, 


American, 


Boston, 


Atlantic, 


Boston, 


Columbian, 


Boston, 


Commonwealth, 


Boston, 


Ea^le, 


Boston, 


Washington, 


Boston, 


Franklin, 


Brighton, 


Brighton, 


Cambridge, 


Cambridge, 


Charlestown, 


Bunker HUl, 


Danvers, 


Danvers, 


Dedham, 


Dedham, 


Falmouth, 


Falmouth, 


Gloucester, 


Gloucester, 


Greenfield, 


Frankhn, 


Haverhill, 


Merrimack, 


Leicester, 


Leicester, 


Lowell, 


Lowell, 


Lynn, 


Lynn Mech's, 
Marblehead, 


Marblehead, 


Mendon, 


Mendon, 


Milbury, 


Milbury, 


Nantucket, 


Pacific, 


Nantucket, 


Man. and Mec, 


Nantucket, 


Phoenix, 


New Bedford, 


Bedford Cora'l 


Kew Bedford*, 


Merchants*, 


Newbury port. 


Newburyport, 


Newburyport, 


Mechanics*, 


Northampton, 


Hampshire, 


Oxford, 


Oxford, 


Pittsfield, 


Agricultural, 


Pawtucket, 


Pawtucket 


Plymouth, 


Plymouth, 


Roxbury, 


Norfolk, 


Salem, 


Asiatic, 


Salem, 


Commercial, 


Salem, 


Exchange, 


Salem, 


Merchants*, 


Salem, 


Salem, 


Salem, 


Mercantile, 


Sprinoffield, 


Springfield, 


Stockbridge, 


Housatonic, 


Sunderland, 


Sunderland, 


Sutton, 


Sutton, 


Taunton, 


Taunton, 


Troy, 


Fall River, 


Uxbridge, 


Blackstone, 


Ware, 


Hampshire Man. 


Westfield, 


Hampden, 


Worcester, 


Central, 


Worcester, 


Worcester, 


Yarmouth, 


Barnstable, 



Capital 


Bills in 




Rats 


pr. ct. ^1 


Stock paid 


circula- 


Specie. 


amount of the 


in. 


tion. 




last dividend. 
3i 24,375 


750,000 


69,542 


35,579 19 


500,000 


29,740 


3,718 71 


4 


20,000 


500,000 


170,031 


35,809 30 


3 


15,000 


500,000 


106,776 


32,913 IS 


3 


15,000 


.500,000 


100,810 


18,717 89 


3 


15,000 


500,000 


83,136 


14,514 14 


2 


10,500 


100,000 


57,048 


796 96 


21 


2,760 


150,000 


72,712 


2,168 25 


2 


3,000 


150,000 


91,927 


5,855 06 


H 


5,230 


150,000 


60.5S8 


7,039 65 


4 


6,000 


120,000 


104,729 


6,620 09 


4 


4.800 


100,000 


79,180 


2,263 69 


3 


8,000 


100,000 


44,490 


2,731 86 


2i 


2,250 


120,000 


35,076 


7.174 86 


3 


3,600 


100,000 


77,781 


5,327 74 


4 


4,000 


150,000 


60,199 


11,581 74 


3 


4,500 


100,000 


39,702 


4,200 40 


H 


3,500 


100,000 


55,215 


1,272 11 


H 


3,500 


100,000 


59,804 


4,418 05 


3 


3,000 


120,000 


66,831 


5,030 98 


3 


3,600 


100,000 


62,914 


2,566 25 


4 


4,000 


100,000 


17,875 


2,068 53 


3 


3,000 


200,000 


59,732 


6,089 23 


3 


6,000 


100,000 


37,534 


3,91135 


3 


3,000 


200,000 


30,747 


2,196 73 


2 


4,000 


250,000 


77,423 


33,233 78 


3 


7,500 


250,000 


83,784 


9,283 66 


3 


7,600 


210,000 


43,419 


8,712 14 


2i 


5,250 


200,000 


60,541 


10,649 67 


3 


6,000 


100,000 


50.440 


8,550 61 


3 


3,000 


100,000 


42,070 


6,807 OS 


3 


3,000 


] 00,000 


55,657 


4,587 67 


H 


3,500 


100.000 


15,912 


1,572 51 


3 


3,000 


100,000 


64,219 


7,830 72 


3 


3,000 


200,000 


99,374 


1,171 08 


3 


6,000 


350,000 


60,900 


10,917 30 


3 


10,500 


300,000 


72,215 


21,495 00 


3 


9,000 


300,000 


41,672 


10,115 61 


n 


8,250 


400,000 


60,384 


13,553 45 


3 


12,000 


250,000 


34,724 


17,231 12 


2| 


6,875 


200,000 


60,230 


12,614 09 


3 


6,000 


250,000 


98,176 


4,998 00 


3 


4,500 


100,000 


51,715 


8,592 81 


3 


3,030 


100,000 


62,360 


3,124 15 


3 


3,030 


75,000 


22,378 


124 06 




00 


175,000 


55,826 


1,640 74 


3 


5,250 


200,000 


36,039 


64)19 27 


3 


6,000 


100,000 


11,963 


3,849 13 


3 


8,000 


100,000 


38,502 


4,811 13 


3 


3,000 


100,000 


44,104 


5,455 78 


3 


3,00Q 


50,000 


34,008 


1,138 81 




00 


200,000 


73,063 


11,905 99 


24 


5,000 


100,000 


44,164 


4,843 67 


3 


3,000 



Aggre gate offiGBankg, $20,420,000 |4,747,784| 987,210 47 1 583,15i5,0 j 



m*m The Bank of the Unitod States has aa Office of Discount and tksposit at Boston, 
16' 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



186 HAMACBUMETTf. 



&DirCATi0ir. 

ilie principal literary inititatioiis are Harvard University in Cambridge, 
tsotinected witii which Aere are medical, tfaeolo|^1» and law echoob ; 
WiOiama College at Williamstown ; Amherat College at Amherst ; Mas- 
sachusetts Medical College in Boston connected with Harvard Uiiiversiiy ; 
Berkshire Medical Institution connected with Williams College ; the Theo- 
logical gfeminaries at Andover and Newton ; Round Hill School at Norfli- 
ampton, Berkshire Gymnasium at Pittsfleld, and Mount Pleasant Cfassical 
Institution at Amherst. There are also 66 incorporated academies, of 
which Phillips Academy at Andover, the oldest and best endowed, was 
incorporated in 1780, and has educated 2,025 ^holan. 

Common schools are well supported throughout the state. The laws 
require that every town or district, containing 50 fiimilies, shal^be provided 
with a school or schools equivalent in time to six months for one sdK>ol in a 
year ; containing 100 families,l2 months ; 150 families, 18 months ; and the 
several towns in the state are authorized and directed to raise such sums of 
money as are necessary for the support of the schools, and to assess and 
collect the money in the same manner as other town taxes. Each town is 
also required to choose annually a school committee of 8, 5, or 7 persons, 
to take the general charge and superintendence of the public schools. 

According to the report of the school committee of Boston, in Novemter, 
1829, the number of public schools in that city was 80; pupils 7,430; 
expense for tuition, fuel, &c. $52,500; the estimated rent of school 
houses, $10,000; making the whole expense amount to $62,500. Pri- 
vate schools in the city, 156 ; pupils 4,018 ; expense of tuition $107,702 
Total number of schools 235 ; pupils 11,448; expense for tuition, fuel, 
books, fiLC $196,829 25. 



V. RHODE ISLAND. 

Ths settlement of this state was commenced at Providence, in 1636, by 
tiie celebrated Roger WUliams, a minister who was banished frontMassa- 
'chusetts on account of his religious opinions ; and in 1638, the settlement 
of the island of Rhode Island was begun by WUUam Coddington^ J^hn 
Clarke, aid others. 

In 1648, Mr. Williams went to England, and obtained, in 1644, a Charter, 
by which the settlement of Rhode Island atid Providence Plantations 



, Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



lOIODG ISLAND^ 



lar 



were united under one govemment, and which continued in force till 16^, 
when a new Charter was granted by Ctiarles II., which has ever nnce 
MiMd the basis of the goterntnent. 

GoVEAXORS, &c. 

Presidents under the First Charter, 



John Coggeshallp elected 1647 

Jeremkh Clarke, do, 1648 

John Smith, do, 1649 

Nicholas £aston, do, 1650 



Roger Williamsy eheted 1665 

Benedict Arnold, do^ 1657 

William Brenton^ do, 1660 

Benedict Arnold, do, 1662 



Chvemors under the Second Charter, 



Benedict Arnold, 


elected 


William Brenton, 


do. 


Benedict Arnold, 


do. 


Nicholas Easton, 


do. 


William Coddington, 


do. 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


Benedict Arnold, 


do. 


John Cranston, 


do. 


Peleg Sandford, 


do. 


William Coddington, 


do. 


Henry Bull, 


do. 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


[1686 Sir Edmund Andros : 


the Charter suspended] 


Heniy Bull, 


elected 


John Easton, 


do. 


Caleb Carr, 


do. 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


Samuel Cranston, 


do. 



1663 
1666 
1669 
1672 
1674 
1676 
1677 
1679 
1680 
1683 
1685 
1686 



1689 
X690 
1695 
1696 
1698 



Joseph Jenckes, 
William Wanton, 
John Wanton, 
Richard Ward, 
William Greene, 
Gideon Wanton, 
William Greene, 
Gideon Wanton, 
William Greene, 
Stephen Hopkins, 
William Greene, 
Stephen Hopkins, 
Samuel Ward, 
Stephen Hopkins, 
Samuel Ward, 
Stephen Hopkins, 
Josias Lyndon, 
Joseph Wanton, . 
Nicholas Cooke, 



elected 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 



1727 
1782 
1784 
1741 
1748 
1746 
1746 
1747 
1748 
175S 
1757 
1708 
1762 
178S 
1765 
1767 
1768 
1769 
1775 



^ mcholas Cooke, 
Wniiam Greene, 
John Collins, 
Ardiur Fenner, 



Since the Revolution, 



elected 
do. 
do, 
do. 



1776 
1778 
1766 
1789 



Henry Smith, Act, Gov. 1805 
Isaac WUbom, Ueut. Gov, 1806 



James Fenner, elected 1807 

William Jones, do, 1811 

Nehemiah R. Knight, do, IStt 

Wilttam C. Gibbs, d», 1821! 



James Fenner, 



do. 



182« 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



188 RBODS ISIiAHD. 

/ 

Oovemment. 

The goyemment of this state U founded on the proYbions of the Charter 
granted to the colony by Charies II., in 1663 ; and this is the only state in 
the Union which is without a written Constitution. 

The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly , counting of a 
Senate and a House of Representatives. 

The House of Representatives consists of 72 members, 6 from Newport, 
4 from each of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Warwick, and 
two from each of the other towns in the State ; and they are elected semi* 
annually in April and August *; 

The Senate consists of 10 members, who are elected aunually in ApiiL 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected annually 
in April. A Lieutenant Governor is also elected, on whom the ezecutiTe 
duties devolve in case of the office of governor being vacated. 

The General Assembly meets four times a year ; at JVetoport on the first 
Wednesday in May (the commencement of the political year), and by ad- 
journment, at the same place, in June. It meets on the last Wednesday in 
October, alternately at Providence and South Eingston ; and by adjourn- 
ment, in January, at East Oreenunchf Bristol, or Providence. 

The judges are appointed annually by the General Assembly. 

Oovemment for tJ^e Year ending on the first Tuesday in May, 1881. 







Salary. 


James Fenner 


Gpvemor, 


$400 


Charles Collins, 




200 ' 


Henry Bowen, 


Secretary of State, 


750 & fees. 


Thomas G. Fitman, 


Treasurer, ♦ 


450 


Albert C. Greene^ 


Attorney General, 


Fees. 



Senators, 
Nathan Brown, Isaac Parker, Thomas Remington. 

John D'WoIf, Jeremiah M. Potter, Edward Barber. 

Noel Freeborn, George Hawkins, George Field. 

Each of the senators and representatives receives $1,50 a day during tiie 
session of the Assembly. 

Supreme Court, 

Salary. 
9tBMid Eddy, Chief Justice, $650 

Charles Brayton, Associate Justice, 650 

Samuel Randall, do, 560 

There are Courts of Common Pleas established in the several counties. 
The judges of these courts have no salary, but are paid by entries. 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



JtRODE I3£AirB. 



t89 



Betuma of the Banks made to the General Jiasembly, Oet. 1829. 



Names of the Banks. 



Capital Stock 
paid in. 



Providence, Provid«iice 

EzchafD^e do. 

Bank of N. America, do. 

Eagle, do. 

Roger Williams, do. 

Union, do. 

Merchants', do* 

Mechanics', do. 

Mechanics' & Manuf. do. 

High- Street Bank, do. 

9mithfie)d Exchange - 

Smithfield Union - , 

VUia^e Bank 

Burrillyllle 

Smithfield Lime Rock - 

Cumberland - 

Franklin 

Cr«Aston 

11. Island Agricultural - 

S<^tuate - 

Mount Vernon 

Manufacturers' 

N. E. Pacific 

Commercial (Bristol) 

Bristol 

Eagle (Bristol) 

Union (Bristol) - 

Freemen's Bank 

Warren - - 

Hope (Warren) 

N. E. Commercial 

Rhode Island Union 

Bank of Rhode Island - 

Merchants' (Newport) 

Newport - - - 

Rhode Island Central 

Warwick - - - 

Kfent - - " - 

Ptwtuxet - - - 

North Kingston 

Narragansett 

Washington 

Landholders' 

Phenix (Westerly) - 

Centreville Bank - 

Woonsocket Falls Bank 

Mount Hope (Bristol) - 

TotM - 



$50a,000 

500,000 

100,000 

300,000 

499,950 

500,000 

' 500,0^ 

394,600 

103,900 

70,000 

40,000 

60,000 

40,000 

87,360 

100,100 

66,750 

38,000 

25,000 

50,0«^ 

15,660 

40,000 

220,000 

8S,750 

150,000 

150,000 

60,000 

40,000 

67,000 

106,350 

100,000 

76,000 

200,000 

100,000 

50,000 

120,000 

66,275 

20,000 

20,000 

87,858 

44,485 

60,000 

76,000 

60,000 

42,000 

25,000 

61,269 

76,000 



BI11»in Cir- 
culation. 



;K43,290 00 

22,246 00 

16,037 00 

14,143 00 

25.700 00 

13,613 00 

22,904 00 

23,216 00 

13,034 00 

13,535 00 

6,616 00 

6,628 00 

13,880 00 

6,007 00 

7,926 00 

16,958 00 

16,313 00 

6,869 00 

18,«9 00 

3y8d8 00 

25,478 00 

8,842 00 

10,378 00 

9,315 00 

8,034 00 

2,904 00 

2,991 00 

3,142 00 

10,668 00 

12,383 00 

28,186 00 

28,348 00 

13,180 00 

31,348 00 

32,305 00 

11,041 00 

6,883 00 

17,041 60 

10,816 00 

13,851 00 

8,285 00 

23,236 00 

12,684 00 

18,400 00 

10,344 00 

8,649 00 

1,431 00 



6,098,307 )676,306 60 



Specie. 



#18,426 69 

13,783 31 

4e,02O 62 

9,962 46 

26,254 00 

14,597 83 

38,088 04 

17,888 67 

6,1B» 10^ 

7.624 00 

2,453 30 

1,278 4t 

2,386 78 

94 06 

4430 17 

2,985 63 

3,520 61 

8,199 9» 

6,900 42 

1,677 00 

n,255 98 

4,082 69 

3,628 94 

2,473 44 

4,905 00 

- 2,064 88 

1,686 07 

1.283 94 

6,055 67 

4.822 72 

6,729 78 

9,830 78 

6,672 67 

6,020 88 

6,086 69 

- 2,668 42 

1,937 26 

6,705 68 

6,411 27 

6,078 56 

8,066 74 

8,876 80 

2,552 42 

8,913 97 

4,608 96 

2,641 11 

226 00 



842,166 74 



* The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Pcporft 
at Providenee* * 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



190 



RHODS I8LAITD. 



EoircATioir.' 
Brown Unirenity <• ritoated at Provideiice ; at tiie same place (here is a 
•eminaiy styled the Friends' Boarding School ; and there are 8 or 10 acad« 
emies in the state. Increasing attention has of late heen paid to education, 
and the state now pays annually, for the support of free schools, the sum of 
JflO,000, which is divided among the several towns according to population. 



VI. CONNECTICUT. 



The territory of Connecticut originally comprised two [colonies, the 
Colony of ConnectietU, and the Colony o/JVeto Haven. 

The settlement of Hartford, in the colony of Connecticut, was com- 
menced by emigrants from Massachusetts,, in 1636 ; and that of New 
Haven, in 1688, by emigrants from England. i 

In 1662, a Charter was granted by Charles II., with ample privileges, 
tmiting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven under one government; 
but the colony of New Haven refused, for some time, to accept the Charter, 
and the union didf not take place till 1665. . ! > 

The Charter was suspended, in 1687, by Sir Edmund Andros ; but it was 
nstored again after (he Revolution of 1688 in England ; and it formed the 
basis of the government till 1818. 

GOTBRKORS. 



Connecticut 




J^ew Bamen. 




John Hajrnes, 


eUcUd 


1639 


Theophilus Eaton, 


elecUd' 


168t 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1640 


Do. 


{TheophUuM 


164# 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1641 


Do. 


Eaton wa$ 


1641 


Edward Hopkfais, 


do. 


1642 


Do. 


elected an» 


1642 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1643 


Do. 


nuaUy.tai 


1641 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1644 


Do. 


hie 


death. 


1644 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1646 


Do. 


in 1667.) 


1646 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1646 


Do. 






1646 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1647 


Do. 






1647 


Edward Hopkins^ 


do. 


1648 


Do. 






1648 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1649 


Do. 






1649 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1660 


Do. 






1660 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1661 


Do. 






1661 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1662 


Do. 






1662 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1663 


Do. 






1666 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1664 


Do. 






1664 


Thomas Wells, 


do. 


1666 


Do. 






1666 


John Webster, 


do. 


1666 


Do. 






1666 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1667 


Do. 






1667 


Thomas Wells, 


do. 


1668 


Francis Newman, 


eUctod 


1668 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1669 


WaUam Leet, 




do. 


1661 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 





COWIIECTICUT, 




m 




Tibe Ck)lonie$ united in 1665. . 






J(^ Wintfarop, 


elected 


1665 


Joseph Taleot, 


eUeted 


1724 


WU&mLeet, 


do. 


1676 


Jonathan Law» 


do. 


1741 


Robert Treat, 


do. 


1680 


Roger Wolcott, 


do. 


1761 


[Sir Edmund Asdios] 




1687 


Thomas Fitch, 


do. 


1754 


Rob^ Treat, 


do. 


1689 


William Pitkin, 


do. 


1766 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1696 


Jonathan Trumbull, 


do. 


1769 


Gordon Saltonstall, 


do. 


1707 








' 








Jonathan Tnimbu11» 


eUeted 


1776 


John TreadweH, 


eUeted 


1809 


Matthew Griswold, 


do. 


1784 


Roger Griswold, 


do. 


1811 


Samuel Huntington, 


do. 


1785 


John Cotton Smith, 


do. 


1813 


OMver Wolcott, 


do. 


1796 


Oliver Wolcott, 


do. 


181T 


Jonathan Trumbon, 


do. 


1798 




do. 


182T 



Outlines of the Constitution. 

The Charter granted in 1662 by Charles 11., formed the Itasis of ttie 
^▼emment of Connecticut till 1818, when the present Constitution was 
&mied. 

The legislattve power is vested in a Senate md House of Representa* 
fives, which together are styled the (Uneral Assemhhf. 

The members of the House of Representatives are chosen by the different 
towns in the state : the more andent towns, the majority of the whole num- 
ber, send each two representatives ; the rest only one each. The present 
monber is 208. 

Hie Senate must consist of not less than 18, nor more than 24 members, 
who are chosen by districts. The present number is 21. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor. A Lieutenant Governor 
is also chosen, who is President of the Senate, and on whom the duties of 
flie governor devolve in case of his death, resignation, or absence. 

The representatives, senatom, governor, and lieutenant governor are all 
^ected annually by the people on the first Monday hi April. 

The General Assembly has one stated session every year, on the first Wed- 
nesday in May, alternately at Hartford (1881) and at New Haven (1882.) 

** Every white male citizen of the United States, who shall have gained 
t settlement in this state, attained the age of 21 years, and resided in the 
town in which he may offer himself to be admitted to the privilege of an 
elaetor, at least six months preceding, and have a fiediold estate of the. 
yearly value of seven dollars, in this state ;, or having been enrolled in the 
Itaitttia, shall have performed military duty therein for the term of one year 
'next preceding the time he shall offer himself for admission, or being liable 
thereto, slndl hare been, by audiority of law, excused therefrom ; or AiaSi 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



W9 COirjCSOTJGOT* 

have paid a state tax within the year next preceding the time he shall preseht 
himself for such admission, and shall sustain a good moral character, shall, 
on hts taking such an oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.^ 

The judicial power Is vested in a Supreme Court of Errors, a Snpeiidr 
Court, and such inferfor courts as the General Assembly may, from time to 
time, establish. The judges are appointed by the General Assembly ; an4 
those of the Supreme and Superior Courts hold their oflSces during good 
behavior ; but not beyond the age of 70 years. 

No person is compelled to join, or support, or to be classed wi&, or 
associated to any congregation, church, or religious association. But ereiy 
person may be compelled to pay bis proportion of the expenses of the so- 
iiety to which he may belong : he may, however, separate himself from 
the society by leaving a written notice of his wish with the clerk of such 
■Dciety. 

'Oo^emmemt for the ¥ear ending on the fir$t ShusdOff in Mty, ttftL 

Salary. 
Gideon Tomlinson, Governor , j[ 1,100 

John S. Peters, Lieutenant Governor, 800 

Isaac Spencer, Treasurer, 1;000 

Thomas Day, Secretary, 84 fe fees. 

Elisha Phipps, Comptroller, 1,000 

8eth P. Beers, Contmienoner of the School Fund, 1,250 

The pay of the senators is $2 a day each, during the session of &e 
legislature, and of the representatives ;^ 1,50 a day ; and both receive 9 cents 
a mile for travel. The Speaker of the House of Representatives receives 
|2,50 a day. 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court of Err ore. 

Salary. 



Stephen T. Hosmer, 


Chief Justice, 


' 91,100 


John T. Peters, 


Associate Justice^ 


1,050 


Pavid Daggett) 


do. 


l,t»0 


Thomas S. Williams. 


do. 


1,050 


Clark Bissel, 


do. 


i,oiw 


Thomas Day, 


Reporter, 


850 



' The Supreme Court of Errors is composed of the five ju4ge8, and is held 
Id each of the eight counties. 

The Superior Court is a court held in eaoh of die counties by ^e :of Hie 
judges of tlie Snpeeme Court. 

There is idso a County Court in each county, composed.of acbief jiM%p 
and two associaCe judges, who are appointed annually l^ the jegiaXatnre. 
The chief judges of these courts receive fSJSQ a day, ad -^e aasodife 
Jodges 1^3 a day, duiing the session of the court, and 9<e«&taia mile ftr 
travel. 



Digitized by Google ' 



r 



COHlfBOTl6UT« 



BAirxf. 



Norwich Bank, Norwich, 300/H)t 
Thamea Bank. do. 300,009 

StooiDgton Bank, StooiaglOQ, M/M)0 
Windham Co. Bk, Brooklyn, BBfiW 
Fairfield Co. Bk, Norwalk, ' 
ToflandCo. Bk, Tolland, 



$,GftpHal. 
^Mdbfd Bank, HartiiMPd, 1,800,000 
FboMUX Bank, do. 1,218,000 1 

NewHawaBk, N.Hav«n, 886,000 j 
Merhanifg' Bank, do. 
New LondMiBk, N. London, 148/KH> ] 
Unioa Bank, do. 100,000 : 

ACiddletowDBk, Middlet'n, 400,000 

«*« The Bank of the United States haa an office of Diacount and Oepoitt 
t Hartford. 

STATIITICa OF THS aKVB&AL CoUHTOS, 

Ukmfr^m the Books tffthe ComptroU^ofthe State, as jmbUihedinthM 
Hartford TUiue, and copied into Mlee^ BegUter, August, 28, 1880. 



ArtklM. 




Stores, 
DisUlleriet, 
Bftaniifwstiirai, 
Eithorieg, 
Boraes, tnei, Jfee. 
HMt cattle, 
Sheep, 
Hlate, voIiM.. 
Carriaf es, we. 
Clocks, lie. 



tnaaranee stock, 
Tompike stock, 
Money at interest. 
Assessments, 




^Articles in the whole State. 



Total VMM. Vetel 11^ 



DwelllM- h o ns ei, 
Acres or land, t 



Stores, 
IMsUlleiie^, 
MannAotores, . 
Fisheries, . 
BorsM, esses, Ite. 



Plate, iwiwL 
0aniafee,4«. 

i,*e. 



I ne nraa ce stoek, 
Tnni|rfke sto^, 

I AeeeesnieBts, 
^t^atfeaeh. 



1,448,878 

180,648 

1;K8,800 




41,4Kr 

1,811 

46 

89,368 

819,788 



81,381 



JMB!^ 



17 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



194 



conNxcTicin^ 



Edvcatioit. 

TIm eoDeges in' Comiecticat are Tale College, 'at New Haven, wbich 
haa connected with it medieal, tiieological, and law aehools ; Washington 
College, at Hartford ; and Wetleyan College or University, recently fodi^« 
ed at BUddletown. At .Hartford is the American Asjrlum for the Edocatioa 
isf the Deaf and Dumb ; and there are other respectable literary seminaries 
and academies at New Haven, Hartford, and various other places. 

This state possesses an important School Fund, which was derived from 
tiie sale of lands, reserved by Connecticut, in the sute of Ohio, and which 
amounted on the 1st of April, 1829, to f 1,882,261 68. The income of this 
Fund is appropriated to the support of primary schools. In the year ending 
March 81, 1829, the sum of jf72,161 15 was divided among the different 
free schools throughout the state. The number of children between the 
ages of 4 and 16, in 1828, was 84,899 ; and the dividends amounted to 85 
cents to each child. 



VII. NEW YORK. 



.The settlement of this state was commenced by the Dutch, in 1614, who 
named the country JV>to JVlstherlandf, and established a colonial govern- 
ment in 1629. In 1664, Charies 11. of England granted to his brother, the 
Duke of York, a patent for a large tract of couotry, forming the present 
states of New York and New Jersey ; and during the same year. Colonel 
NicoUs, with a considerable force, in the service of the Duke, made a con- 
quest of the country ; and the name of New Netheriands was afterwards 
changed to JVeto York. In 1673, the colony was recaptured by the Dutch, 
and held by them a few months ; but, with the exception of this short 
period, it was in the possession of the English from 1664 till the American 
Involution, in 177&. 

Dutch Governors. 
Wouter Van Twiller, appointed 1629|Peter Stuyvesant, appointed 1647 
WiUiam Kieft, do. 16381 



English Governors^ 



Richard Nicolls, 


Appointed. 
1664 


Francis Lovelace, 


1667 


Sir Edmund Andres, 


1674 


Anthony Brockholst, 


1681 


Thomas Dongan, 


1683 


Francis Nicholson, 


168d 


Jacob Leisler, Xrtetif, 


Gov. 1689 



Apptrfalti. 
Heniy Sloughter, 1691 

Richio'd Ingolfihy, Lieut, Gov. 1691 

Benjainin Fletcher, 16H 

Eari of Bellamont, 1693 

John Nan^ JJaU. Gov. 1701 

Lord Combuiy, 1701 

Lord Lovelae«, . 170^ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



NEW TORK. 



195 



Appointed.' 
Bidiard Ingo]aby> Lieut. Gov, 1709 
Geiardus Beekman, JPretiderU, 1710 
General Hunter, 1710 

Peter Schuyler, PreMderU, 1719 
William Burnet, 1720 

John Montgomery, 1720 

Bip Van Dam, President, 1731 
William Crosby, 1732 

George Clark, 1736 

George Clinton, 1743 



Appointed. 
Jamef Delancy, Lieut, Gov. 1708 

Danvers Osborn, 1763 

Sir Charles Hardy, 1755 

James Delancy, Lieut. Oov. 1757 

Cadwallader Colden, Lt. Gov. 1760 

Bobert Moncton, , 1762 

Cadwallader Colden, Lt. Gov. 1763 

Henry Moore, 1766 

Earl ofPunmore, 1770 

William Tryon, 1771- 

[2%e colonial government tocu suspended in May, 1775, from which 

time to April, 1777, JVew York was governed by a Provincial Congress, 

ofvyhieh Nathaniel Woodhull was President A Constitution having, at 

length, been formed and adopted, the govemment,under tfiis Constitution, 

went into operation JSpril 20, 1777.] 

GOVXBNORS EI«BCTBD BT THB PxOPLS. 

De Witt Clinton, elected 1817 
Joseph C. Yates, do. 1822 

De Witt Clinton, do. 1822 

Nathaniel Pitcher, Ueut. Gov. 1828 
MarUn Van Buren,* elected 1829 
Enos T. Throop, Lieut. Gov. 1829 

Outlives of the Cohstitutiow . 

The present Constitution of the state of New York was formed in 1821. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the 
people every two years ; and at the same time, a Lieutenant Governor is 
also chosen, who is President of the Senate, and on whom, in case of the 
impeachment, resignation, death, or absence of the Governor from office, 
tiie powers and duties of Governor devolve. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate of 82 members, who are 
chosen for four years, and an Assembly, of 128 members, who are elected 
annnally ; and these bodies miited are styled the Legislature. 

For the election of the senatora, the state is divided into eight districts, 
eadi being entitled to choose four senators, one of whom is elected every 
year. The members of die Assembly are chosen by counties, and are ap- 
portioned aceokling to population. 

l%e election of governor, lieutenant governor, senators, and members of 
Aft Asaembly, is held at inch thne in the month of October or November, 
as flie leg islatu re may by law provide. 

* Mwtin Van Bnren wu gu i w w horn January 1 to Utgtk, IBSB, when be iwifiied 
tktsAoe, oo baing appointed Saeiatary of Stato fa the United Statea. 



George Clinton, elected 


1777 


John Jay, ^do. 


1795 


George Clinton, do. 


1801 


Morgan Lewis, do. 


1804 


Ikadei D. Tompkhis, do. 


1807 


JohnTayler, Lieut.Gov, 


1817 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



IM 



-Kiw Tomx. 



TiM ptiitieal year commencep on Um firtt ^y of Jaanaiy ; and ^e leg|»* 
latwe moeCi annually (at Albany) on the first Tueaday in January, anleM 
i dyEM«nt day la appointed by law. 

Hm Constitutiod grants the right of suffrage, in the election of public 
#flieeii, to every white male citizen, of the age of 21 years, who has been 
in Inhabitant of the fctate one year next preceding any election, and, for 
the preceding six months, a resident in the county where he may offer his 
tote ; but no man of color is entitled to vote unless he is possessed of a 
freehold estate of the value of 250 dollars, without any incumbrance. 

Hie chancellor and judges are appointed by the Governor, with the con* 
feat of the Senate. The chancellor and justices of the Supreme and 
Cinuit Courts hold their offices during good behavior, or undl they attain 
dw age of 60 years. The judges of the County Courts, or Courts of Com- 
JttoQ Pleas, are appointed for a term of five years. 



Snoi T. Throop, i 

William M. Oliver, i 

Silas Wright, Jun., 
Abraham Keyser, 
Azariali C. Flagg, 
Simeon De Witt, 
Green C. Bronson, 
FhOip Phelps, 
Archibald Campbell, 



EXXCUTIVX. 

Acting Governor; (term of service eX' \ 
j>ire# Dec. 81, I8d0; . . j 

Pres, Senate^ and acting Lieut. Gov, / > 
(pay $6 a day during the session) ) 

Comptroller ...» 

Treasurer . * • . 

Sec, State, and Supervni, Com, Schools^ 

Surveyor General, 

Attorney General, 

Deputy Comptroller, 

Dep, See, and Clerk of Com. of Land Office, 1,500 



Sftkry. 
#4,000 



2,500 
1,500 
1,500 
800 
1,000 
1,500 



Legislature. 

Senate, 

William M. Oliver, President, 



iBt District. 
1 Jonathan S. Conklin. 
a John J. Scbenck. 
8 Stephen Allen. 
4 Alpheus Sherman. 

9d District. 
1 Benjamin Woodward, 
t Walker Todd. 
8 Samuel Rexford. 
4 {fAthl P. Tallmadi^ 

3d District. 

1 Johik McCarty. 

2 Moses Warren. 
8 Lewis Eaton. 
4 WSliam Deitz. 



Class. 4th District. 

1 Duncan McMartin, jr. 

2 Reuben Sandford. 

3 John McLean, Jun. 

4 Isaac Gere. 

5th District. 
1 Truman-Enos. 
t Nathaniel S. Benton. 

3 Wm. H, Maynard. 

4 Alvan Bronson* 

6th District. 

1 Thomas G.WatemMb. 

2 GraUan H. Wheeler. 

3 John G. Hubbard. 

4 Levi Beardaley. 



Class. 7th Distict. 

1 William M. Oliver. 

2 George B. Throop; 

3 Hiram F. Mather. 

4 Thomas Armstrong. 

8th District. 

1 George H. Bougfaton. 

2 Timothy H. Porter. 

3 Moses Hayden. 

4 Albert H. Tra^y* 



J> F. Bacon, CMl 

ThB term tfClmia JVto. I'm- 
pfre«^ in 1830 ; A>. 9» 1811 : 
Ab.ai,183S} Ab.4.4ie^ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



VSW TORS. 



m 



Piy of the members of the Senate and of the Assembly, f 8 a day, 
dniiog the seMion. 

Erastus Root, Speaker of the A»»embly; Francis Soger, CUrk. 



Reuben Hyde Walworth, 
James Porter, 
John Walworth, 
Alonzo C. Paige, 



JODICIART. 

Court of Chancery. 

" Retidenoe. Salary. 

Chancellorf Albany, ^ 5^,000 

Megistert do. Fees. 

jSasistant Reg. New York, do. 

Reporter, Schenectady, 600 



The eight circuit judges are vice-chancellors for their resp^etive ctrcnits. ' 

Supreme Court, 

RMidenee. Salary. 

John Savage, Chief Justice, Albany, $2,000 

Jacob Sutherland, A$$oeiate Juetiee, do. 2,000 

Wniiam L. Marcy, do, do. 2,000 

John L. Wendell, Reporter, .... 500 

Circuit Courts, 



There are eight Circuit Courts with 
respond, in territory and name, to the 

Judfes. Circuit*. 

Ogden Edwards, Ist Circuit, 

James Emott, 2d " 



eight judges, and the circuits cor* 
eight senate districts. 



James Yanderpoel, 
Esek Cowen, 
Nathan Williams, 
Samuel Nelson, 
Daniel Moseley, 
Addison Gardiner, 



3d 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

8th 



Retidence. 
New York, 

Poughkeepsie, 

Einderhook, 

Saratoga Springs, 

Utica, 

Cooperstown, 

Onondaga, 

Rochester, 



Salanr. 

1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 



Salary. 
j2,500 

2,500 

2,500 



Superior Court of the City ofJSTew York, 

Samuel Jones, Chief Justice, 

Josiah O. Hoflfnian, Jissociate Justice, 
Thomas J. Oakley, do, 

David P. Han, Reporter, 

Charles A. Clhiton, Clerk, 

The amount of Personal and Real Eetaie of the City of JVte Tork^ at 
retwmed by ihe Assessors for eight years, has been ttated asfoUaw9, 



18M, 



PefMmal. 


BmI. 1 




PerMmaL 


Raal. 


$17,»8,570 


#53,000,000 


1898, 


$48,534,931 V 


$64,000,000 


33,946,941 


50,000,000 


18*7, 


39,594,156 


78,000,000 


35,550,906 


53,000,000 


1888, 


36,879,653 


77,000,000 


«,734,151 


58,000,000 


1889, 


35,964,136 


7«rfW^660 



17» 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



BAirxt 
tit the 8taU, in January, 1880, with their resputioe CdpiiaU. 



Name. 


Place. 


Capital. 


Name. 


Place. 


Capital. 


Manhattan Go. 


N. York, 


2,050,000 


Bank of Utica, 


Utica, 


1,000,000 


Bank of America, 


do. 


2,000,000 


Ontario Bank, 


Canandaigua, 


500,000 


Mechanics' Bank, 


do. 


2,000,000 


Bank of Orange Co. 
Wash'n & War. Bk, 


Goshen, 
Sandy Hill, 


400,000 


Dei. & H. Canal Co. 


do. 


1,500,000 


406,000 


Merchants* Bank, 


do. 


1,400,000 


Bank of Newburgh, 


Newburgh, 


400,000 


Cfity Bank, 
Union Bank, 


do. 


1,200,000 


Jefferson Co. Bank, 


Adama, 


400,000 


do. 


1,000,000 


Bank of Auburn, 


Auburn, 


400,000 


Bank of New York, 


do. 


950,000 


Bank of Geneva, 


Geneva, 
Catskili, 


400,000 


Dry Dock Co. 


do. 


700,000 


Catskili Bank, 


a5o,ooo 


Phenix Bank, 


do. 


500,000 


Long Island Bank, 


Brooklyn, 


300,000 


North River Bank, 


do. 


500,000 


Bank of Monroe, 


Rochester, 


300,000 


Fulton Bank, 


do. 


500,000 


Bank of Rochester, 


do. 


250,000 


Chem. & Man'g Bk, 


do. 


500,000 


Bk of Lansingburgh, 


Lansinburgh, 


220,000 


Tradesmen's Bank, 


do. 


480,000 


Bank of Chenango, 


Norwich, 


200,000 


Mech. £c Farm. Bk, 


Albany, 


640,000 


Central Bank, 


Cherry Valley 


200,000 


N. York Stale Bank, 


do. 


309,600 


Bank of Ithaca, 


Ithaca, 


soo,eoe 


Commercial Bank, 


do. 


300,000 


Dutchess Co. Bank, 


Poughkeepsie, 


150,000 


Canal Bank. 


do. 


300,000 




Ogdonsburgh, 


ioo,ood 


Bank of Albany, 


do. 


240,000 


Bank of Whitehall, 


Whitehall, 


100,000 


Bank of Troy, 


Troy, 


550,000 


Wayne Co. Hank, 
Bank of Genesee, 


Palmyra, 


100,000 


Farmers' Bank, 


do: 


390,000 


Batavia, 


100,000. 


Merch. & Mech. Bk, 


do. 


300,000 


Lockport Bank, 


Lockport, 


100,000 



Some other banks have been chartered, and have recently gone, or are 
about going, mto operation. 

^*« The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Depont 

^ ^(MJD York, with the sum of $2,500,000 assigned as its capital. 

Tbtal amount of Bank Capital in the State in 1830 . $27,T54«600 

Do. of Deposits .... 15,014,682 

Do. of Bills in circulation . . . 15,674,940 

Do. of Specie .... 29UJS68 





^Ew York State Canaxs. 




fiae Cstnal, 
Champlain 
OiMTego 
Cayuga & Seneca 


liMgth. Total oott. 

863 ms. $9,027,456-95 

do. 63 « 1,179,87106 

do. 38 « 625,115-37 

do. 20 « 214,000-31 


Toltoiiil89B. 
$727,660-20 

107,76708 

2,757-67 

279-70 



Total Canal Debt of the State in January, 1830, {[7,706,013. 
The Delaware and Hudson Canal, formed by the Delaware and Hud^ 
aon Canal Company, extends fnom the Hudson to the Delaware, 60 mile8«; 
^ence up the Delaware, 22 miles ; thence up the valley of the Lacka- 
^Vrasm lo 'Honsdald, 94 miles ; total length 106 miles : average cost th&A 
fl6,O0O a mile. 

OiroNOAGA Sax«t SvamOB. 
On the borders of Onondaga Lake there are valuri>le saline tpiingf , whidi 
niMaw.^iop«rty of 4he rtate, aad frfmLwhiah salt, in^ Jaic^ qnaBlitie%4i 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



MMmferl i ira dL The water yMdt Mk at tlM ntft of om boihtl te 4ft gn^ 
kNM. Thesdtlfiiu^ at theTllkcMarSiiKM,8yrMiiM,Iiverp^ 
Geddet. 

<2wMtily of Mt impaeted in 1826, 827,606 $68«826-88 

D6. _ do. 182T, , 883,410 126,942*41 

Do. do. 1828, 1,160,888 181,95»-82 

Do. do. 1829, 1,404,800 

NoitWfeR or CUBKOT 

iniheSiaUinlSl9oi%dUfU^<iMii€aed in WUMmmi^B ** J/^ TmkJbn^ 
nual Megister^" 

FiwbyteiMM aod Caagfogatioiialbli, « 1819, 928 1629, 989 

Ifelhadiatf, «... «« 90 «< 896 

Baiptists, ... • ^« 190 "241 

SlfiMapaUaaa, «• 89 •'129 

Duteb Reformed, • • • " 10ft << tl 

LttthenuM, . . . • «< 16 « It 

Olher Denomki&tieiifl, • «« netalalBd, ^ 69 

Total ... 761 1,229 

Number of .4ffom62^« and CotinsfZtoiv In the atate, in 1820, 1,248; in 
1829, 1,686. 

fiDVCATIOir. 

Hie principal literary seminaries in this state are Columbia CoHege, in 
the dty of New York ; Union College, at Schenectady ; Hamilton ColIegOf 
at Cfinton ; Geneva CoHege, at Geneva ; the Medical Colleges in *Ne«r 
Teilc city and at Fairfield ; the Theological Seminaries in New York city, 
tft Auburn, Hartwick, and Hamilton ; the Polytechny, at Chittenango ; the 
Albany Academy, sihd about 50 other academies. 

A statute of this state makes it the duty of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools, to present to the Legislature an annual report, containing a 
itatement of the condition of the schools, estimates and accounts of the 
expenAtares of the school moneys, plans for improvements, &c. 

Hie Report presented to the Legislature by the Superintendent, in Jan* 
uaiy, 18S0, contains the following statements, namely ; that the School 
Fnafd belonging to the state tben amounted to j[ 1,661, 03 r24 in stocks and 
dQier securities, and 869,178 acres of land ; that the revenue actually received 
into the treasury, on account of this fund, in 1829, was $94,626 25 ; that 
^re were, in the several towns in the state, 8,872 school districts, and of 
this number 8,292 had complied with the conditions of the statute, by 
having schools kept at least three months by an inspected teacher, and by 
miking returm to the commissionera ; that there were in the districts, from 
nikh veports had been receii^, 468,257 chiUraa over 5 and under 16 
a; «Ml awtiii4faei—aM ■liinlitiftiie aame districts 480,941 



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dee 

j^MM«li*ibeinlra|^tteiiiKUMpfece«iigyear; tiiit 8,298 lehoolfffaid 
been kept open for the receptoi of eebokra en arerage period of 8 months 
out of the 12 ; that daring the year 1829, $314,840-14 had been paid to 
the sereral school districts which had made reports, of wl^ sum $ 1Q0,000 
were paid firom the state treasury, $102,934*66 were raised by a tax upon 
the several towns, and $11,905*48 were derived from local funds possessed 
by certain towns. 

^ Our system of common school instruction," says the Report, '' is based 
upon the principle, that the state, or the School Fund, will pay only a share 
of the expense ; and that the towns, by an assessment upon property, shaH 
pay at least an equal share. In addition to this, and in order to jenjoy the 
benefits .of the public money, the inhabitants of each district are required 
to tax themselves for the erection of a school-house, and furnishing it with 
Docessaiy fuel and appendages, in order to ascertain more fully the prac- 
tieal operation of the system, an additional column was annexed to the 
forms for school reports which accompanied the revised statute, requiting 
tnistees to return the amount paid annually for teachers* wages, over and 
above the sum received from the state • treasury and from the town tax. 
A few towns only made returns the first year ; but the abstract of the 
present year contains returns from 729 towns and wards ; showing a total 
amount paid by the patrons of the common schools, for teachers* wages, 
of $297,048*44; which, added to the public money, makes an aggregate 
of $611,878*58, paid for teachers' wages alone, in the common schools of 
the state. Thus it will be seen, that where the state, or the revenue of 
the School Fund, pays one dollar for teachers' wages, the inhabitant of the 
^town pays by a tax on his town, and by voluntary contribution in his dis-. 
trict, more than four dollars for the same object. This latter sum of four 
dollars is made up in the proportion of one dollar assessed upon property^ 
to three dollars paid by the scholar. 

** The above statement is founded upon actual returns, and reliance may 
be placed in its accuracy. It exhibits only the sum paid for tuition, which 
constitutes very little more than half the expense of supporting the schools, 
as the following estimate will show. The average between the number of 
, districts organized, and those which have made reports, is 8,582 ; this 
number of school-houses, at an average price of $200 each, would show a 
'capital of ;$f 1,716, 400, vested in school-houses; the interest of which, at 
6 per cent., would be . . . . . $102,984 00 

** Annual expense of books for 480^,000 scholars, at 50 cents 

etch, is . • * . . . 240,000 00 

** FwA 6>r 8,582 schools, at J[10 each, is . . . 85,320 00 

M Aokount paid for teachers* wages, as appears by the abstract, 511,888 00 
** Estimating in same ratio for 40 towns, not returning amount 

besides public money • •_ • • • 16,988 00 

«« T9ka f lyrndscf swumogy $9«7,«0t M 

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9BW TOKE. 



A Compantiye Vitw of die Retums of ConflMm Sdioolt, fima 1S16 to 
1880, indofiTe. 



Tpi" 

I "fill 



J3 

ill 
all 



II 

II 



1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1828 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 



338 
355 
874 
402 
515 
515 
611 
649 
65G 
69S 
700 
721 
742 
757 
773 



aas 



2,755 
3,713 
3,264 
4,614 
5,763 
6,332 
6,659 
7,051 
7,882 
7,642 
7,773 
8,114 



8.6<»9 
8,872 



111 






2,631 
2,878 
3,228 
3,844 
5,118 
5,489 
5,882 
6,255 
6,705 
6,876 
7,117 
7,560 
7,806 
8,164 
8,292 



-^>2 

li 
1^ 



$ 55,720 98 

64,834 88 

73,285 42 

93,010 54 

117,151 07 

146,418 08 

157,195 iH 

173,420 60 

182,820 2.5 

182,741 61 

182,790 09 

185,720 46 

222,995 77 

232,343 21 

214,840 14 



140,106 
170,886 
183,263 
210,316 
271,877 
304,559 
332,979 
851,178 
377,034 
402,940 
425,586 
431,601 
441,866 
468,205 
480,041 



174^,-^49 
198,440 
218,969 
235371 
302,703 
817,633 
889,268 
867,029 
373,208 
383,600 
S95jm 
411,266 
419,216 
449,118 
468,257 




14 to 16 
6<o 7 
6 to 6 

8 to 9 

9 to 10 
24 to 26 
42 to 48 
44 to 46 
94 to 93 

101 to 96 
100 to 98 
21 to 29 
96 to 91 
26 to 24 
41 to 40 



VIII. NEW JERSEY. 

Ths territory comprised in this state was included in the ]Mitent for laift 
litets in America, which was granted by Charles II. to his brother the Duk« 
of Yofk, in 1664; and in the same year the Duke conveyed this territory 
to Lord Berkeley and Sir Oeorge Carteret ; and it then received the name of 
New Jersey. In 1666, Philip Carteret was apppointed the first governor 
of the province, which then contained ooly a few families. 

In 1676, New Jersey was divided into two provinces. East Jersey and 
West Jersey ; the former continuing under the government of Cartei«lt 
m&d the latter being held, for a time, as a dependency of New Yoric; 

In 1682, East Jersey was transferred to William Penn and eleven Mioci* 
ates ; and Robert Barclay , the celebrated author of the Apology for (b« 
Principles of the Quakers, was appointed governor. 

In 1702, East and West Jersey were again united Into one provinco, by 
the name of New Jersey, under the government of Lord Comkwry^ 
who was also governor of New York ; and this connection with New Yoifc, 
continued till 1738, when a separate government was instituted, n^ich 
latted till the American Revolution. Lewis Morris was the finl i^yal 
governor, and William Temple Franklin^ a soaof the celebrated Diw 
JTitakUn, the last 



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lOBW JERSEY. 
R0YAI« OoYXRirORS. 



Lewis Morris, appointed 1738 

John Hamilton, President^ 1746 

John. Reading, President, 1746 

Jonathan Belcher, appointed 1747 

John Reading, President, 1767 



Francis Bernard, appointed 1758 
Thomas Boone, do, 1760 

Josiah Hardy, do, 1761 

Wm. Temple Franklin^ do. 1763 



GoVERirORS UNDER THE CoNSTITUTlOir. 



IIFilliam Livingston, elected 1776 

William Patterson, do. 1791 

Richard Howell, do. 1794 

Joseph Bloomfield, do. 1801 

John Lambert, (^acfin^ Gov.) 1802 

Joseph Bloomfield, elected 1803 



Aaron Ogden, - elected 1812 
William S. Pennington, do. 1813 
Mahlon Dickerson, do. 1815 

Isaac H. Williamson, do. 1817 
Peter D. Yroom, Jun. - dff. 1829 



Outlines of the Constitution. 

The Constitution of New Jersey was formed in 1776 ; and no revision of 
it has since taken place, except that the Legislature has undertaken . to 
explain its provisions in particular parts. The government is vested in a 
Governor, Legislative Council, and General Assembly ; and these bodies 
united are styled the Legislature. 

The members of the Legislative Council and of the General Assembly, 
are elected annually, on the second Tuesday in October. 

The number of members of the Legislative Council is 14, one being 
elected by each county in the state. The General Assembly has consisted, 
for a number of years past, of 43 members ; but by a law enacted in 1829, 
seven additional members were added ; and it will hereafter consist of 50 
members, apportioned among the counties as follows ; — Bergen 8, Esses 5, 
Morris 4, Sussex 3, Warren 8, Hutterdon 5, Somersett 3, Middlesex 4, 
Monmouth 4, Burlington 5, Gloucester 4, Salem 3, Cumberland 8, and 
Ci^ May 1. - 

The Legislature meets annually (at Trenton), on the iburth Tuesday in 
October. 

The governor is chosen aimually by a joint vote of Hbt Council and 
AsteMbly, at their first joint meeting after each annual election. The Gov- 
ernor is President of the Council ; and the Council also elect from their, own 
1>ody, at their first annual meeting, a vice-president, .who acts in the plaice 
of the Governor in his absence. The Governor and Cooncil form a Court 
of Appeals, in the last resort in all causes of law; and they possess the 
power of granting pardon to criminals after condemnation. 

The Constitotion grants the right of sufirage to ** all persons of fidl age 
who are worth 50 pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, and 
have resided within the coun^ in which they claim to vote for twelve 
mondia immediately preceding the election." [The Legislature has declared 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



raw nasxT. 



m 



liy law» that every white male iababUant, who sbalk he over the tge of 21 
yean, and shall have paid a tax, shall be coosidered worth fifty pounds, and 
entitled to vote ; — and by another legislative act, females and negroes art 
prohibited from voting.] - 

The judges are appointed by the Legislature, those of the Supreme Court 
for a term of seven years, and those of the inferior courts, for five yean ; 
both are capable of being reappointed. 

Government for the year ending JVovember, 1880. 

Peter D. Vroom, Jun. Governor; salary $2,000, and fees of office at 
Chancellor of the state ex officio, 

Edward Condit, Vice-President of the Legialative Council. Pay during 
attendance, j[3,50 a day. 

Daniel Coleman, Secretary of State, and Auditor. Salary $50, and 
perquisites. 

Charles Parker, TVeasiirer. Salary $1,100. 

Samuel L. Southard, Attorney General. Salary $80. 

John Wilson, Clerk in Chancery. Pay, perquisites. 

The members of the Legislative Council and the General Assembly* 
receive $3 for each day's attendance, and $3 for every 20 miles' travel. 



Judiciary. 
Supreme Court. 



Charles Ewing, - 
Qabriel H. Ford, 
George K. Drake, 
Zacariah Rossel, 



Salary. 
1,200 
1,100 
1,100 



C^ef Justice, 
Associate Justice, 

do. . - - 

CUrk of the Supreme Court. 
The judges of the Inferior Courts are appointed by the Legiilatare* 
Their number is not limited, and they have no salary. 

Banks. 



Cumberland Bank, ... Bridgetown, 

Salem Banking Company, - Salem, 

State Bank, .... Camden, 

Farmers' Bank of New Jersey, - Mount Holly, 

Trenton Banking Company, - Trenton, 

New Brunswick Bank, - - - N. Brunswick, 

State Bank, - - - - N. Brunswick, 

State Bank, - - - - Elizabeth, ' 

State Bank, - - - - Newark, 

Newark Banlpng and Insurance Co. do. 

Commercial Bank of New Jersey, Perth Amboy, 

Washington Bank, - - - Hackinsack, 

People's Bank, - - - Paterson, 

State Bank, - • . - Morris, 

Sussex Bank, - - - . Newton, 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, Rahway, 

" EoBank, ... - Orange, 
to €and and Bankfaig Company, Jersey City, 



Capital I Capital 
autho'd. ' paid in. 




200,000, 60,025 
76,000' 30,000 
800,000 300,000 
200,000 100,000 
600,000 214,740 
200,000' 90,000 
400,000, 88,000 
200,000 132,550 
400,000 280,000 
806,000 360,000 



100,000 
200,000 
200,000 
200,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
200,000 



30,000 
90,460 
75,000 
78,440 
27,600 
80,000 
50,000 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



JnWlBBtXVi 



SoiroATiov. 



There are coHeget and theological aeroinariea at Princeton and Vm/f 
BniDswick, and academies at various places. 

This state has a School Fund which amounCed, in October 1829, io 
$245j404 47, which is all in productive stodcs, yielding an interest, on an 
average, of about 5 per cent. A tax of half of one per cent, on the amount 
of the capital stodc of the several banks subscribed and paid in, is also 
appropriated to this fund ; and the whole annual income is about ;)f 22,000. 
By a law passed, in 1829, j[20,000 were annually appropriated to the mgp' 
port of common schools out of the income of the fond. 



IX. PENNSYLVANIA. 



PsNirsYLVANiA was granted by Charles II. by a Charter signed on the 
4th of March, 1681, to the illustrious WiUiam Pcnn, who was constituted 
the proprietary of the province. In 1682, William Penn, together with 
about two thousand settlers, most of whom, like himself, belonged to the 
society of Friends or Quakers, anived in the country ; and in the following 
year he laid out the plan of the city of Philadelphia. He estabfished » 
liriendly intercourse with the Indians, which was not interrupted for more 
than seventy years. 

From the beginning of the 18th century tiU the commencement of the 
American Revolution, the government was generally administered by d^»* 
oties appointed by the proprietaries, who mostly resided in England. 



OovBRiroRs, Deputy Governors, &c 

Under the Proprietary Government. 

Appoiated. AnK>intML 

William Psxrir, Prop, Ijr Gov, 1682 James Logan, PreMtnt, 1796 

17SS 
1747 
1748 
17S4 

Vim 

17S9 
176$ 
1771 
1771 
177B 



Thomas Lbyd» President, 
John BlaekweUy Vep. Gov. 
Benj. Fletcher, Governor, 
Wimam.Markham, do. 
"William Pxxs, do. 
AndV Hamilton, Dep. Gov. 
Edward Shippen, President, 
John Evans, Dep. Gov. 
Charles Gookin, do. 

Sir W«. Keith, do. 

Patrick Gordon^ do. 



1709 
1717 
1726 



1684 George Thomas, Dep, Ooe. 
1688 Anthony Palmer, President, 
1693 James Hamilton, Dep. Gov. 
1693 Robert H. Morris, do. 
William Denny, do. 

1701 James HamUton, 

1703 John Penn, 

1704 James Hamilton, President, 



Richard Penn, 
John Penn, 



€fotj. 



The Propri^afy €M*4^nded 1198 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



VSHlVSTLTAlflA* 



SI5 



Premdenti trnd t r the First ComiUution. 



Tbomts Wbartod, 


eteeted 


1T77 


John Dickinson, - 


elected 


1782 


Joseph Reed, 


do. 


1T78 


Benjamin FninkUn, 


do. 


1T85 


H'iUiam Moore, 


do. 


1781 


Thomas Mifflin, 


do. 


1788 


Oopemars under the JVew QmitUution. 






Thomas MHOm, 


elected 


1790 


Joseph Hiester, 


elected 


1880 


Thomas McRean, 


do. 


1799 


J. Andrew »hulze, 


do. 


1823 


Simon Snyder, 


do. 


1808 


George Wolf, 


do. 


1829 


MTilliam Findlay, 


do. 


1817 









OUTUNES or THS CORSTITUTIOir. 

The first ConstitutioD of Pennsylvania was adopted in 1776 ; the present 
Constitution in 1790. 

The legislative power is vested in a Oencral ji$$embly, consisting of a 
Senate and House of Representatives. 

The representatives are elected annually on the second Tuesday in 
October, by the citizens of Philadelphia and of the several counties, ap- 
portioned according to the number of taxable inhabitants. The number 
cannot be less than 60, nor more than 100. 

The senators are chosen for four years, one fourth being elected annually, 
at the time of the election of the representatives. Their number cannot 
be greater than one third, nor less than one fourth of the number of the 
representatives. 

[In 1829, it was enacted by the General Assembly, *' that until the next 
enumeration of taxable inhabitants, and an apportionment thereon, the 
senate, at a ratio of 7,700 [taxable inhabitants], shall consist of 33 mem- 
bers*' ; and **the House of Representatives, at a ratio of 2,544,, shall 
consist of 100 members.** — ^The following statement shows the representa- 
tive number, and the number of members of the legislature, at different 

periods. 

Ratio. S«nator8. 
1793 to 1800 24 

1800 •« 1807 4,670 25 - 
1807 «« 1814 4,500 81 
1814 •* 1821 5,260 81 - - 
1821 *« 1828 6,800 88 - - 
1828 ^ 1835 7,700 88 - -• - 
The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the peo- 
ple on the second Tuesday in October, and who holds his office during thr6e 
^oars, from the third Tuesday in December next following his election ; 
and he cannot hold the office more than 9 years, in any term of 12 years. 

The General Assembly meets annually (at Harrisburg), on the first 
Tuesday in December, unless sooner convened by the Governoi 
18 



Ratio. 


RepresentatiTas. 
78 


1,350 


86 


1,500 


95 


1,750 


97 


2,100 


100 


2,544 


100.] 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



906 



FBtmSTI<VANIA« 



The judicial povrer Is vested in a Soprefiie Conit, ia Courts of oyer and 
terminer and gaol-delivery, in Courts ol Common Pleas* an OiphaiM' 
Court, a Register's Court, a Court <of Quarter Sessions of the Peace fior 
each county, and in such other courts as the legislature may, £rom time to 
time, establish. The judges of the Supreme Court and the several Courts 
of Common Pleas, are appointed by the Governor, and hold their offices 
daring good behavior. 

The right of sufiirage is possessed by every fireeman of the age of J21 
years, who has resided in tiie state two years next preceding an election, 
and within that time paid a state or county tax, assessed at least uz months 
before the election. 

Thx Ezbcutitx and Lxgislatu&k. 



The term of the present Governor will expire on the 8d 


Tuesday in 


December, 1832 ; 


and the terms of the Senators in October, 


in the years 


1880, 1881, 1832, 


and 1833. 


Salary. 


George Wolf, 




$4,000 


Samuel McEean, 




1,000 


Alexander Mahen, 


State Treasurer^ 


. 1,400 


Daniel Sturgeon, 


Auditor General, - - - 


1,400 


Jacob Spangler, 


Surveyor General^ - - 


- l,40d 


Samuel Workman, 


Secretary of the Land Office, 


1,400 


Samuel Douglass, 


Attorney General^ 


800 & fees. 



Senators^ with the ExpiraHan of their reipecHw Tmni. 

WtBiam G. Hawkins, Speaker ^ihe Senate. 

IHftrict. Dirtrict. 

Stephen Duncan, 1880, 1 Philadelphia Jacob DnuiibeUer,1882, Luzerne, d&c 
John H. PoweU, 1830, 5 City. 
Peter Hay, 1880, > Philadelphia 

Jesse R. Burden, 1833, J County. 
Benjamin Reiflf, 1881, Montgomery. 
Joshua Hunt, 1880, > Chester and 
John Kerlin, 1832, > Delaware. 
Matthias Morris, 1882, Bucks. 
D. A. Bcrtolet, 1882, > Berks and 
Jacob Krebs) 1832, j SchuylkiU. 
F.Hambright 1832, > ^^^^^^^^ 
Samuel Houston, 1832, 5 

GeorgeSeh^.. 1832, { "^IJE^f* 



John Ray, 



1830, 



Reuben WUber, 1888, Bradford, &c. 

Wm.G. Scott, 18S1,^^8J?;^- 

Jo3.B.AnU>6ny,183l,5^;^, 

Hear Logaa, 1881. > Yoric and . 
EzraBlythe, 1833.) Adams. 
David Fullerton. 1831, Franklin. 

ie.«>Mii.er. ' IS2,,{^S^ 
moma. Jackwm. 1882. J JJj^^ 

S'^z:'*'^'-*^. Wise. i88i.|wsr* 



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Diftrietf. I DIttriotfc 

i Sturgeoiit 1890, Fayelte. .Tbomas S. CnimiiM^- ) Erie, Cimw* 

W. G. Hawkins, 1882, > WashingUm ^>*™» 1^» S ^^^* ^' 

Thof. RiDgland, 1830, 5 and Greene, 'j^^^^. ^ p jgg^ C Warren, 
John Brown, 1831, Alleghany, j ^^ I fcArmstrong. 

Wm^r^, ISU,{^1^^' Mo«.S«mvan, 1833,{«XJ^-» 

Frederick Smith, Speaker e/ike House of Representatwet, 
The Senators and Representatives receive J[3 for each day's attendance, and 
16 cenU a m^ ftv travel j the Speaker of each House, $4 a day. 

JUDICIART. 

Salary. 
John B. Gibson, Chitf Justice, - • $2,666 67 

Molton C. Rogers, jSsMociate JtuHu^ - - 2,000 00 

Cbarles Huston, do. • • 2,000 00 

John Ross, do, • ' 2,000 00 

— ^^ do. . ' - 2,000 00 

Winiam Duane, Profhonotary, ... Fees. , 

The judges of ihe Supreme Court hold Circuit Courts throughout the 
state, for which they receive, hi addition to their salaries, $4 a day while 
on the circuits. 

The jurisdiction of the following two District Courts for Philadelphia and 
for Lancaster and York counties, is the same as that of the Court of Com* 
men Pleas in other counties. 

. JXstriet Court for the Cliy and Co, of PhUadelpMa. 

Salary. 
Joseph Barnes, President Judge^ - - $2,000 

John Hallowell, Associate Judge, - - 2,000 

Charles S. Coxe, . *>• • - 2,000 

John Lide, Prothonotary, 

District Court for the Cos, of Lancaster and York, 
Ebenezer G. Bradford, President Judge, |fl,600 

Alexander L, Hayes, Associate Judge, 1,600 

The State is divided into the 16 following Districts, for the sessions of the 
Courts of Common Pleas. The President Judge of the District of Philadel- 
phia has a salary of $2,000, and two Associate Judges $400 each. The 
President Judge in the other districts have sidaries of $J,600, and their 
associates 5200* 

Districts. President Judges, 

1, Philadelphia, - . . • Edward King. 

2. Lancaster and Toik,.- ... Walter Franklin. 
8. Series, Northampton, and Lehigh, » . Rohert Porter. 



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Me 



rmmftrtsrAjxiAi 



Diiiricti. ^ President Judges. 

4. HuntiDj^OD, MiffliQ, Centre, and Clearfield, Thomas Bumside. 
6. Beaver, Butler, and Alleghany, - > Charles Shaler. 

6. Erie, Crawford, Mercer, Venango, and Warren, Henry Shippin* 

7. Bucks and Montgomery, ... John Fox. 

8. Northum'd, Lycoming, Union, and Columbia, Seth Chapman. 

9. Cumberland, Adams, and Perry, - - John Reed. 

10. Westmore'd, Indiana, Armstrong, and Cambria, John Toung. 

11. Luzerne, Wayne, and Pike, ... David Scott. 

12. Dauphin, Lebanon, and SchyyUdll, - Calvin Blythe. 

13. Susquehanna, Bradford, Tioga, and McEean, Edward Herrick. 

14. Washington, Fayette, and Greene, - - Thomas H. Baird. 

15. Chester and Delaware, ... Isaac Darlingtoa. 

16. Fhinklin, Bedford, and Somerset, - - Allen Thompson. 
T|ie state is divided into five districts for the sesaons of the Supreme 

Court, which, as a court in bank, holds six regular terms, for argument &c.y 
annually ; viz. for the Eastern District, at Philadelphia, on the 2d Monday 
in March, and on the 2d Monday in December ; for the Lancaster. Di9» 
trict, at Lancaster, on the 2d Monday in May ; for the Middle District, at 
Suribury, on the Wednesday following the second week of the term of the 
Lancaster Di^trict ; for the Western District, at Pittstfwg, on the first 
Monday in September ; and for the Southern District, at Chaaibersburg^ 
on the Monday week next following the second week of the term of the 
Western District. 

It is only in the city and county of Philadelphia that the Supreme Court 
has original jurisdiction, and there only when the sum in controversy 
exceeds $500 ; all issues of fact are tried by jury before a sipgle judge, at 
nisi prius. 

For the other counties of this state, CircuU Courts are held, which am 
unlike courts of nisi prius, as judgment may be rendered at them, subjeet 
to revision by appeal, in the Supreme Court in bank, and causes are only 
brought into them by*removal from the Courts of Conunon Pleas. Thej 
are held by one judge in each county, at least once a yeaiw 

ScHUTJLKiix Navigation i'OR 1829. 





Ascending. 




Descenc 


ling. 


Merchandifl 


», 5,068 Bricks, 709 


Coal. 


79,978 


Butter, 119 


Salt, 


2,288 Porter, 10 


Flour, 


5,023 


Wood, 95T 


Fish, 


2,289 Wood, 456 


Whiskey, 


868 


Limestone, 8,968 


Plaster, 


8,320 Limestone, 3,981 


Grain, 


3,139 


Marble, 366 


Grain, 


280 Mari>le, 2 


Lumber, 


5,091 


Iron Ore, 56ff 


Lumber, 


740 Iron Ore, 1,763 


Iron, 


958 


Smidries, 490 


Iron, 


227 Sundries, 6^ 


Blooms ofIronl,lS4 


Stone pass- 


Pig Iron, 
Castings, 


146 


Castincs 


240 


ing Fair M. 8,615 


16 Tons 21,800 


NaUs. ' 


1,098 


Wttikey, 


81 


Leather, 


69 


Tons 112,704 



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Tmanm^wAmAm 



%» 



Bakks. 
JVom a Statement reported to the Legislature, January 6, 1880. 



Bttta. 


Capital. 


Notei ia eiroo- 
ItUon. 


Specie. 


1^ 
ll 

5 


North America, - 


1,000,000 00 


284,028 48 


180,924 50 


Philadelphia, - 


1300,000 00 


881,994 00 


228,650 00 


5 


Farmers' and Mechanics', 


1,250,000 00 


329,960 00 


164,129 00 




Commercial, 


1,000,000 00 


216,904 00 


109,984 88 


6 


Mechanics', - 


929,380 00 


241,498 00 


168,928 17 


9 


Schajlkill, . 


500.000 00 


836,418 00 


95,859 21 


7 


Northern Liberties, - 


200,000 00 


321,431 00 


103,802 19 




Southwark, 


249,630 00 


181,590 00 


90,229 93 


10 


Kensii^on, . - . 


124,990 00 


116,775 00 


48,605 41 




Penn Township, - 


149,980 00 


176,470 00 


48,682 26 


6i 


City Banks, 


6,803^930 00 


2,587,053 43 


1,184,240 55 




129,500 00 


59,d55 00 


20,707 76 


Harrisburg, 


158,526 00 


406,384 31 


104,453 69 


8* 


Pituburg, ... 


846,155 50 


808,263 00 


49,562 11 


8 


Farmers' Bank, Lancaster, 


400,000 00 


179,881 00 


40,685 68 


5 


Lancaster, ... 


134,235 00 


147,460 00 


24,658 44 


5 


Columbia Bridge, - 


395,000 00 


164,094 30 


41,814 41 


H 


Farmers' Bank, Reading, 


800,350 00 


191,177 00 


41,928 73 


6 


Chester County, - 


90,000 00 


209,064 00 


61,462 33 


10 


Delaware County, - 


77,510 00 


123,451 00 


89,405 57 


8 


Montgomery County, - 


188,340 00 


145,565 00 


48,509 57 


^ 


Easton Bank, ... 


187,380 00 


882,009 40 


42,448 90 


10 


Northampton, 


112,500 00 


314,256 00 


85,136 46 


7 


York, .... 


168,720 00 


99,186 00 


82,448 39 


n 


Carlisle, - - - 


171,466 00 


114,38j^00 


23,895 10 


7 


Chambersburg, 


247,228 34 


184,618 25 


21,570 00 


6 


Gettysburg, 


125,318 00 


78,150 00 


21,748 51 


6 


Mong. Bank of Brownsville, 


102,123 00 


171,744 00 


18,685 44 


7 


Westmoreland, 


107,033 00 


88,574 00 


660 41 


6 


Fanners' Bank of Bucks, 


60,000 00 


74,534 00 


8,413 17 


3 


Miners' of Pottsville, 


40,000 00 


190,000 00 


37,654 00 


3 


Erie,. . - - 
21 Coimtzy Banks, - 


20,020 00 


83,055 00 


9,393 18 




3,506,408 84 


8,659,650 26 


776,536 75 


10 City do. 

Grand Totds, 


6,803,930 00 


2,537,058 43 


1,184,240 56 




10,810,888 84 


6,196,708 69 


1,959,777 80 



Educatioit. 

The principal litemy semiiiariea in this state aie the Univernty of Peim- 
i]rlTttiMwiaiitiAledical SdM>ol, at Philadelphia; Dickinson College, at 
Cariiile ; Jeffenon College, at Canonsbnrg ; WaiUngton College, at Wasl^ 
ington; Western XJnivenity, at Pittsburg ; Alleghany College, at Meed* 

18* 



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3l6 



PENNSTLYANIA* 



Tffle ; Maditon College, at Union Tovm ; Mount Aiiy College, at Gennan- 
town ; the Theological Seminaries, at Gettjrsburg, York, and Alleghany 
Town ; and the Moravian schools, at Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Litiz. 

The Constitution declares that ** the legislature shall, as soon as conve- 
niently may be, provide by law for the establishment of schools in such 
manner that the poor may be taught gratis.'* Under this injunction means 
have been provided in nearly all the counties of the state, fpr the instruc'- 
tion of the children of indigent parents. They are sent to the most con- 
venient schools of the neighborhoods in which they respectively residCy 
and the expense is paid by the county commissioners. In the city and 
county of Philadelphia, which constitutes the First School District of 
Pennsylvania, the Lancasterian system has been introduced for the educa- 
tion of the children described in the Constitution. In the Twelfih Annual 
Report of the Comptrollers of the Public Schools of this District, dated 
February 28, 1830, it is suted, that ** during twelve years 34,703 children 
had received the benefits of tuition under the wise and beneficent pro- 
visions of the existing act of the General Assembly.*' Tliese schools are 
superintended by gentlemen who serve without compensation. The teach- 
ers are well qualified for tlieir duties, and are liberally paid. [See Hazard'ti 
** Iiegi$ter qf Fenruylvania^*} 



X. DELAWARE. 



The first European settlement in this state was formed by Swedes and 
FinnB, in 1627 ; in 16&6, the colony was taken from the Swedes by the 
Dutchy under Governor Stuyvesant ; and after the conquest of New York 
by the English, in 1664, it was placed under the jurisdiction of the govern- 
ment of JV*et0 ForA;. 

In 1682, the country was granted to William Penn, and it was placed 
under the same executive and legislative government with Pennsylvania* 
It was then, as it is now, divided into three counties, Newcastle, Kent, and 
Sussex, generally styled, till the American Revolution, " The Three Lower 
Counties upon the Delaware" 

In 1701, the representatives of Delaware withdrew from those of Penn- 
sylvania ; the first separate legislative assembly met at Newcastle, in 1704; 
and it ever afterwards continued distuict firom that of Pennsylvania ; though 
the same governor presided over both provinces till the 4th of July, 1776. 

The first Constitution of Delaware, which wan formed in 1776, placed 
the executive power in a President, and a Piivy Council of 4, memben. 
In 1792, a new Constitation, the one now hi •petatton, was adopt^d^ by 
which the executive power is vested in a G«ii«iiMr. 



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DXLAWARE. 211 



Presidenti under the First CoriBtitttium. 



John McKinley, elected 1777 

Csesar Rodney, do. 1778 

Joho DickinsoD, do, 1782 

John Cook, (Acting Pres.) 1783 



Nicholas Van Dyke, elected 1738 

Thomafl Collins, do, 1786 

John Davis, (Acting Pres,) 1789 

Joshua Clayton, elected 1789 



Chvemora elected under the Present, ConstittUion, 



Joshua Clayton, Chv, 1793 

Gunning Bedford, do. 1796 

Daniel Rogers, (Acting Cf&oJ 1797 

Richard Bassett, Gov. 1798 

James Sykes, (Acting Gov.) 1801 

David Hall, Gov, 1802 

Nathaniel Mitchell, do. 1805 

George Truett, do. 1808 

Joseph Haslett, do. 1811 



Daniel Rodney, Gov. 1814 

John Clarke, do. 1817 

Jacob Stout, (Acting Gov.) 1820 

John Collins, Cfov. 1821 

Caleb Rodney, (Acting Chv.) 1822 

Joseph Haslett, Gov. 1828 

Samuel Paynter, do. . 1824 

Charles Polk, do. 1827 

David Hazzard, do. 1830 



Outlines of thk Constitution. 

The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a 
Senate and House of Representatives. 

The representatives are elected annually, 7 from each county, the whole 
number being 21. Tho senators are elected for three years, 3 from each 
county, the whole number being 9. Three senators, one from each county, 
are chosen every year. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the peo* 
pie for three years ; and he cannot hold the office more than 3 years in 6. 

The representatives and three of the senators are elected annually on tb« 
first Tuesday in October ; and the governor, every third year, at the ss^me 
time. 

The General Assembly meets (at Dover), annually, on the first Taesday 
in January. 

The Constitution grants the right of suffiage to all white freemen, of the 
^ age of 21 years, who have resided in the state two years, next before the 
election, and within that time paid a state or county tax. 

The judicial power is vested in a Court of Chancery, a Supreme Court, 
Court of Common Pleas, &c. The chancellor and judges are appointed by 
ihe governor, an^ hold their offices durmg good behavior. 

Lkgibuitvrs. 

Datld Hazzard, Governor ; teim of offiee expiMi on the 3d Tneiday in , 
Jiiiiltfy,l888; lalaiy $l,888-88. 



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213 SSIJLWARX. 

Senators, 

John Caulk, } NewcaaUe I Presley Spraance, jr. f ^^ 

William Seal, V r^^t^^ Elias Naudalo, S CnnnL 

Thomas Deakyne, 5 ^'*"°^- | WiUiam Johnson, > ^' 

Purael Tmdal, ^ 

Joseph Maull, > Sussex County. 

Geoi^e Truett, ) 

The pay of the members of the Senate and House of > Representatives 
if J[2,50 for each day's attendance. 

Judiciary. 

Salary. 

Kensey Johns, Chancellor, .... $1,000 

^ Supreme Court. 

■ , Chief Justice, ,' . . . 1,000 

Isaac Davis, Associate Justice, . . . . 500 

Joseph 6. Rowland, do^ .... 500 

Edward Dingle, do, .... 600 

Court of Common Pleas, 

Thomas Clayton, Chief Justice, .... 1,000 

Jacob Stout, Associate Justice, , . • 500 

William B. Cooper, do. .... 500 

Bahxs, IK 1830. 

Farmers' Bank of the State of Delaware, at Dover, with brancnes Capital, 
at Newcastle, Wilmington, and Georgetown, . . . $500,000 
Bank of Wilmington and Brandy wine, .... 250,000. 

BankofDelaware, at Wilmington, . . . . . 200,000 

Bank of Smyrna, with a branch at MiIford« .... 100,000 

Education. 
This state has a School Fund, amounting to $170,000, the interest of 
which, together with a small tax levied on each school district of four miles 
square, at the will of the majority of the taxable inhabitants, is appropriated 
to the support of free schools. No district is entitled to any share of the 
School Fund, that will not, raise, by taxation, a sum equal to its share of 
the income of &e Fund. 



XI. MARYLAND. 



Iir IflSd, Muylaiid wis giant^d by diailes I. oTEnghnd, to Sir €feorge 
Calvert, Lord BaUisnore, a Roman Catholic, and an embieDt stateSBMoj 



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MAETLAin). 



218 



who had been secretary to Jamet I. ; bat before the patent was completed. 
Lord Baltimore died, and the patent, dated June 20, 1682, was given to hit 
eldest son Cecilius, who succeeded to his titles, and who, for upwafds of 
forty years, directed, as proprietor, the affairs of the colony. 

Leonard Calvert, brother to Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, was appointed 
the first governor ; and he, together with about 200 persons, commenced 
the settlement of the town of St. Mary*s in 1634. A free toleration of 
religion was established, and a system of equity and humantly was practised 
with regard to the Indian tribes. 

GoVERirORS 



Under tJ^ Proprietary 
Leonard Calvert, appointed 1637 
Thomas Green, do, 1647 

William Stone, do, 1649 

^Parliament Commiseionera, 1664 
Josiah Fendall, appointed 1658 
Philip Calvert, do, 1660 

Charles Calvert, do, 1662 

Lord Baltimore, proprietor, 1675 
Thomas Notley, appointed 1678 
Lord Baltimore, 168t 

Lionel Copley, do, 1692 

Francis Nicholson, do, 1694 
hh the hands of the Crown, 1697 
Nathaniel Blackstone, appHed 1699 



and Royal Oovemment, 



Thomas Tench, 
John Seymour, 
Edward Lloyd, 
John Hart, 
Charles Calvert, 
Benedict Calvert, 
Lord Baltimore, 
Samuel Ogle, 
Thomas Bladen, 
Samuel Ogle, 
Benjamin Tasker, 
Horatio Sharpe, 
Robert Eden, 
Robert Eden, 



Pretident, 170» 

appointed 1704 

President, 1704 

appointed 1714 

do. 1720 



1727 

.1783 

1787 

1742 

1747 

Prendeni, 1751 

appointed 1753 

do, 1769 

do. 1775 



do. 

do, 
do, 
do. 



Under the ConsHtuiion, 



Thomas Johnson, 
Thomas Sim Lee, 
William Pace, 
William Smallwood, 
John Eager Howard, 
George Plater, 
Thomas Sim Lee, 
John Haskins Stone, 
John Henry, 
Benjamin Ogle, 
John Francis Mercer, 
Bobett Bowie, 



elected 1777 
do, 1779 



do, 
do. 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do, 
do. 
do, 
do. 



1782 
1785 

1788 
1792 
1992 
1794 
1797 
1798 
1801 
1808 



Robert Wright, elected 1805 

Edward Lloyd, do, 1809 

Robert Bowie, do. 1811 

Levin Winder, do, 1812 

C.Ridgeley of Hampton, do, 1815 

C. W. Gouldsborougb, do. 1818 

Samuel Sprigg, do, 1819 

Samuel Stevens, Dec 16, do. 1822 

Joseph Kent, Jan. 8, do, 1826 

Daniel Martin, do, 1829 

T<K.Caroll, do. 1880 



OuTLIinES OF THE CowSTITUTIOir. 

The Constitution of this state was first formed in 1776 ; since which tilde 
many amendments have been made. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



SI4 MiJUXAlTD. 

The legiiktive power is vettedm a Senate, cootieliiig of 15 memben» tad 
a House of Delegates, consisdng of 80 members ; and these tiro hmiwh— 
tmhed are styled ne Ckn§ral Jiisembhf ofMar^^amd. 

The members of the House of Delegates, four from each coonty, mm 
elected aouuaUy by the people, on the first Monday in October ; and Ae 
members of the Senate are elected every fifth year on the third Monday in 
September, at Annapolis, by electors who are chosen by the people on fli0 
first Monday of the same month of September. These electors choose 1^ 
ballot 9 senators from the Western Shore, and 6 from the Eastemt who 
hold their office five years. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected annually 
on the first Monday in January, by a joint Jrallot of both Houses of 
the General Assembly. No one can hold the office of governor more than 
three years successively, nor be eligible as goyemor until the ex[Hration 
of four years after he has been out of that office. The governor is assisted 
by a Council of five members, who are chosen annually by a joint ballot of 
the Senate and House of Delegates. 

The General Assembly meets annually (at Awnapolis) on the last Mon- 
day in December. The Council of the Governor is elected on the first 
7*Uesday in January ; the governor nominatea to office, and the council 
appoints. 

The Constitution grants the right of suffiage to eveiy free, white, male 
dtixen, above 21 years of age, having resided twelve months withhi tfia 
state, and six months in the county, or in the city of Annapolis or Balti«> 
more, next preceding the election at which he offers to vote. 

The chancellor and judges are nominated by the governor, and appointed 

by the council ; and they hold their offices during good behavior. 

[The Legislature formerly met on the first Monday in Dec, and the fovemor was elee^ 
ed on th^ 2d Monday of Deo. ; bat the Constitution wai altered at the ■eMion of 1883, 
and confirmed in 1^.] 

Qwtmmtnt, 

Tliomas King Ctxo% Gonemot ; term of office expires on the ^oaiL 
Tuesday in January, 1831 ; salary |^ 2,666*7. 

The members of the General Assembly receive |^4 a day : the Speakeis 
of each House, $5. 

JUDICIAST. 

Tlieodore Bland, Chancellor, . . ^ $3J3S6 

Churt ofAj^dU. 

John Buchanan, Chief Judge, . . • . 2,2<M 

Richard T. Earle, Jissdeiate Judge, . ... 2,200 

William B. Martin, do, . . . . 2,200 

StovensenAreher, do. (BaUtmre) . 8,000 

Thomas B. Dorsey, do^ . . . 2,900 

John Stephen, do. . . . 2,200 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



MAKtiiAirD. mm 

Cowag CourU, The i(«te it divided into lix judicial districts, for eadi 
of wMch tbere are tiiree judges. Eadi coart is constituted of one of tlia 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and two associates, llie salary of tlien 
eounty associate judges is 5 1,400, except in the Baltimore district, when 
fhe associates are paid $2,200 each. 



t9icho1as Brice, 
William McMechen, 
Alejunder Nesbit, 



B€UimortCHty C^mtt. 
Chief Judge, .... $2,400 



Aisoeiate Judge, 
do. 



1,500 
1,500 



Bahxs. 



Name. 
Union Bank of Bid. 



Baltimora, $3,000,000 



Capit 
,00(r,« 



Bank of Baltimore, do. 

Wwrhanicji * Bank, do. 

OMBMr.JtFaraMn'Bk, do. 
FrankUa Bank, do. 



1,900,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 



Farm, k, Merchants' Bk, do. 
Bttik of Maryland, do. 

i. effort Deporit, do. 



600,000 
500,000 
300,000 



Name. CapittL 

Fannen' Bank of Maryland, at 
Annapolis, with branchei at 
Fredeiick and Eaaton, $1,000,000 

Frederick Comity Bk, Frederick, 500,000 
Faaneit* and Mechanoa* Bankaf 
Faedariek Oonaty, atFradanck, 
with a branch at Westminster, 500,000 
Hagerstown Bank, . . . 350,000 

Planters* Ic Fanners' Bk, Upper Bfarlboro'. 



The city of Baltimore ranks as one of tlie fi»t flour markets in the world. 
Hie IbUowing table shows the ii^pectionf of wheai omI rye Jhw and 
com meal, in the principal flour markets in the United States, for the yew 
1829. 





Wheat Flour. 


Rye Flour. Com MeaL | 


New York .... 

Baltimore 

Philadelphia 

Riclimond . . . 

New Orleans 

Alexandria 

Georgetown, D. C. 

Fiederleksbufg and Falmouth 

Petersburg 

iAUnny 


Barrels. 

670,262 

478,604 

297,206 

204,488 

157,823 

156,849 

104,077 

96,060 

60,350 

84,918 


BarreU. 
24,622 
12^01 
89,523 

868 

781 


Hbds. 
8,572 
1,609 
7,710 


Barrels. 

19,446, 

6,488 

18388 

6,849 



( Educatiov. 

The principal literary seminaries in this state are Ae University of Maiy^ 
bud, St. Mary's College, and Baltimore College, in Baltimore ; and St. 
John's College, at Annapolis. There are several academies in the state» 
which receive Jf800 a year from the state treasuiy. 

A law in favor of primary scliools was passed in 1825, and has been paf> 
tiaBy carried into effect in two or three of flie counties. The state 1ms a 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



MB 



ymeiHiA. 



SehoQl Fimd comiftiag of a ram advmced by Hftryknd during the late 
war and paid by the national goveroment, amounting to $75,000, 
together with a tax on bank capital of 20 cents on $100. The fund is 
at inteit8t» and the amount received irom-the banks has also generally beeo 
placed at interest, to the credit of the several counties ; but in some instan- 
ces it has been expended for its proper object. The intention of the state 
was, that it should be used to pay teachers only ; and that the expense of 
building school-houses, and also other expenses, should be paid by a ta^ on 
property within the several school districts. 



XU. VIRGINIA. 



Thx first permanent English settlement formed in America was mad*, 
in 1607, by 105 adventurers, on James river, in tliis state, at a place named 
Jamestown in honor of James I. of England. 

Several unsuccessful attempts had been made in the latter part of the pre- 
ceding century, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in honor of whom 
the countiy was named Virginia ; which name, though now limited to a 
single state, at the time of the settlement, was applied to all the country 
In America lying between Lat. 84^ and 45° N. 

The early history of the colony is replete with interesting and affecting 
iaddents, occasioned by dangers and calamities ; by sickness, want, and 
contests with the Indians. 

llie government of the colony was at first administered by a Council of 
seven persons, with a President chosen from among their number ; but 
afterwards it was administered by a Governor, appointed, except during the 
Commonwealth in England, by the crown. 



Governors dec. 



Under the 
Ed. M. Wingfield, Prcs. Coun. 
John Radcliffe, do, 

John Smith, do, 

George Percy, do. 

Lord de la War, Oovemor, 
Sir Thomas Dale, do. 
Sir Thomas Gates, do. 
Sir Thomas Dale, do, 
George Yeardley, do, 
Samuel Argall, do. 

Sir George Yeardley, do. 



Colonial Government, 



1607 
1607 
1608 
1610 
1610 
1611 
1611 
1614 
1616 
1617 
1618 



Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor, 1621 
Sir Geo. Yeardley, acting Gov, 1629 

Sir Geo. Yeardley, Governor, 1626 

Francis West, do. 1627 

John Pott, do. 1628 

.Sir John Harvey, do. 1629 

John West,. do, 1636 

Sir John Harvey, do, 1636 

Sir Francis Wyatt, da, 1639 

Sir William Berkeley, do, 1641 

Richard Eempe, do, 1644 



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TiMMiru* 



»7 



8if mmn B9fk$kK9f Ch9, M4S 
Bicbanl Bwinetty €leeUd 1662 
Edward Digges, do. 1655 

Samuel Biathewi, do. 1666 

Sir WiUiam BeiM»J, do. 1669 

FnL Morryson, apj^omted Oov. 1661 
Sir WiUiam Berk^y, do. 1662 

Hwbert Jefireys, lieuf. Gov. 1677 
Sir Henry Chicheley, Dep. Oov. 1678 
Lord Culpeper, Oovemor, 1680 
Nicholas Spencer, Pres. Omn. 1683 
Lord Howard, Qovei-nor, 16S4 

Nathaniel Bacon, Prt8. Coun.. 1688 
Francis Nicholson, lAeut Gov. 1690 
Sir Edmund Andros, Governor, 1692 



Fnacis NkWton, Chi9€m^, H98 
Edwafd Nolt, <ia. 1706 

Edmund Jennings, do. 1706 
Alexander Spotswood, do. 1710 
llufl^ Drysdale, do. 1722 

Robert Carter, Pi^e^. Council, 1726 
WUliam Goucb, Governor^ 1727 
Thomas Lee, ) PreMtnl$ \ , - .^^ 
Lewis Burwell, ] of CouncU, ] 
Robert Dinwiddle, Governor, 1762 
Francis Fauquier, do. 1768 

John Biair, Prw. Council, 1767 
Lord Botetoute, Governor, 1768 
William Nelson, Pr^t. CounoZ, 1770 
Lord Dunmore, Oovemor, 1772 



Provirional Government. 



Peyton Randolph, 


President of Convention, 


1775 


Edmund Pendleton, 


do. . do. 


1775 




Under the Constitution. 




Patricic Henry, < 


tleeted 


1776 


WiUiam H. CabeU* elected 1806 


XbomasJeffersont 


do. 


1779 


John Tyler, do. 


1808 


Tliomas Nelson, 


do. 


1781 


James Monroe, do. 


1811 


Benjamin Harrison* 


do. 


1781 


George W. Smith, do. 


1811 


Patrick Henry, 


do. 


1784 


James Barbour, do. 


1812 


Edmund Randolph* 


do. 


1786 


WUson, C.Nicholas, do. 


1814 


Beverly Randolph, 


do. 


1788 


James P. Preston, do. 


1816 


Hemy Lee, 


do. 


1791 


Thomas M. Randolph/ia. 


1819 


Robert Brooke, 


do. 


1794 


James Pleasants, do. 


1822 


James Wood, 


do. 


1796 


John Tyler, do. 


1826 


James Monroe, 


do. 


1799 


WUUam B. GUes, do. 


1826 


John Page, 


do. 


1802 


John Floyd, do. 


1829 



OuTLIirKS OF THE CONSTITUTlOlf. 

The CoBstitntion of this state, which has hitherto, since its first adop- 
tion, been in operation, was formed in 1776 ; but on the first Monday in 
October, 1829, a convention met at Richmond *'to consider, discuss, 
pkd propose a new Constitution, or alterations and amendments to tb6 
ensting Constitution"; and on the 14th of January, 1830, the conrenUim 
adopted an Amended Constitution, by a vote of 66 to 40. 

19 



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TiM Jimeoi^' CoBttit«doo« on beififp mtlMnitted to tW legal' voters %Piikf 
ftete, WM mtified by a aujority of 10,49S votei, is sppean bjr the foOow* 
iBf tCateineat. 

For. Against. 

Votes in Trans- Alleghaoy Distiicti - - 2,128^ 11,289 

** Talley District. 8,842^ 2,097 

" mddte District^ .... 12,41t 1,086 

" Tide-water Dlstriet^ .... 7,678 1,081 



26,055 15,563 

[The first election of members of the House of Delegates and. of tlM 
Senate, under the Amended Constitution, is to take place am tlM seTeial 
court-days throughout the month of October 1830, in the saTeral coun- 
ties and boroughs ; and the first General Assembly is to ooovene at Bidi- 
mond on the first Monday in January, 1831.] 

By this Constitution the legislative power is vested in a Senate and 
a House of Delegates, which are together styled The Oeneral As$cmbly 
ofVirgvnia, 

The House of Delegates consists of 134 members, chosen annually ; 81 
from the 26 counties west of the Alleghany mountains ; 25 from the 14 
counties between the Alleghany mountains and Blue Ridge ; 42 from the 
29 counties east of the Blue Ridge, and above tide-water ; and 86 from the 
counties, cities, towns, and boroughs lying upon tide-water. 

The Senate consists ot 82 members, 18 from the counties west of tlie 
Blue Ridge, and 19 from the counties, cities, towns, and borougiu east 
tiiereof The senators are elected for four years ; and the seats of one 
fourth of them are vacated every year. In all elections to any office or 
place of trust, honor, or profit, the votes are given openly, or vwA eoce« 
and not by baHot. 

A reapportionment for representation in both houses, is to take pfeee 
every ten years, commencing in 1841, until which time there is to bene 
diange in the number of delegates and senators from the several divisioBS^ 
and after 1841, the number of delegates is never to exceed 190; norflUrt' 
of die senators, 36. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor elected by the joint vote 
of the two houses of the General Assembly. He holds his office tiiree 
years, commencing on the 1st of January next succeeding his election. Of 
en such other day as may be^ from time to tktte, prescribed by law;' andlie 
is ineligUile for the thsee years next after the expiration of his term of office. 

There is a Council of Slate, consisting of three members elected fotr 
tfuee years, by the joint: vote of the two houses ; the seat of ene beiag 
vmc u led annually. The senior connselloT is lieutenant governor. 

The judges of the Suprelne Court of Appeals and of the S«peilor6lmi4e 
elected by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly, and 



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▼moiifiAfc 919 

holdilieir offiee* dmiog jcood behsvior ; or witil fttto^red by « etaeurient 
Tote of both homes ; but two thtrdt of the membora prefOBt.iBWt eonciir 
in such vote, and the cause of removal be enteied on the jounnh of 'Oath 
house. 

The right of suffrage is extended to every white male citizen of the 
Commonwealth, resident therein, aged 21 years and upwards, who is qual- 
fied tu exercise the right of sufirage according to the former Constitutioo 
and laws ;— or who owns a freehold of the value of $25 ; or who has a 
joint interest to the amount of $25 in a freehold;— or who has a life estate 
In, or reversionary title to, land of the value of $50, having had been so pos« 
sessed for six months ; or who shall own and be in the actual occupation of 
a leasehold estate, having ihe title recorded two months before he shall 
ofier to vote — of a term originally not less than five years, and of the annual 
value or rent of $200 ;— or who for twelve mouths before offering to vote, 
has been a house-Jceeper and head of a family, and shall have been assessed 
with a part of the revenue of the Commonwealth within the preceding 
year, and actually paid the same. 

ExKcirriyjc Govsrnmknt. 

2^ Term of the preaeut JExeeutive and Legielaiwe Government wUl 
expire on the Ut Monday in January, 1831. 

Salary. 
John Floyd, Oewmor, $8,388( 

CouneU, ' 

Peter T. Daniel, Lieut. Oov. and Free, of the CouneU. 
WilUam F. Pendleton, Guy R. C. Allen, 
Alexander L. Botts, John H. Smith, 
IVindham Robertson, Daniel P. Wilson. 
John H. Christian, 
[The som of |f8,000 is annually divided among the counsellors, $1,000 
to each.] 

Wm. H. Richardson, Clerk qf the CowuU^and Keeper of the 

Public Sealf • - |1,820 

John W. Pleasants, Assistant Clerk of the Council, - « 1,000 

John Robertson, Attorney Oeneral, 1,000 

l^awspn Burfoot, Treasurer of State, - , - - - 2,000 

James Heathe, Auditor^ - - - - . - - 2,000 

James Brown, Jun. Second Auditor, - - . . . 1,800 

William Selden, Megister of the Land Office, ... 1,600 

Samuel P. Parsons, Keeper of the Penitentiary, ... 2,000 

Thomas Nelson, Penitentiary Store Keeper, ... 1,500 

Bernard Peyton, Adjutant (General, .... 500 

William C. Holt, Speaker of ihe Senate. 

linn Banks, Speaker of the House of Delegates, 



d by Google 



1%e Bomber of m e mb ers of the ezistinf^ Senate is 24 ; and of the Hotise 
«f Delegates, 214, two from each of the 105 eomities, and one from eaelk 
df two cities, and two boroughs. The. Senators and Delegates receive 04 
a day, and 20 cents a mile for travel ; the Spealcer of each house, $8 a day. 

JUDiaiAJlT. 

The offices of all the following Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, 
of the General Courts and of the Superior Courts of Chancery, wiU 
expire at the termination of the session of the first legislature under 
the new Constitution. 



Supreme Court qf Appeals. 



Francis T. Brooke, 


Jvdge, 


William H. Cabell, 


da. 


John Coalter, 


do. 


John W. Green, 


do. 


Dabney Carr, 


do. 



Salary. 
j[2,500 
2,600 
2,500 
2,500 
2,600 



Superior Courts of Chancery, 



Sahuj. 
Creed Taylor, Judge of the District ofRicJimond 4r Lynchburg, $ 1,667 
William Brown, do. do, Williamsburg if Fred*burg, 1,667 

H. St. G. Tucker, do. do. Winchester 4r Clarksburg^ 1,667 

Allen Taylor, do. do, Staunton,Wythe,l^ Oreenb'r.lfi&t 

Judges of the Oeneral Court, who are also Judges of the Superior 
Courts of Law held in each county, 

Robert White, James Allen, R. £. Parker, 

Archibald Stuart, John T. Lomax, Lewis Summers, 

WiHiam Brockenbrough, Fleming Saunders, A. P. Upshur, 

Peter Johnson, William Daniel, R. H. Field, 

Daniel Smith, James Semple, John F. May. 

These judges receive each a salary of $1,500, and $3 for every 20 
miles* travel on the circuit. 

Hospitals and Penitentiary, 

There are t^o lA/naiic Hospitals, one at WiUiamsburg, to which aa 
annual appropriation of $12,000 is made, and which has 57 patients ; the 
other at Staunton^vihicYi has an annual appropriation of j[ 7,500, and 40 
patients. The Penitentiary, established at Richniond in 1800, has re* 
ceived, since its foundation, 1,584 convicts. The number in confinement* 
on the 30th of September, 1829, was 151. 



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TUttUUA. 



991 



Bahk» ur 1880. 

Curftttl 

Bank of Virgin (inooqionteil 1804), «k BkhoMmd, $ 1480,000 

(Peterebucg £00^000 
Norfolk, 460,000 

Frederick8barg,300,000 
Lynchburg, 800,000 
Net profit during 1829, 6f-jj per eent , . 

Toted 52,740,000 
Farmen* Bank of Virginia (incorporated 1818), at Richmond, $487^500 

fNorfolk, 487,600 



With Branches at 

Net profit in 1829, 6-^^^ per cent 
Bank of the Valley, at 
With Branches at 

North-western Bank at 



(Petersburg, 248,750 
Fredericksburg, 248,750 
Ljmchburg, 243,750 
Winchester, 243,760 
Danville, 50,000 



Total ;jr2,000,000 

Winchester, 800,000 

(Romney, 130,000 

< Charlestown, 180,000 

( Leesburg, 180,000 

Total $690,000 

Wheeling, J177,000 



,*^ The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and De- 
posit at JRkkmand and JV^oUi. 

The notes of all the banks in the state are receivable in the payment of 
taxes, so long as they pay specie. 

Interital Imphovembnt. 
The state has a permanent fimd devoted to the purposes of internal 
improvement of $1,418,961 11 ; and a dispoiable fund of $681,630 00 ; 
total j[2,100,691 11; [of this about |476,000 is at present unproductive.] 
Annual income from both funds $121,836 76. This fund is managed by 
18 directors, styled the Board of Public Works, 10 of whom are chosen 
annually by the legislature, 3 from the Trans- Alleghany District, 2 from the 
Valley District, 8 from the Middle District, and 2 from the Tide- Water 
District The governor, treasurer, and first auditor of the state are, ex 
affieio, members. In all canals and roads authorized by the state, this 
Fund contributes three fifths of the stock. The Board meets annually on 
the first Monday in January, and the members are paid $4 a day, and 20 
eents a mile for traveL 

The following Incorporated Companies have received aid from the F>m4» 





Capital. 


Tolls. 


Capital. 


T<#|. 


Upper Appomftttoz Co. 


61,100 


3,265 


CartenvUle Bridge, 22,600 




Lower Appomattox Ck>. 


40,000 


156 


Dismal S'mp Caoal Co. 360,000 


11568 


Aihby'f Gap Tump. Co. 


130,050 


7,362 


Fauquier & Alex. T»p. Co. 86,000 


2,731 


19» 











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993 



▼rteiiriA. 



Capita] *foIIf. 
Fniihx Turnpike Co. 13,750 

li^iiehbarff Ik 0«lemT>pCo. 108,900 6;MI 

LeesbuTff Turnpik« Co. 84,000 8,894 

little River TurDp. Co. uok'n. 20,225 

Manchester Ic Pet'g T*p Co. unk*a. 18,119 
Bappahannock NaT. Co. 50,000 

BieiiinoDd Dioek Co. 850,000 19,535 



• " Capital. Tolb. 

Roanoke Nav. Co. 412,000 548 

Staonton It Ja!b It. T*p. Co. 50,000 4,495 

Shepp't. & Smith'd T'p. Co. 46,686 618 

Snicker's Gap "Pp. Co. 85,275 3,22-^ 

Swift Run Gap T'p. Co. 119,800 4,070 

Tyo River T'p. Co. 6,000 66 
Welb»g It Wa8h>D. T'p. Co. 16,650 



TJie James River Company. — The sum expended on the James Hiver, 
ihe Kenawha Rivei- and the turnpike road, including the expenses of super- 
intendence, &c. amounts to ;gl, 274,583 96, of which the sum of ;^638,883 86 
has been laid out on the Lower James River Canals — $365,207 02, on the 
Mountain Section of the Canal — $87,389 81, on the Kenawha river, and 
$171,982 49 on the turnpike road and bridges, from Codington to the 
Kenawha. Under the act of a late session of the legislature extending the 
Kenawha road, loans have been effected for $50,000, and contracts entered 
into for $51,937 50, on account of which $600 only have as yet been 
paid. The interest on the sums expended and borrowed amounts to 
$71,673 60, and exhibits the fact that the annual disbursements on that 
account exceeded the annual receipts by $37,727 26. This deficiency 
• is paid out of the general income of the fund for internal improvements, 
and sensibly paralyzes the strength of that once productive and most va^ 
uable fund. 

The whole capital employed in internal impiovemwt, ex<dt}8i7e of that 
belonging to the Manchester and Petersburg Turnpike Company and Little 
River Company, amounts to ;^3,263,811. 

The United States contributed $200,000 of stock belonging to the Dis- 
mal Swamp Canal Company; and North Carolina contributed $50,000 of 
the stock of the Roaooke Navigation Company. 

Edttcatiok. 

The principal literary institutions of this state are the University of Vir- 
ginia, at Charlottesville ; William and Mary College, at Williamsbui^ ; 
Hampden-Sydne'y, in Prince Edward County j and Washington CoWege, 
at Lexington. 

This state has a Literary Fund, created in 1S09, and amounting, in 
available capital, according to a late report, to $1,233,522 97. All 
escheats, confiscations, and derelict property ; also all lands forfeited for 
non-payment of taxes, and all sums refunded by the national government, 
for the expenses of the late war, have been appropriated to the encourage- 
ment of learning. Of the interest of the Fund, $15,000 are annually 
appropriated to the University of Virginia, and $46,000 'to the education of 
the poor in the respective counties. This sum is divided among the coun- 
ties accordmg to the ratio of white population f and the court of each 



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HOBTH' CAROLINA. 



county appoiDtt commissioiiMi to manage and superintend the application 
of the share belonging to it Within a year from October* 182$, 26,690 
made applicatics to be educated, of whon^ 12,642 were received. The 
average cost of education was $9 per annum. 



XIII. NORTH CAROLINA. 

Ik the latter part of the fifteenth century, three different attempts were 
made^ under the direction of the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh, to establish 
settlements in North Carolina, which was then included within the limits 
of the country, that had been recently named Virginia, These were the 
first attempts made by the finglish to form colonies in North America : 
they all proved unsuccessful ; and many years passed away before the at- 
tempt to settle the country was renewed. 

The first permanent settlements were formed about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. North Carolina was long united under the same 
government with South Carolina : it was for many years called the County 
qf Albemarle, or the County of Albemarle in CaroHnOy and about the 
beginning of the 18th century, the Colony ofJVorth CaroU^ia, As early 
as 1715, it had a separate legislative assembly, at which time Charles Eden 
was Governor ; and in the year 1727, it was formed into an entirely dbtinot 
province. 

RoYAi. Governors. 



Sir Richard Everard, appointed 1727 I 

Gabriel Johnston, do, 1734 

Matthew Rowan, do, 1753 | 

Governors under 

Richard Caswell, elected 1777 

Abner Nash, do, 1780 

Thomas Burke, do, 1782 

Alexander Martin, do, 1784 

Richard Caswell, do, 1785 

Samuel Johnston, do, . 1788 

iUexander MarUn^ do. 1790 

Richard D. Speight, do, 1793 

Samuel Ashe, do, 1796 

Benjamin Williams, do. 1799 

James Turner, do, 1802 

Nathaniel Alexander, do, 1805 



Arthur Dobbs, 
William Tryon, 
Joseph Martin, 

THE Constitution. 



Benjamin Williams, 
David Stone, 
Beigamin Smith, 
William Hawkins, 
WilHam Miller, 
John Branch, 
Jesse Franklin, 
Gabriel Holmes, 
Hutc3iins G. Burton, 
James Iredell, 
John Owen, 



appointed 
do. 
do. 



elected 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do, 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do. 



1754 
1766 
1778 

1807 
1808 
1810 
1811 
1814 
181T 
1820 
1821 
1824 
1827 
1828 



Outlines or the Constitution. 
The Constitution of North Carolina was agreed to and resolved upon, by 
representatives chosen for that purpose, at Halifax, December 18, 1776. 



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The lagislatiye ailfliotity it netted la ft body, styled 1l%e €hnerdl ^. 
Bembly, consisting of a Senete tod a House of Commons, Iraith elected 
annually by the people. One senator and two members of the House el 
Commons are sent from each of the 62 couoties ; and^ne of the latter also 
from each of the towns of Edenton, Newbem, Wilmington, Salisbury, 
Hillsborough, and Halifiiz. 

The chief executive officer is the Governor, who is chosen annually by 
a joint vote of the two Houses ; and he is eligible for 3 years only in 6. He 
is assisted by an executive Council of seven members, chosen annually by a 
Joint vote of the two Houses. In case of the death of the Governor, his 
duties devolve upon the Speaker of the Senate. 

The judges of the Supreme and Superior Courts are appointed by a joint 
vote of the two Houses, and hold their offices during good behavior. 

The Constitution grants the right of voting for members of the House of 
Commons to all freemen of the age of 21 years, who have been inhabitants 
•f the state 12 months immediately preceding the election ; but in order 
(o vote for a senator, a freeman must be possessed of a freehold of 50 acres 
•fland. 

The time of electing the members of the General Assembly is appointed 
by the legislature, and commonly takes place.in the month of August. 

The Assembly meets annually (at Raleigh), and usually on the second 
Monday in November; and the governor is commonly chosen in De- 
cember. 

Government. 

John Owen, Oovemor; teim expires December, 1830; salary j(2,000« 

The members of both houses of the General Assembly receive $3 a day ; 
the Speaker, $4. 

Judiciary. 

Stqtreme Court, 

'^fory. 
I^eonard Henderson, ChUfJutHce, . . . . |^2,600 

John Hall, wdEsatfetats JutHee, . . . 2,900 

llbomas Ruffin, do. . . » 2;M0 

Judges efthe Superior or CfireuU Court. 

William Norwood, ' John R. Donnell, Willie P. Maigiuo* 

J. J. Daniell, Robert Strange, James Martin. 

The state is divided into six circuits, in which the court is held half 
yearly in the several counties ; so that each judge attends in about ten 
eouDties ; and he is paid j[90 for every «ourt which he holds. 



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KORTH CAROLllTA. 235 

BAim IN 1880. 

CapttaL 
The State Bank of North Carolina, at Raleigh, havine six 7 ^t ^^ ^* 
branches . . . . . . $ ^1,600.000 

Cape Fear Banic, at Wilmington, with branches at Fayette- 7 o^n aaa 

ville, Salem, Charlotte, and Hillsborough . . 5 800,000 

Newbern Bank, at Newberti, with branches at Raleigh, > q^a a/m 

Halifax, and Milton . . . . j ^^'^^ 

«% The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit 
at Fayetteville, 

Jin Exhibit showing the tituation of the State Bank ofJVorih CaroUna, 
JVovetaber, IT, 1829. 

Specie $70,494-52 

Foreign notes and bills of exchange . 233,172*95 

Foreign bank credits . . . » 82,102-64 

885,775-11 

Bank stock taken for Debt ..... 28,340*00 

Due from the state of North Carolina . . . 83,906*11 

Due from individuals, being notes discounted, &c. . . 2,290,278*10 

Stock unpaid ' . . . . . . 225*00 

Real estate in bankmg booses and lands taken for debt . 183,522*87 

Deficiencies of certain de&ulting officers . . . 89,621*75 

$3,06l';6fri^ 
Capital stock ...... j[ 1,598,775*00 

Notes in circulation • • . . . 780,418-75 

Doe to foreign banks ..... 220,715*88 

Profits reserved to corer bftd debts, losses, &c. . 249,778^69 

Due for deposits, &c. ..... 245,946*95 

Internal bills and checks .... 16,039*91 

#3,061,66403 
Edvcatjon. 
The principal literary institution in this state is the University of North 
Carolina, at Chapel Hill. Academies are established at various places. 
The state has a Literary Fund, arising from Bank dividends, &c. amounting 
t0 i]^wards of j[70,000. It is provided, that when this Fund shall have 
accumulated to a sufficient amount, the income of it shall be divided among 
the several counties, in proportion to the free population, for the support of 
common schools. 



XIV. SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Iir 1663, the territory which now comprises the states of North and 
South Carolina and the greater part of Georgia, was granted by Charles 11. 
to the Earl of Clarendon and seven others, who were constituted pro- 
prietors. The colony was named CaroUnay and the government was vested 



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S98 



SOWTS €AR4^LIllilu 



In ihe hands of the proprietora. Tbeproprietaiy government lasted iboitt 
fifty years, when it was abolished by the people ; and the government was 
afterwards directed by governors appointed by the king. 







GOVSRNORS. ' 








Under ihe Proprietarjf ChvemmenL 






WQliam Sayle, 


appointed 


1669 


Thomas Smith, 


appointed 


1693 


Joseph West, 


do. 


1671 


Joseph Blake, 


do. 


1694 


John Yeamans, 


do. 


1671 


John Archdale, 


do. 


1695 


JoMphWest, 


do. 


1674 


Joseph Blake, 


do. 


1696 


Joseph Morton, 


do. 


1682 


James Moore, 


do. 


1700 


Joseph West, 


do. 


1684 


Nathaniel Johnson, 


do. 


1708 


Richard Kirk, 


do. 


1684 


Edward Tynte, 


do. 


1706 


Robert Quarry, 


do. 


1684 


Robert Gibbes, 


do. 


1710 




do. 


1685 


Charles Ccaven, 


do. 


1712 


James Colleton, 


do. 


1686 


Robert Daniel, 


do. 


1716 


$e^ fiothwell, 


do. 


1690 


Robert Johnson, 


do. 


1719 


Phmp Ludwell, 


do. 


1692 


James Moore, 


do. 


1719 


Arthur Afiddleton 


, 1719.— 2%e prop 




and 



a temporary M^ubUceitabUihed. 
Under the Begcd Government. 



Virinels Nicholson, appointed 1721 

Arthur Middleton, do. 1725 

ftM>ert Johnson, do. 1780 

Thomas Broughton, do. 1735 

WilKam Bull, do. 1737 

' James Glen, do. 1748 



William H. LitUeton, appo'ted 1706 



William Bull, 
Thomas )Boone, 
William Bull, 
Charles Montague, 
WUUam BuU, 



do. 1760 

do. 1768 

do. 1768 

do. 1766 

do. 1769 



Under the Cf&natitution. 



John Rutledge, eUeted 1775 

Rawlins Lowndes, do. 1778 

John Rutledge, do, 1779 

John Matthews, do. 1782 

Benjamin Guerard, do. 1783 

WiUiam Moultrie, do. 1785 

Thomas Pinckney, do. 1787 

Charles Pinckney, do, 1789 

Charles Pinckney, do. 1790 

Amoldus Vanderhorst, do. 1792 

Waiiam Moultrie, do. 1794 

CSiaHes Pinckney, do, 1796 

Edward Rutledge, do, 1798 

John Drayton, ^. 1800 



James B. Richardson, elected 



Paul Hamilton, 
Charles Pinckney, 
John Drayton, 
Henry Middleton, 
Joseph Alston, 
David R. WUliams, 
Andrew Pickens, 
John Geddes, 
Tliomas Bennet, 
.John L. Wilson, 
Richard J. Manning, 
John Taylor, 
Stephen D. Miller, 



do. 

do. 

do.^ 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



1602 
1604 
1606 
180B 
1810 
1812 
1814 
1816 
1818 
1820 
1822 
1824 
J826 
182S 



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OUTLIirXS OF THX CoHSTITITriOll. 

The first Constitution of this stftte wm formed in 1776 ; the present 
Constitution was adopted in 1790. 

The legislative .authority is vested in a Oenert^ jtaembly, consisting of 
a Senate and a House of Bepresentatives. 

The Senate consists of 45 meint>ers, who are elected hy districts for 
four years, one half being chosen biennially. 

The House of Representatives consist of 124 members, who are appof- 
lioQfld among the several districts, according to the number of wiiite in* 
hafedtents and taxi^tion ;. and are elected for two years. The representatlvaR 
snd one half of the senators are chosen every second year» on the seeond 
BfMiday in October and the day following. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected for two 
years* by a joint vote of the Senate and House of Representatives, at evwy 
first meeting of the House of Representatives. A governor after having 
performed the duties of the office for two years, cannot be reelected till 
after the expiration of four years. 

At the time of the election of Governor, a Lieutenant Governor is chosen 
in the same manner, and for the same period. 

The General Assembly meets annually (at Cohunhia), on the fourth 
Monday in November. 

The Chancellor and Judges are appointed by the joint ballot of tha 
Senate and House of Representatives, and hold their offices during good 
bdiavior. 

The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to every free, white, mate 
dtizeo, of the age of 21 years, having resided in the state two years pre- 
vious to the day of election, and having been possessed of a freehold of 50 
acres of land, or a town lot, at least six months before such election, or 
(not having such freehold or town lot) having been a resident in the elec- 
tion district in which he offers his vote, six months before said election, and 
baviog paid a tax the preceding year of 8f . sterling towards the support of 
thft.gpvernment. 

GoTXBirMVNT. 

Stephen 9» Miller, CkHtemor; term of office expires in Daeember, 1880 ; 
salary, ffSJBw, 
Thomas Williams, LiButenani Chvemor, — ^No salaiy. 
The 45 state senators and IM lapresentatives roealFa aadi $4 a day. 

JoDIClAltT. 

Judges of the Court ofAppeaU. 

Charles J. ColcQckp appointed 1824 . • . $SfiSi 

David Johnson, do. 1824 . . . 8,500 

. . . • 8,500 



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SOVTfl CAHOXilirA* 



ChaneeUoTB m Equity. 



Salary. 
Henry W. Dessausure, appointed 1808 . . . . W8,600 
WilUam Haiper, do, 1820 .... 8,000 

Henry Bailey, Reporter, 



Judgeiqftl 


he General Sessions and Common Pleas, 




Mhn H. Bay, 


appointed 


1701 .... 


2,578 


Robert Gautt, 


do. 


1816 


8,500 


John S. Richardson, 


do. 


1818 .... 


8,300 


I)aniel E. Huger, 


do. 


1819 


2,500 


J. B. O'Neal, 


do. 


1828 . . . . 


2,500 


JodahJ.Evtns, 


do. 


1829 . . 


2,500 



Banks. 

FIms. CtpiuL 
Banlc of the State of South Carolina, with ^ 

branches at Columbia, Georgetown, and > Charleston, $1,156,838 

Camden ) 

Planters* and Mechanics' Bank ... do. 1,000,000 

Union Bank do. 1,000,000 

State Bank do. 800,000 

Bank of South Carolina .... do. 675,000 

«*» The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Deposit 
at Charleston, 

Education. 

The principal literary institutions of this state are the College of Soatli 
Carolina, at Columbia, and Charleston College, in Charleston. The Col- 
lege of South Carolina has been built up and supported by the state legis- 
lature ; and the sum of nearly $200/)00 lias been expended upon tbe 
buildings, library, philosophical apparatus, and occusionai repairs. In ad- 
dition to this, the legislature makes an annual appropriatwn of about 
515,000 to defray the expenses of the institution ; and it also supports 
two beneficiaries at the college, at the annual expense of jf260 eaelu 

The legislature makes an annual appropriation of nearly $40,000 for 
the support of free schools. The Commissioners of Free Schools, at the 
session of the legislature, in 1828, reported that 8-M schools were estab- 
Bsnied throughout the state, in which 9,036 scholars were instructed, at the 
expense of ^89; 716.' The annual appropriation, in 1829, was 537,200. 



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esoaeiA 



229 



XV. GEORGIA. 

The first English settlement of Georgia was formed at Savannah, in 1733, 
by general James Edto, Oglethorpe^ together with 160 persons. Of all 
the Thirteen States which belonged to the Union at the time of the Decla- 
ntion of Independence, this was the last settled. 

Governors. 
Uiider the Crown of Great Britain. 



James Edw. Oglethorpe, Olw. 1732 
Waiiam Stephens, (Jlct'gOov,) 1743 
Henry Parker, do, 1751 

John Reynolds^ Chvemor 1754 



Henry Ellis, Governor 1757 

James Wright, lio. 1760 

James Habersham, (Jie'g Gov,) 1771 



During the Revolution, 
Wniiam Cawin, Pre$, Council, 1775 I Button Gwinnett, Pre$. Coun. 1777 
Archibald BuUock, do. 1776] 

Under the Constitution. 

George Matthews* 

Jared Irwin, 

Jsmes Jackson, 

David Emanuel, A 

Josiah Tatnall, 

John Milledge, 

Jared Irwin, 

David B. Mitchell, 

Peter Early, 

David B. Mitchell, 

William Rabun, 

Matthew Talbot, Jieting Gov. 1819 

John Clarke, elected 1819 

George M. Troup, do, 1823 

John Forsyth,- do, 1827 

George R. Gilmer, do, 1829 

OOTLINXS OF THK CoVSTITUTIOlf. 

The first Constitution of Georgia was formed in 1777 ; • second, in 1785 ; 
•Qd a third, the one now in operation, in 1798. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of BepresentftF 
tivef , which together are styled The General Assemhly* 

Th^ members of both Houses are chosen annually on the first Monday 
In October. One senator is elected for each county, and dit number of 
20 



John A. Tredlen, 


elected 


1777 


John Houston, 


do. 


1778 


John Werriatt, Acting Gov. 


1778 




eUeted 


1779 


Richard Howley, 


do. 


1780 


Stephen Heard, 


do. 


1781 


Nathan Brownson, 


do. 


1781 


John Martin, 


do. 


1782 


Lyman Hall, 


do. 


1783 


John Houston, 


do. 


1784 


Samuel Elbert, 


do. 


1785 


Edward Telfair, 


do. 


1786 


George Matthews, 


do. 


1787 


George Handley, 


do. 


1788 


George Walton, 


do. 


1789 


Edward Telfidr, 


do. 


1790 



elected 


1793 


do. 


1796 


do. 


1798 


ing Gov. 


1801 


eUcted 


1801 


do. 


1802 


do. 


1806 


do. 


1809 


do. 


1818 


do. 


1815 


do. 


1817 



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99§ 

representatives is in proportion to population, including three fifths of all 
tiie people of color ; but each county is entitled to at least one, and no one 
to more than four, members. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who was formerly elected 
by the General Assembly ; but he is now (and ever since 1824) elected 
by the people on the first Monday in October ; and he holds the office for 
two years. 

The General Assembly meets (at MUledgevUle) on the first Monday ia 
November ; unless convened at another time by the Governor. 

The Constitution grants the right of suffice to all " citizens and inhabi- 
tants, who have attained the age of 21 years, and have paid all the taxes 
which may have been required of them, and which they may have had 
opportunity of paying, agreeably to law, for the year preceding the election, 
and shall have resided six months within the county." 

The judicial power is vested in a Superior Court and in such inferior 
jurisdictions as the legislature may, from time to time, ordain and establish ; 
and the superior and inferior courts sit twice in each county every year. 
The judges of the Superior Court are elected by the legislature for three 
yc&us ; the justices of the inferior courts, and justices of the peace, are 
elected quadriennally by the people ; and the clerks of the superior and 
inferior courts biennially. 

GOVXRITMXNT. 

George R. Gilmer, Governor; term of office will expire in November, 
1881 ; salary $3,000. 

Senators, 7^ ; Representatives, 140. Pay $4 a day each, and 4 cents a 
mile for travel. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives receive each $6 a day. 



Waiiam H. Crawford, 
Thaddeus G. Holt, 
Waiiam Law, 
Augustin S. Clayton, 


JUDICIART. 

Superior Court, 

Judge of the Northern Circuit, 
do. Southern Circuit, 
do. Eastern Circuit, 
do. Western Cucuit, 

Oakmulgee Cucuit, 
do. Flint Circuit, 
do. Middle Circuit, 


$^4W 
2,100 
2400 
2,100 
2,100 
2,100 
2,100 
2,100 


Christopher B. Strong, 
William B. Holt, 
Walter T. Colquitt, 



Iff^erior Court. 
An Inferior Court is held in each county, each composed of five justices, 
elected by the people every four years; These court? possess the powers 
^ Courts of Probate. The justices have no salary. 



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eSMMMA* 



BAXtMM. 



fm 



ISiate of the Banks at reported to the General Jitsembly, JVovetn- 
her 3, 1819.1 









Notes in 




Name. 


Place. 


Capital. 


circula- 
tion. 


Specie. 


State Bank, with branehes at Am- ] 










ffusta, Washington, Jonesboro*. 1 


Savannah, 


$1,500,000 


$1,097,858 


$323,18407 


Macoo, J 










Planters' Bank, 


do. 


566,000 


889,191 


119,986 90 




do. 


177,756 


204,342 


185,165 35 


Central Bank of Georgia, - 


Milledgeville, 


1,927,317 


278,393 


♦212,356 81 


Angorta Bank, " " ^ - 


Augusta, 


600,000 


365,685 


188,039 OC 


Merchanta' Sl Planters* Bank, 


do. 


142,000 


117,818 


50,815 8e 


AngusU Insurance Bank, - 


do. 


110,000 


61,605 


38,953 dC 


Darien Bank, wkh branchea at ) 
Milledgeville and Macon, ) 


Darien, 


484,876 


966,945 


*a6,650 36 


Macon Bank, .... 


CoUun^us, 
TUal 


75,000 


1«5,585 


54,0541(1 


Colambua Bank, - - - - 


300,000 






$5,888,349 1$8,719,356 |$l,ia0,5a7 73| 



The ** Central Bdnk of Georgia ** is entirely the property of the state ; 
and the design of its incorporation was to afford means of letting out the 
surplus funds of the state, and also to place the debts due to the state in the 
hands of suitable agents (the directors) for collection. Its capital is com- 
posed of all the bank stock held by the state, of all bonds, notes, debts, 
flpeciaHties, and judgments due to it ; and all moneys arising from the sale 
of lands belonging to the state. Debts due to the state are collected by 
the bank ; and persons owing the state give notes payable at the bank. 

^*^ The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit 
at Savannah. 

PjuriTurrxA&T. 

The State Penitentiary is situated at MiBedgeyOle, and on the 81st of De- 
cember, 1829, contained 92 convicts. The salary of the principal keeper is 
1^1^438. The sum of about ^5,000 was annually appropriated for the 
expenses of the institution before the jrear 1829, when it was put under a 
new management, and duriog the year 1829, it required no assistance from 
ike state. 

IjCTBRNAIi IlfPROYKMENT. 

According to a report made in 1828, ** within the preceding 18 years die 
simi of $824,600 had been appropriated by the state for the purposes of 
hitemal improrement." But the beneficial results which were expect- 
ed, have not been realized ; and it is stated that " all the reports as well 
as the omission to make them, go to show that those entrusted with the' 
business had not manifested that fidelity, industry, and skill, which the 

• Bpeoie aai biUtoTBaaks that pay ipede. 



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•late h«d a right to expect from tbeM.** In 1S29 the system was changed ; 
and the anm of |^ 70,000 doHara was appropriated to ptnchase a supplj of 
negroes, malriDg, with what were before possessed, the number of 100. 
These were placed under the direction of two superintendents, by whom 
fliey were distributed into various parts of the state, to be employed under 
OTerseera in woriiing on roads and rivers. According to the report of the 
Committee of Internal Improvement, the canal from the Savannah to the 
Ogeechee was expected to be completed in March, 1890, at the expense 
of about $165,000. The design is to extend the canal to tiie Alatamaha> 
making its length 72 miles. 

Education. 

The -principal literary seminary in this state is FrankUn College, or the 
Univerrity of G^rgia, at Athens, which has funds to the amount of 5136,000, 
of which $100,000 are invested in the Bank of the State of (Georgia, which 
ftock the state guaranties to yield 8 per cent, per annum. 

The following statement relating to education is given by Mr. Sherwood 
in his " Gazetteer of Geor|^." " There are about 80 incorporated acad- 
emies in this state, 64 of which have been brou^ into operation. The 
average number of pupils in each, is 47 sr 3,008. In the northern and 
southern sections of the state, there are probably 5 common schools in each 
county ; 40 counties ; SO pupils each = 6,000. In tiie middle section, say 
7 common schools in each county; 25 counties s 6,250. Total number 
of pupils in the academies and conmion schoote 14,258." The state po»* 
sesses ** Academy and Poor School Funds " to a considerable amount By 
an act of the legislature of 1792, each county academy was allowed to pur-* 
chase the value of iC 1,000 of confiscated property : 1,000 acres of land in 
each oounty were granted fop fAte support of schools ; and also a fund 
of $250^000, to be vested in stoclcs for the same purpose. 

Indians. 

Two censideraUe tribes of Indians reside partly within tiie e har ter e d 
limits of this state ; the Cherokees in the nocthwestem part, and the Creeks 
in the western. The Cherokees have made greater advances in the arts of 
civilized life than any other tribe of North American Indians. A proposi- 
tion to remove them to the west of the Mississippi, which has been recently 
made, has excited a deep interest* throughout the country ; and it is to be 
hoped that such a course will be pursued as shall be consistent at once 
with justice and humanity, — with the welfare of tiie Cherokees, and the 
honor of the United States. The following notice of them is extracted 
from Mr. Sherwood's Qaxetteer of Georgia, published in 1827. 

** Within the last 20 years the Cherokees have rapidly advanced towards 
civilization. Tliey now live in comfortable houses, chie% In villages, and 
cultivate large foims. They laise Iwrge herds of caittie, which tiiey seU for 



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AMBAMA. 288 

beef to Ae i&h^ittiits of aeigliboriDg ttetes. Many nMdiMiieal arti hKW 
been introdaced among them. They have carpentera and blackamithi ; uid 
many of the women apin and weave and make butter and cheeae. Tho 
population, instead of decreasing, as is the case generally with tribes sur- 
rounded by the whites, increases very rapidly. There are now 18,668 
natives in the nation ; 147 white men, and 78 white women, who have 
intermarried with them. They own 1,277 slaves. Total, 16,060 souls ; 
increase in the last dz years 8,663. 

<' Their government is republican, and power is vested in a Committee 
and Council, answering to our Senate and House of Representatives. The 
members are elected once in two years. JVewtoum is the seat of govern- 
ment Their judges act with authority, and prevent entirely the use of 
tfdent spirits, during the sessions of their courts. The mission at Spring 
Hace was established in 1801. Since that time nearly a dozen have been 
brought into operation in various parts of the nation. The number of chil- 
dren in the several missionary schools -is nearly 600, all learning the Eng- 
lish language." 



XVI. ALABAMA. 



MoBiLS, in the southern part of Alabama, was settled long since by the 
Spanbh ; yet the territory which now forms this state cdntained but very 
few civilized inhabitants before 1810. Shuce that time its increase in pop- 
ulation has been exceedingly rapid. 

Alabama was erected into a territorial government in 1817 ; the inhab- 
itant formed a Constitution in 1819 ; smd in 1820, it was admitted into the 
Union. 

Governors. 
William W. Bibb, appomied 1817, Governor of the Territory of Alabama. 





Under the Constitution, 






William W. Bibb, 


elected 1819 John Murphy, 


elected 


1826 


Israel Pickens, 


do. 1821 Gabriel Moore, 


do. 


1829 



Outlines of the Constitution. 

The legislative power is vested in two branches, a Senate and House of 
Representatives, which together are styled The Qenend JUsembly of the 
State of Alabama. 

The representatives are elected annually, and are apportioned among the 
di£Eerent counties in proportion to the white popuktion ; tiie whole number 
cannot exceed 100, nor fidl sl^prt of 60. The senators are elected for thcee 
20* 



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yMM, tad (NM IfaM of ttem mm cboflen eveiy yen. ^Tlwir wmber i 

to more dun one Cfaiid, nor leet Aaa one £Mirtfi of the oomber of iepi»- 

oea Uti vee. 

The eiecothre power is Teeted In > Governor, who ii el e c ted L by tfwya»» 
plo, for two years ; and is eligible 4 yews oat of 6. 

no re pf es entotfves nnd one third of the senators are elected annaally on 
the first Monday In August and the day following ; and tfie governor is 
eleeted biennially at the same time. 

Hie General Assembly meets annual^ (at 2W c o l ses o> on the fourth 
Monday tn October. 

The right of sofibge is poss es s e d by every white, malecitfeenof 21 ymi« 
of age, who has resided within the stjite one year next preceding an election, 
and file last three months within the county, city, or town, in whkh he 
o ffe r s his vote. 

Hie judicial power is vested bi one Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, and 
vabh inferior courts as die General Assembly may, from time to time, 
direct and establish. The judges, after November in 1833, are to be eleeted 
by a joint vote of both Houses of the General Assembly, eveiy six years. 

Tbx Exxcutitk and Lsoisi^turx. 

Bftlaiy. 
Gabriel Moore, Oovemor, (term of office will expire on the 

8d Monday in November* 1831), 4^2,000 

Janes T. Thornton, SeereUary of StaU, - • lnOOO 

George W. Crabb, CompiroUer of PukUe jSetoumUf - - 1,000 

Hardin Perkins, State Dreasurer, - - - 1,000 

CoBStantine Peikins, j^omey Oenerol, - #425 & peequisltes. 

Hie Senate piow consiste of 22 members ; the House of Representalmo 

'of 72 members. The pay of the members of both Houses is $4 per day 

each. 

JUIMCIART. 

The state is divided into Seven Circuits, in each of which tiiere Is a cir» 
colt judge ; and the Supreme Court is formed by a union of these seven 
jodges. 



Abner S. Lipscomb, 


Judge of the Ut drewt, ' - 


- #1.750 


Reuben Saffold, 


do. 


2d do. 


- 1,750 


H.W.CoUier, - 


do. 


3d do. ^ 


1,760 


J^mM. Taylor, - 


- do. 


4tk do. 


. . 1,750 


John White, 


do. 


(Uh do. ' . 


l^TIO 


▲.Cfeashatr, 


- do. 


mk do.^ . 


• 1,750 


&I.Pefig^ . 


do. 


Itk do. ' - 


f,750 



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BankofMobife,atMobne, ... . $§90fim40 

Bwik «f the 8«ite of Alftbamm, »t TufcalooM, 

Notes in circulation, Jaouaiy 1, 18S0, - « 522,687 #0 

Due for Deposito by individuals, ... 186,65683^1 
Specie, - - - - - - 127,596 66 

Notes of other solvent banks, . - ' . 73,893 00 

Bills of exchange payable at Mobile and New Oileans, 68^,927 09 

«% The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit 

9lt Mobile. 

Internal Improtemekt. 

By an act of Congress of March 2, 1819, it was provided that 6 per cent, 
of ttie net proceeds of all the sales of public lands in this state, made subse- 
quently to September 1, 1819, should be reserved for making public roads anjl 
canals, and improving the navigation of rivers. Three fifths of the amount 
were directed to be applied to these objects within the state, and two fiAhs 
to the making of a road or of roads leading to the state, under the direction of 
Congress. This act gave rise to what is commoidy called the ** Three per 
cent. Fund," which has been vested fai the Bank of the State of Alabama ; 
and it amounted, according to the report of the State Treasurer, on the 26th 
of November, 1829, to $96,855 77. A Board of Internal Improvement, to 
consist of six commissioners, was established by the General Assembly in 
January, 1830, under whose superintendence the ipcome of this fund is to 
he appropriated to objects of public utility, as roads, canals, &c. 

On the 23d of May, 1828, Congress made a grant to this state of 400,000 
acres of relinquished and unappropriated lands for improving the navi* 
gation of the Muscle Shoals and Colbert's Shoals in the Tennessee ; and 
likewise for improving the navigation of the Coosa, Cahawba, and Black- 
Warrior rivers. 

Education. 

An institution styled tfie Univerrity tfihe SUUe qf Alabama, was estob- 
Kshed by an act of the General Assembly of December 18, 1819, and 
iacorporated by a supplementary act passed December 18, 1820. By an 
Mt of Congress of March 2, 1819, oae section of land (640 acres) was 
granted to the iidiahitattts of each township for the use of schools, and ft 
feetions, or two townships, for the support of a seminary of learning. TIm 
ftmds of flie University consist of the proceeds of these lands. According^ 
to a report of -the President of the Board of Trustees, dated January 14» 
VSO, 21,845 75 acres bad been sold for the sum of #804,651 06, of which 
flIl,71ft59ihadbeeMfnvestedin6per cent, stock; and 94^284-25 aeiee 
ramtined unsold. The son «f #81,664 7# iMd been «ipended upon itm 



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896 MiBSiaMPPi* 

GoUege buildings, which are situated a ndle from the town of Tuscaloosa, 
but are not yet finished. ^ 

La Grange College, in Franklin county, was. incorporated in January, 
1880 ; but it has not received any public endowment. Twenty-ibur aeade' 
mies have been incorporated in the state. 



XVII. MISSISSIPH. 



This state was included within the country which was discovered and 
possessed by the French, who formed a settlement at JVaichez about the 
year if 16; but in 1763, it wats ceded to the English, with the rest of the 
French possessions to the east of the Mississippi. 

There were but few inhabitants within the present limits of this state 
before the end of the last century. In 1798, the country was erected into a 
territorial government ; and in 1817, into an independent state. 

GoVERirORS 

Under iJie Territorial Government, 

Winthrop Sargent, appointed 1798 | Robert Williams, appointed 1805 
Wm. C. C. Claiborne, do. 1802 { David Holmes, do, 1809 

Under the Constitution, 



David Holmes, elected 1817 

George Poindextei, do, 1819 
Walter Leake, do, 1821 



David Holmes, elected 1826 

Gerard C. Brandon, do, 1827 



OUTLINSS OF TH« C05STlTUTIOW. 

The Constitution of this state was formed at the town of Washington, 
in August, 1817. ^ 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and a House of Representa* 
tives, which are together styled TAe General Asiembly of the State of 
Mssissippu 

The representatives are elected annually on the first Monday in August, 
in the ratio of one to every 8,000 white inhabitants. Each county, how- 
ever, is entitled to one ; and the present whole number is 8$. According, 
to the Constitution, when the number of white inhabitants exceeds 80,000, 
the number of representatives cannot be less than 86, nor more than 100. 

The members of the Senate are elected for three years, one third being 
chosen annually. Their number cannot be less than one fourth, nor mme 
than one third of the whole niunber of representatives. 



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MISSISSIPPI. 337 

The execotlTe power is vested in s Goremor, who is elected by tiie 
people, for two jtma^ on the first Monday in August. At every eleC'* 
tion of Governor, a Lieutenant Governor is also chosen, who is Prestdent 
of Ae Senate, and on whom the executive duties doTolve in case of the 
death, resignation, or absence of the governor. 

The General Assembly meets (.at Jackson) annually on the ^rst Monday 
in November. 

The right of suffrage is granted to every free, white, male citizen of 
the United States, of the age of 21 years or upwards, who has resided 
within this state one year next preceding an election, and the last six 
months within the county, city, or town in which he offers to vote, and is 
enrolled in the militia thereof, unless exempted by law from military ser- 
vice ; or having the aforesaid qualifications of citizenship and residence* 
has paid a state or county tax. 

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, and such superior and 
iuferior courts of law and equity, as the legislature may, from time to time, 
establish. The judges of the several courts are elected by the General 
Assembly* and hold their offices during good behavior, till the age of 65 
yejtfs. 

GOVERJTMENI. 

Salary. 
Gerard C. Brandon, Governor; (last elected on the first Mon- ) aa k/wi 

dayinAugust, 1829; installed January 9, 1830) . . j ^^»ow 

Abraham M. Scott* Ideutenant Governor; — ^Pay $6 a day 

during the session of the Legislature. 
John A. Grimban, Secretary of State, . . ♦ . . 1,200 
James Phillips, SMe TYeaaur^, . . , , . 1,000 
H.G. Runnels, Jiwiitor of PtMic Aeeotmts, . • . 1,000 
JBL M. Gaines, Attorney General, 1,000 

' JUOXCIAKT. 

Court of Chancery. 

Salary. 
John A. Quitman, Chancellor, .... $2,000 

Supreme Court, 

Edward Turner, Chief Justice, .... 2,000 

Joshua Child, Associate AuHee, . . 2,000 

John Black, do, ... * 2,000 

James R. Nicholson, do, ... 2,000 

Hany Cage, do, .... 2,000 

CireuU Courts. 

The state is divided into five districts, in which the judges of the Su- 
pieme Court seferally hold Circuit Courts. These courts have original 



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838 MISSISSIPPI. 

JiuifdictioD in all cases where the sum in dis{rate exceeds $60 ; and appd-^ 
late jurisdiction from the eourts of the justices of the peace, when the sum 
exceeds $20. They are also invested with criminal jurisdiction, except in 
the County ofAdam$i which has a court exclusively of ctiminal jurisdic* 
tioo, of which the present judge is John M, Maury : salary $800. 

Probate and County Courts, 

There are in every county a Probate Court and-a County Court, the judges 
of which have no salary, but are paid by fees and' by an allowance of $3 a 
day. The County Court is composed of three judges, of which the Probate 
Judge is the presiding justice. This court has jurisdiction over all offences 
committed by slaves ; and for such trials it is vested with the powers which 
usually belong to courts of oyer and terminer. It has appellate jurisdiction 
from the courts of the justices of the peace, when the sum involved does 
not exceed $20. 

Baitk. 

The Bank of Mississippi, at Natchez, capital $1,000,000. This bank, 
the only one in the state, has three branches in different places. The 
£vidends for the.last six years have been, oi^ an average, more than 11 per 
eent. per ann%im. 

Education. 

Jefferson College, at Washington, was established in 1802, and has re- 
ceived liberal endowments in public lands from the federal government. It 
is pleasantly situated ; the buildings are large and commodious ; the course 
of study is similar to that of West Point ; and the number of cadets or 
students in 1830, was 98. 

There are other seminaries in different parts ; and although an interest 
in education is manifested in the different counties, yet no system of pri- 
maiy schools has been adopted. The state has a Literary Fund amount- 
ing, at present, to $27,800, derived from the donation of the general 
government, rents of lands, three per cent, on all sales of public lands» 
fioes, forfeitures, &c. But no portion of it is available till it shall amount 
to 550,000. 

INDIANS. 

The whole number of acres of land within this state is computed at 
80,206,800, of which 15,700,000 acres are still claimed by the Indians; 
11,643,275 were, in 1824, at the disposal of the national government ; the 
remainder being 2^63,525. The tribes of Indians within the chartered 
Umito of the state are the Choetaws^ estimated at from 20,000 to 26,000 ; and 
the Chickasaws, computed at abou( 4,000. 



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LOUISIANA. 



XVm. LOUISIANA. 



Ths state of Louisiana comprises the southern part of an eztenslTe 
country, which was purchased by the United States of France, in 1808, for 
the sum of $15,000,000. 

The river Mississippi was discovered in 1678, by Marquette and Joliette, 
two French missionaries ; in 1682, the country was explored by La Salle, 
and named Loui^na, in honor of Louis XIV ; in 1699, a French settle- 
ment was begun at Iberville ; and in 1717, New Orleans was founded. 

The country now forming the state of Louisiana, was separated from 
the rest in 1804, and called the Territory of Orleans ; and in 1812, it 
was admitted into the Union as an independent state, by the name of 
Louisiana. 

Governors. 

Under the Territorial Government. 

William C. C. Claiborne, appointed 1804. 

Under the Constitution, 



Wm. C. C. Claiborne, elected 1812 
James Yillere, do, 1816 

Thomas B. Robertson, do, 1820 
H. S. Thibodeaux, Acting Gov, 
Henry Johnson, elected 1824 



Peter Derbigny, elected 1828 

[died Oct. 6, 1829.] 

A. Bauvais, Mting Gov. 1829 

Jacques Dupr^, do. 1880 



Outlines of the CoNSTiTutioN. 

Hie Constitution of this state was formed in 1812. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Repres^ta- 
fives, both together styled The General Assembly of the State of 
Louisiana, 

The representatives are elected for two years on the first Monday, 
Tuesday, and Wednesday in July. Their number cannot be less than 25, 
nor more than 50 ; and they are apportioned according to the number of 
electors, as ascertained by enumeration every four years. 

The members of the Senate are elected for four years ; one half being' 
diosen every two years, at the time of the election of the representativee. 
The state is divided into 16 ^natorial districts, in each of which one senatCHr 
is chosen. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected for the 
term of four years. The people give their votes for a governor at the time 
and place of voting for representatives and senators ; and on the second day 
of the succeeding session of the General Assembly, the two Houses, by a 
Joint ballot, elect for Governor, one of the two candidates who have tfie 
greatest number of votes. The Governor's term of office commences on 
the fourth Monday succeeding his election. 



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%iO I.017iaiANA. 

The General Anemlrfy meeti (since 1S29, at DanaUUon or DonaiUUon' 
mOt) annually, on the firet Monday in Januaiy ; except in the yean of 4ho 
eleeOon of Preii4ent of the United Stalea, when it neots on the 8d Meoday 
in November. 

Hie light of suffiage ia poaseued by every white* m^e citixen of tlw 
Unitied Statea, of the age of 21 yeaia, who has feaided in the county in 
which he offeia to vote one year next preceding the election* and who in 
the laat aiz months prior to sa&d election has paid a state tax. 

The judiciary power ia vested in a Supreme Court, which possesses ap*> 
peUate jurisdiction only, and such inferior courts as the legislature may 
establish. The judges are appointed by the Governor, with the advice and 
consent of the Senate* and hold their offices duriDg good behavior. 

'^ GOVXHNMENT. 

Jacques Dupr^, AcHng Chvemor, [In July, 1^0, A. B. Roman re- 
ceived a plurality of votes for Governor ; election to take place in January, 
1831.] Governor's salary $7,500. 

G. A. Waggoman, Secretary qf SlateA Alonzo Morphy, Attorney General 
F. Gardere, Treanurer. \ Louis Bringier, Surveyor CfeneraL 



Senate, 



P. Lacoste, 
F. Burthe, 

C. Derbigoy, 
S. Hiriart, 

L. Chenevert, 
J. BosMer, 

D. Randall, 
A. Leblanc, 



Ist Senat. District. 
2d do. 

8d do. 

Iberville 6o, 
Point Coupee. 
German Coast. 
Acadia. 

La Fourche Co. 
The present number of representatives is 50. Pay 
both Houses, $4 a day each, during attendance. 



— Gilmore, 
D. B. Morgan, 

— Bossier, 
Jacques Dupr^, 
G. Chretien, 

J. Kerr, 
J. A. Smith, 
Isaac Thomas, 



East Baton Rouge. 
St. Tammany. 
Natchitoches. 
Opelousas. 
Attakapas. 
Concordia. 
Feliciana. 
Rapides, 
of the members of 



Judiciary. 

George Matthews, Francis X. Martin, 

Ju^t nfthe Crimmal Court of the CUy ofJ^ew Orleans. J. W. Smithi 



Judges of the Supreme Court. 
Alexander Porter. 



Joshua Lewis, 
Isaac Baldwin 



Dittrict Courts. 

Seth Lewis, 
Heniy A. BulUrd^ 
L H. Overton, 
Clark Woodruff, 



1st District 



5th District 
6th do. 



7th 
8th 



do. 
do. 



Benjamin Winchester, 2d do. 
Charles Burimell, 8d do. 

Lewis Esoault, 4th do, 

The^tiprsme Court sits in the city of J^ew Orleans, for the 
District of the stote, during the montha of November, December, Jsmau^ 



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LOUIBIAITA. 



241 



FrimuHry, M arcb, April, May, Jmae, and July ; and for fhe Nortiiem tXaMctt 
mt Ofielotua$ and jiUmkapa^, during the menths of August, September, 
and. October. The DUtriet Courts, with the exception of the courts in the 
First District, hold, in each parish, two sessions daring the year, to tiy 
causes originally instituted before them, and appeals from the Parish Courts. 
The Parish Courts hold their regular sessions in each parish on the first 
Monday in each month. The courts in the First District, composed of the 
District, PariNh, and Criminal Courts, and Courts of Probate, are in session 
during the whole year, excepting the months of July, August, September, 
and October, in which they hold special courts when necessary. 



Banks. 

Bank of Louisiana, 

Consolidated Association of the Planters of 
Louisiana Bank, at New Orieans, with 
branches at Baton Rouge, Donaldson, 
Opelousas, Alexandria, and St Francis- 
ville, (5200,000 each) . 

Louisiana State Bank . 

Bank of Orleans 



New Orieans, 



do. 



do. 
do. 



Capiul. 
$4,000,000 



2,000,000 



2,000,000 
600,000 



$8,500,000 
^% The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit 
ztJVlsw Orleans, 

Sugar Caxe. 
Louisiana has invested in the cultivation of the sugar cane about 
J[S0,O00,00O. Assuming 50,000 hhds. as an average crop, the sugar and 
molasses will give about 10 per cent, on the amount of capital employed. 
From this, however, various expenses are to be deducted, which will re- 
duce the net profit to about 5 per cent. 

COMMXRCB OF NXW OllI.EAirs. 

Imports into JVhw Orleans from the Interior during Six Years, 



Articles, 


1824 


1825 


1826 


1827 


1828 


1829 


Bacon, assorted, 


hhds. 


349 


1,210 


470~ 


1,533 


3,097 


2,868 


Bft^gi"0) 


piecesy 


4,562 


6,191 


5,299 


2,795 


5,972 


13,472 


Butter, . 


, ke^Sf 


1,868 


2,] 3D 


2,926 


4,561 


3,860 


3,995 


Beef, . 


barrels. 


732 


1,242 


1,203 


1,792 


5,622 


5,405 


Beeswax, 


do. 


295 


503 


560 


603 


770 


795 


Buffalo rubes, 


lbs. 


12,009 


18,411 


7,740 


13,412 


19,987 


15,210 


Cotton, . 
Stock, 


. balesy 


142,575 


206,993 


251,983 


337,934 


298,042 


269,571 


do. 


1,501 


3,737 


3,030 


11,171 


4,365 


5,557 


Corn meal, 


. barrelSf 


4,727 


3,420 


729 


1,827 


496 


6,849 


Corn in ears, 


do. 


57,351 


72,563 


143,373 


79,973 


89,876 


91,882 


Flour, 


da. 


100,929 


140,546 


]29,094 


131,096 


152,593 


157,323 


Lard, . . 


kegst 


18,210 


34,373 


51,053 


85,865 


115,535 


110,206 


Pig lead, . 


barrelSf 


45,454 


58,479 


86,242 


106,405 


183,712 


146,203 


Lin seed oil, 


191 


622 


708 


1,723 


2,637 


2,940 


Deer skins, 


packs, 


3,863 


4,820 


11,693 


4,169 


3,160 


6,215 


Bear skins. 


do. 


168 


396 


161 


253 


155 


159 


Tobacco, 


. hhds. 


S,573 


18,409 


19,385 


21,704 


30,224 


29,432 


Stock, . 


do. 


647 


1,332 1 1,862 


6,442 


64d 


4,239 



21 



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tif LOmSIAllA. 

and MabiU,fi^ nme mamihs in 18M and in 1890, ending June 80. 

N. Orleaaf. SftmiMh. Ckarletton. Mobile. 

1929 307,8«8 209,969 106,T62 fie,7dO 

1880 802.S92 199,808 186,067 71,5]» 



510,720 405,762 294,819 120,298 

The number of BUamrhoaU built, to nm upon the Mississippi and its uop 
meious tnbutanes, from 1811 to the early part of the year 1830, is stated at 
886 ; the number actually running in 1830, 213. 

Educatioit. 

There are colleges at Jackson and New Orleans. In 1827, the legida- 
ture made a grant to each parish in the state of $2,62i to every voter, to 
be applied to the education of the indigent ; the amount for any one parish 
BOt to eiceed $1,350» nor to UXi short of $800. In consequence of this 
act nearly $40,000 are annually appropriated to the education of the poor. 



XIX. TENNESSEE. 

Thb earliest settlements in this state were made between the years 
1765 and 1770, by emigrants from North Carolina and Virginia. 

The counti^*- was included within the limits of North Carolina till 1790, 
when it was placed under a separate territorial government, under the name 
of the *•' Territory South of the Ohio 'V and in 1796, the inhabitant^ 
formed ^ Constitution, and Tennessee was admitted into the Union as 
an independent state. 

GovsRifom. 

Wm» Bloont, Oovemor of die Territoiy South of thsOfaio, egjipoinied 1790. 

Under the Constitution, 



John Sevier, elected 1796 

Achibald Roane, do. 1801 

John Sevier, do, 1803 

Wilje Blount, do. 1809 



Joseph McMinn, elected 1816 

William Caroll, do. 1821 

Samuel Houston, do. 1827 

William Caroll, dd. 1829 



OuTLiirjcs or the Constitution. 

The Constitution of this state was formed, at Knoxville, in 1796. 

The legislative authority is vested in a General '.Assembly , consisting of 
a Senate and House of Representatives ; and the members of both houses 
are elected biennially on the first Thursday and Friday in Augusts 

The number of representatives is 60, who are apportioned among thi^ 
different counties according to ths> number of taxable inhabitants* - Ths 

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nniQhirofteiiMQTi ctnnotbeJoM thin ono ihlrd^ not mote t^asoMM^ 
of the number of representatives. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected at the 
iUBe time witii the senators and representatives ; and who holds his office 
for the term of two years, but is not eligiUe more than six yearn in ai^ 
term of eight. , 

The General Assembly meets (at NaahviUe) biemwilly, on the third 
lf<mday in September, next following the election ; and it may be tafied 
together, if necessary, at other times by the governor. 

Ttite right of suffrage is granted to every freeman of the age of 21 yewt, 
possessing a freehold in the county where he offers his vote, and tO 
every freeman who has been an inhabitant of any one county in the state 
six months immediately preceding the day of election. 

The judiciary power is vested in such superior and inferior courts, as the 
leglalature may, from time to time, direct and establish. The judges are 
appointed by a joint ballot of both Houses, and hold their offices duiing 
good behavior. 

OovERMteEirT. 

William CaroD, Oovemor j (term of office expires October 1, 1881) ; 
salary $2,000. 

Senate ; — elected in Jiugust, 1829^ 

Joel Walker, Speaker. John F. Gillespie. John D. Love. 

Jared S. Allen. George Graves. William Lytle. 

David Burford. James J. Greene. Abraham McClellan. 

James Campbell. Joseph Johnson. Samuel G. Smith. 

Newton Cannon. Isaac Holman. John Tipton. 

Martin Cleaveland. Adam Huntsman. Jonathan Webster.. 

Heniy Fray. Edward B. Litehfietd. 

Pay of the senators and representatives variable from jf^**^^ ^ $2fi0 K 
day. 

JUBICIARY. 

Supreme Court of Errors and Appeals, 

Saluy. 

BobertWhyte, Judge, $1,M* 

John Catron, do, . . » • 1>800 

Jacob Peck, do 1,800 

Chaneettors. Nathan Green, and W. A. Cook.— Salary ^1,500 each. 

Judges of the Circuit Cowrfs.— Salaiy 5i|800 each. 

Samuel Powell. J. C. MitchfJl. J. C. Hamillon. 

Edward Scott Thomas Stuart. Joshua Haskefl. 

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Tmrnm^BME, 



GtedM F. KMk. WHHiM E. K«niMdj. WiBltm B. Pdriflf 

N. W. Wniiaait. P. W. lUmpkiici. 



/« The Bulk of the Ui^ted States hit aa Office of Disooont and Dqioclt 
UJVhihmUe. 

EDVCATIOir. 

TTie piincipil literaiy teinioaries in thia atate are die Nashville Univer- 
sity, at Nashville ; East Tennessee College, at Knoxville ; Greenville Col- 
lege, at Greenville; and the Southern and Western Theological Seminaiy* 
ttMaiyville. 



XX. KENTUCKY. 



The first permanent settlement of this state was begun on Kentucky 
liver, in 1775, by Colonel Daniel Boone. The country formed a part of 
the state of Virginia till 1790 ; and in 1792, it was admitted into the UnioQ 
as an independent state. 

GOTKRirOKS. 



Isaac Shelby, elecUd 1792 

James Garrand, do. 1796 

Christopher Greenup, do. 1804 

Charles Sco^, do. 1808 



Geoi^ Madison, elected 1816 

Gabriel Slaughter, (act. Oov.) 1816 

John Adair, elected 1820 

Joseph Desha, do. 1824 



Isaac Shelby, do. 1812 j Thomas Metcalfe, do. 182S 

OuTLnrKs or the CoNSTirunoir. 

On the separation of Kentucky from Virginia, in 1790, a Constftntkm was 
adopted lyhich continued in force till 1799, when a new one was formed 
instead of it ; and this is now in force. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, which together are styled 7^ Cfenertd Assembly of the Common' 
weaUh of EerUueky. ^ 

The representatives are elected annually, and are apportioned, every 
four years, among the different counties according to the niunber of electors. 
-Their present number is 100, which is the highest number that the Con- . 
stitution authorizes ; 58 being the lowest. 

The senators are Elected for four years, one quarter of them being chosen 
annually. Their present number is 88 ; and they cannot exceed this num- 
ber, nor fall short of 24. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected for four 
years, and is ineligible for the succeeding seven years after the expiration of 



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m 



Ms term 0f office* At ttm deeUon of Ovremorv « UetrtetaMl €k>v«ffidr is 
idso ehosM, who is Spe«ki^r of tin SeiAtto^ miH oik whom the itotl^ \tt 
ihe Goremor devolve, in caso of hfs abflMbe or nemov&l. 

The representatives and one quarter of the members of the senate are 
elected annually by the people, on the first Monday in August ; the 
governor is elected by the peoptei ev«ry foorA year, at the same time ; and 
^ he commences the execution of his office on the fourth Tuesday succeed- 
ing the day of the commencement of the election at whieh he ife choseili 
The polls are kept open three days ; and the votes are given opettty^ ot 
9hd voce, and not by ballot. 

Hie General Assembly meets (at Frankfinrt) annually on the first Moit* 
day in November. 

The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to every free, male citizen 
(people of color excepted), who has attained the age of 21 years, and has 
resided in the state two years, or in the county where he offers his vote* 
One year, next preceding the elation. 

The judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court, st3^ed the Court of 
Appeals, and iasuch inferior courts as the General Assembly may, fi'om- tioac 
to time, erect and establish. The judges of the different courts and justices 
of the peace, hold their ^Kcefi during good behavior. 

Executive and LeqisiiAture. 

Salary. 
Thomas Metcalfe, Chvemor ; (term of office expires in Sept. 1832.) ^[2^000 

John Breathitt, Lieut. Gov. and Speaker of the Senate — Pay 
$4 a day while presiding over the Senate. 



Thomas T. Crittenden, 
Peter Clay, 
John M. Foster, 
James Davidson, 



Secretary of State, - - tSO 

JIuditor of Public Accounts^ - 1,500 

BegiateroftJieLand Office, • 1,600 

Tieasurer, - - - - 1,20^ 



Senate, 



One year. 
'Wm. P. Fleming 
Bern. Hardin 
l)avid K. Harris 
John Hughes 
Wm. McMillan 
John Rodman 
Francis Summers 
Robert Taylor 



Two years. 
James Allen 
Samuel Casey 
John Fatilkner 
Willis Green 
John Griffin 
R. D. Aifoupin 
John C. Ray 
Benj. Selby 
J. Bv Thompson 
Garrett Wall 
S. i. Williams 
dyrti§ Wingate 



Three years. 
James Campbell 
Robert George 
Wra. C. Payne 
Chr. A. Rudd 
L. J. Stephens 
J. R. Thornton 
R. Wickliffe 
Wm. Wood 



Pour years. 
J. 0. Bayseman 
John B. Bibb 
Wm. G. Boyd 
Geo. I. Brown 
■ Wm. Conner 
Wm. Cunningham 
Jas. Dejamett 
R. S. Dougherty 
Henry Owsley 
James Parks 



21* 



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ThMeintfatfirttctlnMilwveMft ymrimw&Bm in tae feeond, S ; la 
lh«lliird, 9 ; umI in te frarth, 4. The Motton and representatives, ro- 
eeire ft each for erery day'a attendanee, and $2 for erery 20 roilea* trardL 

JuniciAiir, 



George Robertion» 
Joieph R. Underwood, 
Richard A. Buckner, 
\ W. Denny, 



Chief JusHeCt - 
Second Judge, 
Third do, 
JUtomey Oeneralf 

CfhreuU Courts. 



Sftlaiy* 

»1,600. 
1,500 
1,600 
400 



TTie state is divided into 15 districts for the holduig of the Circuit Courts. 
Hie Circuit Judges, who receive a salary of $1,000 each, are as follows. 



William P. Roper, 
H. P. Brown, - 
Thomas M. Hickey, 
Daniel Mayes, - 
Henry Pictle, 
H. P. .Brodnax, 
Benj. Shackleford, 
Beoj. Monroe, - 



1«( District, 
2d do. 
Sddo. 
4th do. 

- bthdo. 
6th do. 

- 7th do. 
8th do. 



William L. Kelly, 
Richard French, - 
S. W. Robbins, 
J. L. Bridges, 
P.I.Booker, - 
Alney McLean, - 
Joseph Eve, - 



9ihDisirUL 

10th do. 

nth do, 

i2th do. 

I9th do. . 

Uth do. 

I5th do. 



County Courts are held by justices of the peace, who are paid by fees. 
Any three justices of the peace may hold a court once in every month, ex- 
cept the month when the Circuit Court is held. 

Baiou. 

The Bank of the United States has Offices of Disconnt and Deposit at 
Lexington and LouisviUe. 

There are two banks chartered by the state, namely, the Bank of £cn- 
tucky and the Bank of the Commonwealth of Kentucky^ at Frankfort, 
formerly having branches in other places ; but they have withdrawn 
all their branches, and are now winding up their accounts. The state owns 
a part of the stock of the former of the two banks, and the whole of th^t of 
flie latter. 

Taxes. 

Amomito taxable property in the state, m lanos, slaves, houses, car« 
liages, &c., according to returns made to the auditor, $104,647,790, pay- 
ing a tax of 6| cents on $100; yielding, • - J66,404 83 
Tax on studs according to income ; 1,375 in number, - 4,100 72 
Tax on tavern-keepers, $10 each ; 348 m number, • - 8,490 00 



Total tax |f72,995 55 



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PBlimiTIAKT AXO HmKTAUI. 

The state Penitentiary, at Frankfort, contained, in September, li80, 
101 convicts. This institution was formerly an expense to the state ; but 
since 1825, under the management of its present lieeper (Mr. Joel Scott)» 
it has more than supported itself. 

At Lexington there is a Lunatic JUylum ; at DanviUe, an Jteyhim for 
tte Detfand Dumb; at LoidsviUe and Smifliland, on die Ohio, HoipitaU 
for sick and disabled boatmen. 

IlTTSBNAIi Im PBOTXMXHT. 

A canal about 2 miles long, around the Falls of the Ohio, at LouisriHe, is 
in progress, and is expected to be completed before the end of the year 
1880. Of the Turnpike Road (macadamized), from Maysville to Lexing- 
ton, 5 miles are now completed, and the greater part of the remainder is 
under contract A rail road is also projected from Lexington to the Ohio. 

EnucATioir. 

^ Transylvania University at Lexington (containing, in 1830, 143 under- 
graduates, 62 in the preparatory department, 200 medical students, and 
19 law students), is patronized by the state ; St. Joseph's College, at Bards- 
toWn (150 students), by the Catholics ; Centre College, at Danville, by the 
Presbyterians ; Augusta College, at Augusta (35 students), by the Meth- 
odists ; Cumberland College, at Princeton, by the Cumberland Presbyteri- 
ans; and Georgetown College, at Georgetown (35 students), by the 
Baptists. I 

. Many years since the state appropriated 6,000 acres of land for the 
purpose of endowing an academy in each county ; but the appropriations 
have been, for the most part, so managed, that little public benefit has 
been derived from them. The legislature has several times taken steps 
towards introducing a system of common schools ; but nothing effectual 
has yet been accomplished. A Literary Fund was created, some years 
^nce, from a portion of the profits arising fi-om the Bank of the Common- 
wealth ; but unfortunately the state has of late been annually encroaching 
upon this Fund to defray the public expenses. 



XXI. OHIO. 

Tmm first pennanent settlement of Ohio' was commenced at Marietta, in 
1788; in 1789, the country was put under a territorial government* and 
catted the Western Temfai;y» which nain^ was afterwards altered ta the 
TerritiMry J^Torthwest of the Ohio ; and in 1802, it was erected into an inde- 
pendent state. 



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MB •in». 

CoYiBiiiroiit. 
Itd9 Arfliur St Clair, Qotemot till the end of the territoria] goremment 

Vhder the OtfMtitution, 



Edward Tiffin, eUeUd 1808 

Thomas Kirker, Acting Chv. 1807 
Samuel Hunting, elected 1808 
Return J. Meig^, do. 1810 

Othniel Looker, jicting Gov. 1814 



Thomas Worthington^ ekcted 1814 
Ethan Allen Brown, d&* 1818 
Allen Trimble, Mimg Got, 1822 
Jeremiah Morrow, , elected 1822 
Allen Trimble, do, 1826 



OuTitursfl OF TMB (Zonntirvtum. 

The Constitation of this state was formed, at ChilUcothe, in 1802. 

The legislative power is yested in a Senate and House of Representa- 
fivte,, which together are styled The Oenerat Assembly of the State of 
Ohio. 

The representatives are elected annually on the second Tuesday in Oc- 
tober ; and they are apportioned among the counties according to the num- 
ber of white, male inhabitants above 21 years of age. Their number cannot 
be less than 86, nor more than 72. 

The senators are chosen biennially, and are apportioned according to the 
number of white, male Inhabitants of 21 years of age. Their number can- 
not be less than one third, nor more than one half of the number of repre- 
sentatives. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the 
people for two years, on the second Tuesday in October ; and his term of 
service commences on the first Monday in December. 

The General Assembly meets annually (at Colttmbus), on the first Mon- 
day in December. 

The right of suffrage is granted to all white, male inhabitants, above the 
age of 21 years, who have resided in the state one year next preceding the 
election, and who have paid, or are charged with a state or county tax. 

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, in Courts of Common 
Pleas for each county, and su6h other courts as the legislature may, from 
time to time, establish. The judges are elected by a joint ballot of both 
Houses of the General Assembly for the tenn of 7 years. 

Altea IVimble, Qaeemari (term 4f ofi^e ft^pit^ <m ^vt flMt Mondijr in 
December, 1880) ; ndary- |lli20a. 

The aettMors i86) and i%pifes6ntafiv« (12) ret5eiv6 $^ a day each, and 
9 dents a taUe for travel. 



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OHIO* 



^ 



Peter Hitchcock, 
Joshua Collet, 
EiyfOk Hayward, 
Heoiy Bru^, 



JVOIOIABT. 

Supreme OourL 

Chief Judge, 
jieeoeiate Judge, 

do. 

do. 

Courte of Common Pleae, 



»1,200 
1,200 
14M)0 
1,200 



For die holding of the Courts of Common Pleas^ the state is divided into 
Dine districts or circuits, in each of wliich there is a presiding judge, who 
holds annually three courts in each county within liis district. The salary of 
each of these judges is $ 1 ,000. The names of the present presiding judges 
are as follows. 



George B Holt, 


1st Circuit 


George I. Smith, 


6lh Circuit. 


F. A. Grimk^, 


2d do. 


E. Lane, 


7th do. 


Reuhen Wood, 


8d do. 


Thomas Irwin, 


6th do. 


Alexander Harper, 


4th do. 


G. P. Torrence, 


9th do. 


J. H. Hallock, 


5th do. 







These judges are severally assisted hy three associate judges in each 
county, who receive $2 a day during their attendance at court. 

Banks. 

The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Deposit at 
Cincinnati ; and under the authority of the state are the following banks, 
namely, the Banks of ChiUicothe, Jifarietta, SL ClairamUe, SteubenvUle, 
JiiowU Plecuant, and Canton; Franklin Bank of Columbus, at Columbus; 
Lancaster Ohio Bank, at iMncaster; Urbana Banking Company, at Uf' 
bona; Bank of Scioto, at Portsmouth; and Western Reserve Bank, at 
Warren, 

The actual capital of the banks chartered by the state, which differs much 
fiom their nominal capital, cannot be easily ascertained, as they are not 
obliged by law to publish the state of their funds. 

InrmKNAi, Improvkmknt. 

The governor of Ohio, in his Address to the legislature, at a late sesiiokiy 
gives the following view of the progress of internal improvement, and of 
the finances of the state. 

<' The great woric of internal communication in this state [the Canal from 
tiie Oliio to Lake Erie] advances towards completion with a firmness com- 
mensuiate with its grandeur, and the interests it is intended to prooiote. 
The residue of the entire line of Canal is now under contraet, to be 



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pletod in 1881. Ai the woik hat progrefsed towardt its Southern tenni- 
qation, the benefit! of nayigation from the Lake have been extended into 
the interior, and lenaibly felt It has now advanced near to Newarlc, a 
dbtance of 180 mUes ; it may be expected to approach ChilHcothe in 1880, 
and in the following year to tiie Ohio river ; matdng with the Mami CanaX, 
now completed, 375 miles of artificial canal navigation in the state." 

" There remained in tHe treasury of Ohio on the Idth of November last, 
5159,260 ; $90,000 thereof, being a School Fund, is drawing 6 per cent, 
interest. This fund, the interest upon which is guarantied by the state, is 
daily increasing ; and, by the first of January next, will probably amount to 
(160,000. The Sinking Fund $60,000 remains unimpaired; to which 
may be added the suri^us revenue of 1829 and 1830, say .$30,000 ; making 
a totid of $240,000, that will rem^n in the treasury.*' 

The Miami Canal, which is completed from Cindnnati to Dayton, ^ 
miles, has 22 locks, and cost $746,000, about $11,000 a mile, tt exfeitds 
ttnmi^ Hm richest portion el the state, and is the channel of an exteBsiye 
trader 

Statistics or Ohio. [From (he ** Ohio State Journal.*'] 

/ 1826. 1829. 

Quanaty of land (assessed) . . aere9 13,763,574 15,878,171 

Value of lands and buildings . • . $35,217,035 41,193,000 

Value of town lots and buildings . , 4,082,114 8,230,985 

Horses (No. 1826, 131,956; 1829, 175,319) Value 4,878,240 7,012,760 

CatUe (No. 1826,262,544; 1829,719,596) do. 2,028,852 5,756,768 

Merchants' Capital .... 2,162,118 8,950,156 

Carriages (Number, 137) Value . . 25,310 

State Tax 106,669 198,609 

County Tax .... 187,563 173,903 

Road Tax 91,846 71,9S0 

Township Tkx .... 22,231 62,096 

School Tax 19,613 47,892 

EnUCATION. 

The principal literary seminaries in this state are the University 6f Ohio, 
at Athens ; Miami University, at Oxfoid ; Western Reserve College, at 
Hudson ; Kenyon College, at Gambier ; and the Medical College of Ohio, 
at Cincianati. ^ 

In 1825, a law was passed by which a tax of one twentieth of one per 
cent.^ or a half mill on a dollar, estimated ad valorem upon the general 
jtax list of the 6tate» was levied and appropriated to the support of c 
schools. 



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XXII. INDIANA. 

YixcBMXBS, io Indiana, was settled by French emig;caats from Canada^ 
near the beginning of the last century, and long remained a solitary yillage. 
But few settlements were made in the country till the commencement of 
the present century ; since which time its increase in population has been 
very rapid. 

Ift 1800, Indiana was erected into a territorial f^vemment ; m 181€, its 
Constitution was formed, and it was admitted into the Union as an indfi*^ 
pendent state. ^ 

GOTSBNORS, 

Wifliam H. Harrison, appointed Governor of Indiana Territory* 1800. 

Under the Constitution* 
Jonathan Jennings, elected 1816 1 James B. Ray, elected 182& 

William Hendricks, do. 1822 1 

Outlines of the Constitution. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the 
people for a term of three years, and may be once reelected. At eveiy 
election of Governor, a Lieutenant Governor is also chosen, who is Presi- 
dent of the Senate, and on whom, in case of the death, resignatioii, or 
lemovsil of the governor, the powers and duties of governor devolve. 

The legislative authority is vested in a General Jiseembly, consisting of 
a Senate, the members of which are elected for three years, and a House 
of Representatives, elected annually. 

The number of representatives can never be less than 36, nor more than 
100 ; and they are apportioned among the several counties according to 
the number of white, male inhabitants above 21 years of age. The num-^ 
her of senators, who are apportioned in like manner, cannot be less than one 
dnrd, nor more than one half of the number of representatives. 

The representatives and one third of the members of the senate, aie electa 
ed annually on the first Monday in August ; and the Governor is chosen on 
the same day, every third year. 

The General Assembly meets annually (at Indianapolis) on the first 
Monday in December. 

. The right of suffrage is granted to all male citizens of the age of 21 
years or upwards, who may have resided in the state one year immediately 
preceding an election. 

\ The judiciary power is vested in one Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, 
and in such other inferior courts as the General Assembly may establish. 
The Supreme Court consists of three judges ; and each of the Circuit 
Courts consists of a president and two associate judges. The judges are all 



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iq>pototodforthet6iaioffeTeByeari. The juigMoflbeSupmBeCflntara 
^poiatod by tfM goTemor, with the eonsent ef the Seoste ; the fnddtaUm 
of the Cfareoit Courtf , by the legiaktiire ; and the aMOclate judfee vm 
eleeled by the people. 

GoVERirMENT. 

Jtmes B. Ray, Oovemor; (term of office expires the first week io D«-> 
eenber, 1881 ;) saUry 51,000. 

Biilton Slapp, LieutenarU Oovemor; pay $2 a day during the seesioa of 
the General Assembly. 

Member % of the Senate. 
Daniel C.Lane (deeeaeedj John De Pauw John Sering 

John Daniel John M. Lemon William C. Linton 

Thomas Givens Stephen C. Stevens Joseph Orr 

John Ewing John Watts Daniel Worth 

William Graham John T. McKinney Blair 

David H. Maxwell Newton Claypool John G. Clendennin 

Abel Lomax James Gregory David Robb 

Amaziah Morgan Calvin Fletcher - 

The present number of senators is 28 ; representatives, 62. Speakier, 
Ross Smiley. Pay of the members of both Houses $2 a day each. 

Judiciary. 
Judge$ of the Supreme Court ; James Scott, Jesse Holman, and Isaac 
Blackford. Salary of each ^700. 

President Judges qf the Cireuit Courts ; John R. Porter, John Law, 
J. R. E. Goodellet, John F. Ross, B. F. Morris, Miles C. Eggleston, and 
Charles Test Salaiy of each jf^OO. — The Associate Judges receive each 
$2 a day. 

Educatioit. 

A college hat been established at Bloomington, and one 36th part of the 
public lands hat been appropriated for the support of schools. 



XXIII. ILLINOIS. 



This country was explored by La SdUe,, an enterprising French travel- 
ler, in the latter part of the 17th century ; and French settlements were 
formed at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and some other places. Though these set- 
tlements flourished, in some degree, for a time, yet they never became 
very important ; and at the peace of Paris, in 1768, the country to the east 
of die Mississippi was ceded by France to Great Britain. 



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AhMMt til iSkt leCtlenMiiti wbidi iMure %een Ibfmad by the cHiMiif tf 
^b» United States, har* been, begun since 1800. In 1809, ItUaois WM 
«feeled into a territorial government: In 1818, the inhabitants formed a 
constitution, and Illinois was admitted into the Union as an indepOBdent 



GOYSRNOKS. 

Nlidan Edwards appamUd, 1809, Governor of ^e Teoitoiy of UUaois. 

Under the ConsHttUi4m. 
ShadiKh Bond, ' elected 1818 1 Niaian Edwards, elected 182^ 
Edward Coles, do, 1822 1 

Outlives ojr thb Coitstitutioh. 

The legiilatiye authority is Tested in a Oeneral ji$$emblyf consisting of 
a Senate, the members of which are elected for four years ; and of a House 
of Representatiyes, elected biennially. 

** The number of representatives shall not be less than 27, nor more than 
86, until the number of inhabitants within the state shall amount to one 
hundred thousand ; and the number of senators shall never be less than ono 
tidrd, nor more than one half of the number of representatives.*' 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by the 
people for four years ; and he is not eligible for more than four years in any 
term of eight years. At the election of Governor, a Lieutenant Governor 
Is also chosen, who is Speaker of the Senate ; and on whom, in case the 
governor vacaltes his office, the duties of governor devolve. 

The representatives and one half of the senators are elected biennially on 
the first Monday in August ; and the governor is chosen, every fourth year, 
it the same time. 

The General Assembly meets eveiy other year (at Vandalia), on the first 
Monday in the December next following the election ; and the governor 
is authorized to convene it, on extraordinary occasions, at other times. 

An white, male inhabitants, above the age of 21 years, having resided in 
die state six months next preceding an election, have the rights of electors. 

tlie judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, and in such inferiop 
courts as the General Assembly may estabitsh. The judges are appointed 
by a joint ballot of both branches of the General Assembly, and hold their 
offices during good behavior. 

GOVXRITMBVT. 

Minian Edwards, Oovemor; (term of office expires on the first Mon- 
day In December, 1880) ; salary $1,000. 

. The present number of senators is 18 ; repretentatiTes, 96. Pay of each 
rusoally |^9aday. 
28 



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964 iLiiUroit. 

JUBICXA&T. 

Sn^eme Court. 

StlMy 
WimtmWilfOD, - ChufJuttUe, • f 1,000 

Sftmnel D. Lockwood, - Ji$$oeiate Judge^ - • 1,000 

ThomM C. Browne, - 4^. • - - 1,000 

Tbaophilus W. Smitb, - do. • - 1,000 

R. M. Tovng, " Judge for the dremt north ofim- 

nois river. 
The judges of the Supreme Courts ofBdate abo as judges of die Ciieait 
Courts. 

EiH^OAiioir. 

A college has recently been established at JacksonTille, a little' to the 
south of the river lOinois. 



XXIV. MISSOURI. 



Missouri formed a part of the extensive country of Louisiana, which 
was purchased of France by the United States in 1803. Though FrencK 
settlements were commenced at St. Louis and St. Genevieve as early as 
1764, yet at the time when the country was purchased, this portion of it 
contained but few inhabitants. 

In 1804, this country was separated from the rest of Louisiana and erected 
into a territorial government, by the name of the Territory of Louisiana^ 
afterwards altered to the Territory of Missouri ; and in 1821, it was ad- 
mitted into the Union as an independent state. 

Governors. 

Under the Territorial Government. 

James Wi1kinsoO| appointed 1805 | William Clarke, appointed 1818 
Meriwether Lewis, do. 1807 1 / 

Under the Constitution. 
Alexander McNair, elected 1820 I John Miller, elected 1828 

Frederick Bates, do. ISU] 

Outlines of thk Constitution. 

The constitution of diis state was formed at Kaskaskia, in 1820. , 
The legislative power was vested in a General Assemhlyt consisting of 
a Senate and a House of Representatives. . 



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jtissouRi. ^255 

The reprefentatiTef are chosen etery second year. Every county is en- 
titled to at least one representatire ; but the whole number can. never ex- 
ceed 100. 

The senators are elected for four years, the seats of one half bein^ 
vacated every second year. The constitutional number is, not less than 14» 
nor more than 83; They are chosen by districts, and are apportioned ac- 
cerding^to the number of free, white inhabitants. 

The elections for representatives and senators are held biennially on'tha 
first Monday in August 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected for four 
years, on the first Monday in August ; and he is ineligible for the next ibur 
years after the expiration of his term of service. 

At the time of the election of Governor, a Lieutenant Grovemor is also 
chosen, who is, by virtue of his office, President of the Senate. 

The Legislature meets every second year (at the City of Jefferson) , on 
tiie first Monday in November. 

The right of suffi^ge is granted to every white, male citizen, who has 
attained the age of 21 years, and has resided in the state one year before 
an election, the last three months thereof being in the county or district in 
which he offers his vote. 

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, in a Chancellor, Cir- 
cuit Courts, and such other inferior tribunals as the General Assembly may, 
from time to time, establish. 

The judges are appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate ; and they hold their offices during good behavior, 
bat not beyond the age of 65 years. 



GovxRNifKirr. 

John Miller, Governor ; (term of office expires on die 8d Monday 
in November, 1882) ; - - - salary #1,500 

Daniel Dunklin, Lieutenant Ooeemor, 
The present number of Senators, 13 ; Representatives, 49. Pay of the 

Lieutenant Governor, and each of the Senators and Representatives $3 a 

day during the session of the legislature. 

JuniciART. 

Supreme Court, 

Salaiy 
Matthias McGirk, Preeiding Judge, - • - ;f 1,100 

George Tompkins, Assoeiaie Judge, ... 1,100 

Robert Wash, do, ... i^ioo, 



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d56 



JllSSOU&f, 



J9iige$. W. C. C«r, D. Todd, 1. D. Cook; oae tteiney. Salaiy of 
•Mil $1,000. 

«% The Biuik of the UDited States his an Office of Discount and De- 
posit at 51. Lom$. There is no other bank in the state. 

EnvcATioir. 
A eoHego has been foimded in this state, and 9 academies incorporated. 
A portion of the public lands has been granted by Congress for the support 
of schools ; but no provision for education has been made by the legislature 
of the state; except the passing of some laws relating to the lands granted 
by Congress. 



XXV. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Thx District of Columbia is a tract of country 10 miles square, situated 
on both sides of the Potomac, comprising two counties, Washington and 
Alexandria. It was ceded to the United States in 1790, and is under the 
immediate goyemment of Congress. The city of Washington, which is 
included within tliis District, became the seat of the government of tbe 
United Slates in 1810 ; and it is the residence of the President and the other 
chief executive officers, of whom an account has been already given. 

The Congress of the United States meets every year, at Washington, on 
the first Monday in December, unless it is otherwise provided by law» 
(see page 134) ; and the ' Supreme Court of the United States meets here» 
annually, on the second Monday in January (see pages 140 and 144). 

Judiciary. 
The CvrcuU Cowrt for the District of Columbia, is held at Washington 
on the first Monday in May and Uie third Monday in December; and at 
Aksandria on the second Monday in April and the fourth Monday in No- 
vember ; and the Diairiet Court, on the first Mondays in June and De- 
cember. 



Balarr. 
j[2,t00 

2,500 

2,500. 

Fees, 

do. 

do. 





Cfireuit Court. 




WOHam Cranch, 


Washington, 

Diatriet Court. 


Judg 


Wniiam Cranch, 


Washington, 


Chief Judge, 


Bttcknor Thurston, 


do. 


Assistant Judge, 


JimesS. Morsel, 


Georgetown, 


do. 


llkomas Swan, 


*. Washington, 


Attorney, 


Tench Ringgold, 


do. 


Marskta, 


William Brent, 


do. 


Clerk, 



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DWTBICT OP COLOMBIA. JSf 

Samuel Chaae, WashingtoD, . Judge^ do. 

Christopher Neale, Alexandria, do, do. 

Banks. 
^^« The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and De* . 
posit at Washington ; and Jiesidea this, there are 13 other banks in the Dis-' 
trict> at Washington, Geoigetown, and Alexandria. 

EnucATiozr. 

Columbian College, a seminary chiefly under the direction of the Bap- 
tist denomination, is situated near Washington; Georgetown 'College, a 
Roman Catholic institution, at Georgetown ; and an Episcopal Theological 
Seminary in the yicinity of Alexandria, 



XXVI. FLORIDA. 

F1.0RIDA was conquered by the Spaniards as early as 1689. In 1763, it 
was ceded to Great Britain, and divided into East and West Florida ; but 
in 1781, it was again recovered by Spain. 

In 1821, it was ceded by Spain to the United States ; and in 1822 both 
parts, East and West Florida, were formed into one government or prov- 
ince, under the name of The Territory of Florida, 

GOVSRIOCKKT. 

WiUiam P. Duvall, Oovemor, first appointed in 1822 ; reappointed in 

1825 and 1828; salary .... jr2,600^ 

James D. Westcott, Jun., iSSeerefory ; salary • • 1,600 

The Legislative Council consists of 16 members, and meets at TcUlahaS' 

su on the first Monday in January. 



Joseph L. Smith, 
T. Randan, 
H. M. Brackenddge, 
James Webb, 


JUDICIA&T. 

Judge, for the Eastern District, 
do. Middle ^ do. 
do. Western do. 
do. Southfm do. 


Salary. 
«1,600 

1,500 
1,600 


Bank. 
Bank of Florida at T^ahaisee; capital - 


$600,000 


22* 








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9SB mcaiAAir TmamnroxT. ▲mKAiriAt tk&&itost* 

XXVU. idOH^Gtiyif TEmRITORT. 

DsTBorr» the ca^til 6f Midiigui, #m settled by the Fretich about fSbe 
year 1670. In 1806, the countiy was erected by the Congress of ^e United 
States into a separate territorial gofemment ; in 1812, it was taken by the 
British unAer General Brock ; and in 1818, it was reentered by the army 
of the United States under General Harrison. 

Gorxmiroms. 
Wiliam HoH, qppniUed 1806 | Lewis Cass, appointed 1814 

GOVKSNMKIIT. 

Lewis Cass, Governor; salary $2,000 

William Woodbridge, Secretary ; do. 1,000 

The Legislative Council consists of 13 members, who are elected for two 
years. 

Judgee, WilUam Woodbridge, Solomon Sibley, Henry Chapman, and 
James D. Doty. Salary of each 9 1,200. 

Banks. 
Bank of Michigan, and Farmers* and Mechanics* Bank, at Detroit* 



XXVIII. ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 

This country was separated from the Territory [now State] of Missouri, 
in 1819, and erected into a separate government. 

. . GovKBiroKS. 

James MiUec, appointed 1810 i John Pope^ appoinJted 183% 
GMrgeUard, . 4^ ' 1826 1 

GoTxniiMCirr. 

John Pope, Oovemor; salary $2,000 

William Fulton, Secretary; do. 1,000 

There is a L^gM^tiinp CoumU otnaisting jpf five members} and a Housia 
<tf Repteeentatives. ^ompnsng 28 members, irtio are ^ected biespk^ly^ oi^ 
the first Monday in August ; and they meet in the following October. 

Jiidlgef. Bei\|aihbi ^hUirtm; Thomas P. Bskridge, Wmkim f rtaible, 
and J. W. Bates. Sahtry of each 51,200. 



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.•QTUUrOftf. 



im 



GOTE&IIORS OF TS» tlBTXAAI* 0TAmi AKO TfEHaiTOKIB^ 

«0ia f^ C0mmeneememt and S^gpiraHon qf ikeir reipeetht Terwu tif 



\Li«>, 


Jonathan G. Huotoo, 


Jan. 


1880, 


l>ec. 1830. 


New Hampthire, 


Matthew Harvey, 


June, 


1880, 


June, 1831. 


Vennont, 


Samuel C. Crafis, 


Oct. 


1830, 


Oct. 1831. 


Massachusetts. 


Levi Lincob, 


May, 


1830, 


May, 1831. 


Rhode Islcmd, 


James Fenner, 


May, 


1880, 


May, 1881. 


Oonnecticut, 


Gideon Tomlinsoo, 


May, 


1830, 


May, 1831. 


New York, 


Enos T. Throop, AsU Gov, 


March, 1829, 


Dec. 1880. 


New Jersejr, 


Peter D. Vroom, 


Oct. 


1830, 


Oct. 1831. 


PemisylvajQia, 


George Wolf, 


Dec. 


1829, 


Dec. 1882. 


Delaware, 


David Hazzard, 


Jan. 


1880, 


Jan. 1888. 


Maiyland, 


Thomas King CarraU, 


Jan. 


1880, 


Jan. 1831. 


Virginia, 


John Floyd, 




1880, 


1831. 


North Carolina, 


John Owen, 


Dec. 


1829, 


Dec. 1830. 


South Carolina, 


Stephen D. Miller, 


Dec. 


1828, 


Dec. 1880. 


Georgia, 


George R. Gihner, 


Nov. 


1829, 


Nov. 1881. 


Alabama, 


Gabriel Moore, 


Nov. 


1829. 


Nov. 1831. 


Blississippi, 


Gerard C. Brandon, 


Jan. 


1830. 


Jan. 1882. 


Louisiana, 


Jacques Dupr4, Act, Qcv, 


Jan. 


1880, 


Jan. 1881. 




William Carroll, 


Oct. 


1829. 


Oct. 1881. 


Kentucky, 


Thomas Metcalfe, 


Sept. 


1828, 


Sept. 1832. 


Ohio, 


Allen Trimble, 


Dec. 


1828, 


Dec. 1830. 


Indiana, 


James B. Ray, 


Dec. 


1828, 


Dec. 1831. 


Illinois, 


Ninian Edwards, 


Dec. 


1826, 


Dec. 1880. 


Missouri, 


John Miller, 


Nov. 


1828, 


Nov. 1832. 


Florida, 


WilUam P. DttVaU, 


April. 


1828, 


April, 1831. 


Michigan, 


Lewis Cass, 


Feb. 


1829, 


Feb. 1882. 


Arkansas, 


John Pope, 


Feb. 


1829, 


Feb. 1832. 



With respect to those GoTemors who htTO been elected more than once, 
the commencement of the term for whidi tiliey were la$t elected, is here 
ghren. 

8, E. Smith has been chosen Goremor of the state of Maine for the 
year commencing January 1, 1881 ; Mr, Reynoldi has been chosen Gov* 
emor of the state of Illinois for the tefm of four yean, beginning January 
1, 1881 ; General McArthur is supposed to be chosen Governor of the 
state of Ohio for two years, commencing in December, 1830 ; and E, T, 
TkroQpj of the state of New York, for two years, beginning January 1, 
1881 ; and A, B, Roman has received a phmKty of votes for Grovemor 
of the state of Louiriana for the term ^ four jrears, commencing January, 
18S1. 

The governors of the Territories ate appointed by the President of the 
United States, with the consent of Uie Seo»te, ios the term of three years. 



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900 



POPVLATIOIV. 



PoFULATIOir OF SSVERAL ToWKS IW THB UnITED StATES. 

Hie Fifth Censtu of the United States is to be completed on or before 
the 1st of December, 1830. Copious details of the results of this Census 
mty be expected in the next volume of this Almanac. The Population <yf 
•everal Towns for the Census of 1830, is here given, ts it has been un- 
officially published in the Newspapers. 



Portteiid, 

PortsmoaUi, 

Dovar, 

Concord, 

Boston, 

Salem, 

SprinfffieM, 

IjOweTl, 

Cambridge, 

Marblehead, 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Hartford, 

New York, 

Albany, 

Utica, 

RochcHter, 

Anburn, 

Pbiladelpliia, 

Lancaster, 



Me. 
N. H. 

do. 

do. 
Mass. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
R. r. 
Conn. 

do. 
N.Y. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Pa. 

do. 



1820. 


1830. 


8,581 


It,5« 


7,327 


8,055 


2,871 


5,461 


2,838 


3,062 


43,298 


61,381 


12,731 


13886 


3,914 


6,779 




6,477 


3,295 


6,071 


5,630 


5,152 


11,707 


17,000* 


7,147 


10,653 


6,901 


9,617 


123,706 


200,9421 


12,630 


24,216 


5,264 


11,403 


2,972 


8,324 


1,502 


8,390 


2,025 


7,193 


108,116 


167,688 


6,063 


7,684 



Readinf, 

Barrismirf, 

Wilmington, 

Baltimore, 

Annapolis, 

Washington, 

Georgetown, 

Alexandria, 

Richmond, 

Norfolk, 

Petersburg, 

WheeUng, 

Newberoj 

Payetteville, 

Chttrleston, 

Mobile, 

New Orleans, 

Nasliville, 

Lpxington, 

Cincinnati, 

St. Louis, 



Pa. 

do. 

Del. 

Md. 

do. 

D.C. 

do. 

do. 
Va. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
N.C. 

do. 
B.C. 
Ala. 
La. 
Tenn. 

Ken. 

Ohio, 

Mo. 



1820. 1830. 



4,332 
$1,990 
5,268 

62,738 
2,260 

13,247 
7,360 
8,218 

12,046 
8,478 



3,663 

3,533 

24,780 

27,176 

5,967 
9,642 
4,598 



5,631 
4,307 
6,638 

80,686 
9,615 

18,«33 
8^1 
8,1391 

16,057 
9,916 
8,800 
5,911 
3,7« 
9,895 

30,jK9 
3,069 

5,566 

5,699 

96,515 

5,853 



• The populatioaof Providence has been stated at ahovt 17,000. 
t The population of the city of New York as here given for 1830, is founded oa the 
retoms from 9 wards, and an aiimaU of the population of the other 5 wards. 



Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



BRITISH AMERICAN COLONIES. 



981 



LOWER CANADA. 

The first European settlement in Canada was made by the JP\reneht in 
1608. In 1769, Quebec was Uken by the English, under General Wolfe ; 
and in 1763, the whole of Canada was ceded by France to Great Britain. 

British GorxmNORS. 



, Appointed.1 




James Murray, . 


1768 


SirJ. H. Craigr 


1807 


Pauhis Em. Ervine, President 


,1766 


Hon. Th. Dunn, President, 


1811 


Guy Carleton, . 


1766 


Sir George Prevost, . 


1811 


Hector T. Cramach^, Pres. 


1770 


Sir Gordon Drummond, • 


1816 


Guy Carleton, . 


1774 


John Wilson, Administrator 


1816 


Frederick Haldimand, 


1778 


Sir J. C. Sherbrooke, 


1816 


Henry Hamilton, Lt. Oav. 


1784 


Duke of Richmond, . 


1818 


Henry Hope, do. 


1786 


Hon. John Monk, President, 


1819 


Lord Dorchester, 


1786 


Sir Peregrine MaiUand, . 


1820 


Alured Clark, U, Gov. 


1791 


EariofDalhousie, . 


1820 


Lord Dorchester, 


1793 


Sir Frs. N. Burton, Lt. Oov. 


1824 


Robert Prescott, 


1796 


EariofDalhousie, . 


1826 


Sir Robert S. Milnes, 


1796 


Sir James Kempt, . 


1828 


Hon. Th. Dunn, President, 


1806 


LordAylmer, • 


1830 



GOTXRHMXNT. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor and an Executive Cotmdl of 
10 members, all appointed by the king of Great Britain. The Legislature, 
or Provincial Parliament, is composed of a Legislative Council of 28 mem« 
bers appointed by the king, and a House of Assembly of 60 members^ 
elected by the people. 

Lord Aylmer, . Chvemor OeneraL 

Sir Francis N. Burton, Lieutenant Oovernor, 
Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice. 

Other Provinces. 



Province. 
Upper Canada, 
Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Isl., 
Newfoundland Isl., 
Bermuda Islands, 



GrOTemor, &e. 

Sir John Colbome, Lt.Oov, 
Sir Per. Maitland, do. 
Sir Howard Douglas, do. 
Col. John Ready, do. 
SirTh. J. Cochrane, Oov. 
Sir T. H. Turner, do. 



Chief 
J. B. Robinson. 
Sampson J. Blowers. 
John Saunders. 
Edward J. Jarvis. 
Richard A. Tucker. 
James C. Esten. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



M2 



BRITKH WSIT INDIES. 



SrUi9h West Indies. 



rnvutcc* 

Jamaica, . 

BarbadoM, 

Aoti|^, . 

Montterrat, 

St. Christopher. 

Nevif, . 

Virfio Iilands, 

Trinidad, 

Grenada, . 

Tobajro, 

8t. Vincent, 

Dominica, 

BahamM, . 

Demsrara It Eaeequibo, 

Berbice, 



Oovtmor, k.e. 

Earl of BelmoTC, OovemoTj 
Major Oen. Sir J. Keane, Lt. Oov. 
Sir James Lyon, Qovernor, 
Maj. Gen. Bir Patrick Ross, do, 
Samuel P. Steward, Lt. Oov, 
Col. Charles Maxwell, Oovenuft, 
William Boolhby, ' Lt. Oov, 
Col. James Bathurst, do. 

Major Geo. Lewis Grant, Ooventor, 
Sir James Campbell, do. 

Major Gen. N.BIackwell, do. 
Sir George F. Hill, do. 

Major <Jen. Wm. Nicolay, do. . 
Bir J. C. Smyth, do. 

Sir Benjamin D'Urban, do. 
Henry Beard, Lt. Oov. 



Chi^Jugtiee. 

Sir William A. Scarlett. 

G.L.Tuckett, r.JSd*fCt. 

J. A. Beckley. do. 

Paul Horsford. 

D. Semper. 

R. W. Pickwood. 

William ^jawrence. 

Ashton Warner. 
J. U. Bent. 
William Rough. 
John H. HobM>n. 
R. F. Jameson. 
W. V. Munnings. 
Charles Wray. 



BUhops. Charles J. Stewart, D. D., Bishop of Quehec; John Inglis, 
D. D., of Nova Scotia ; Christopher Lipscombe, D. D., of Jamaica ; William 
H. Coleridge, D. D., of Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands. 



INDEPENDENT STATES. 



-\ ' — 


Head of the'dbvemment. 


Entered upon 


Office. 


Mexico, 


Bustamente, 


President, 


December, 


1829. 


Central America, 


Moranzan, 


do. 


AprU, 
May, 


1829. 


Colombia, 


Mosquera, 


do. 


1830. 


Venrauela, 


Paez, 


do. 


September, 


1829. 


Peru, 


Gamarra, 


do. 




1829. 


Bolivia, 


Santa Cruz, 


do. 




1829. 


ChiH, 


Ovalle, 


do. 


March. ' 


1830. 


Buenofl Ayres, 


Rosasy 


do. 


December, 


1829. 


Monte Video, 


Andrews, 


do. 




1829. 


Paraguay, 


Francia, 


Dictator, 




1814. 


BrazU, 


Pedro, 


Emperor, 


Aprfl, 


1821. 


Hayti, 


Boyer, 


President, 




1818. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EUROPE. 



REIGNING SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE. 



J\rame. 


Titk, 


State. 


DaU of Birth. 


Date ofAc- 
cesnoTU 


6 


gum. 


Charles XIV. 


King 


Sweden 


Jan. 26, 17(>4 Fob. 5, 1818 


54 Luth*an 


Nicholas I. 


Emperor 


Russia 


July t;, I79G|Dec. 1, 1825 


29 Gr.Ch. 


Frederic Vf. 


King 


Denmark 


Jan. 28, 1768! Mar. 13, 1808 


40 Luth'an 


William IV. 


do. 


Great Britain 


Aug. 21, 1765'June26, 1830 


65 Pr. Ep. 


William I. 


do. 


Netherlands 


Aug. 24, 1772 Dec, 3,1813 


41 iRePrnd 


Frederic Wm. lU. 


do. 


Prussia 


Aug. 3, 1770; Nov. 19, 1797 


27 Evang'l 


Anthou) - 


do. 


Snxony 


Dec. 27, 1755 May 5,1827 


71 Cath.* 


Francis 


Gr. Duke 


Mpcklenburg-3chw. 


Dec. 10, 175t>:Apr. 24,1785 


28 iLuth'an 


George 


do. 


Mocklenhurg-Strelitz 


Aug. 17, 1789 Nov. 6, 1816 


37 


do. 


Augustus 


do. 


Oldenburg 


Ju!v 13, 1783' May 21, 1829 


46 


do. 


Ch. Frederic 


Duke 


Brunswick 


Oct. 30, 1604;June 16, 1815 


11 


do. 


WiUiam 


do. 


Nassau 


June 14, 1793 Jan. 9, 1816 
Feb. 2, 1783 Juno 14, 1828 


23 


Evang'l 


Ck Frederic 


Gr. Duke 


S axe -Wei mar 


45 


Luth'an 


Ernoflt 


Duke 


Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 


Jan. 2, 1784,Dec. 9, 1806 


^ 


do. 


Bernard 


do. 


Paxc-Meiningen 


Dec. 17, 1800 Dec, 24, 1803 


3 


do. 


Frederic 


do. 


Saxe-Altenburg 


Apr. 29, 176.3 Sep. 22, 1780 


17 


do. 


Leopold 


do. 


Anhalt-Dessau 


Oct. 1, 1794' Aug. 9, 1817 


29 


Evang'l 


Alexia 


do. 


Anhalt-Bernburg 


June 12, 1767 Apr. 9, 1796 


as 


do. 


Ferdinand 


do. 


Anhalt-Cothen 


Juno 1.% 1769 Dec. 16, 1818 


48 


Cath.* 


Ounther 


Prince 


Schwartz'g RutlolstH 


Nov. 6, 1793 Apr. 28, 1807 


13 


Luth'an 


Gunthcr 


do. 


Pchwartz'g Ponder'n 


Dec. 5, 1760 Oct, 14, 1794 


33 


do. 


Henry XIX. 


do. 


KeuM- Elder Line 


Mar. 1, 1790 Jan. 29, 1817 


26 


do. 


Henry LXII. 


do. 


Reus3-Younoer Line 


May 31, 1785iApr. 17, 1818 


32 


do. 


Leopold 


do. 


Lippe-D(!tmuld 


Nov. 6, 1796'Apr. 4,1802 


5 


RoPrad 


George WiUiam 


do. 


Schaupiiburg-Lippe 


Dec. 20, 1784 Feb. 13, 1787 


2 


do. 


George 


do. 


VValderk 


Sep. 20, 1789 Sep. 9, 1813 


24 ; Evang'l 


Louis 


Landg*ve 


Hesse- Homburg 


Aug.99, 1770 Apr. 2,1829 


59 :Rcrmd 


Ch, Leopold Fred. 


Gr. Duke 


Baden 


Aug. 29, 1790 


Mar. 30, laiO 


40 lEvang'l 


William 11. 


Elector 


Hessc-Cnssel 


July 28, 1777 


Feb. 27, 1821 


44 [Rermd 


Lot) 19 


Gr. Duke 


Hesse-Darmstadt 


Dec. 26, 1777 


Apr. 6, 1830 


f>2 Luth'an 


Anthony 


Prince 


llohcnzoPn Sigmnr^n 


June 20, 1762 


Doc. 26, 1785 


23 Cath. 


Frcdtrife 


do. 


Hohenzol'n Hechin'n 


July 22, 1776 


Nov. 2,1810 


34 do. 


John Joseph 


do. 


Lie i) ten stein 


June 26, 1760 


Mar. 24, 1805 


44 do. 


William 


King 


Wur tern berg 


Pep. 27, 1781 


Oct. 30, 1816 


35 jLuth'an 


Louis 


do. 


B»ivaria 


Aug. 25, 1786 


Oct, 13, 1825 


39 ,Cath. 


Franc. 19 


Emperor 


Austria 


Feb. 12, 17(i8 


Mar. 2,1792 


24 ! do. 


IxtuisPhilip 


King 


Franco 


Oct. 6,1773 


Aug. 9, 1830 


57 do. 


Ferdinand VII. 


do. 


Hpain 


Oct. 14, 1784 


Mar. 19, 1808 


23 1 do. 


Miguel 


do. 


Portugal 


Oct, 20. 1802 


June 26, 1828 


24 


do. 


Charles Felix 


do. 


e^ardinia 


Apr. 6; 1765 


Apr. 19, 1821 


.56 


do. 


Leopold IL 
Maria Louisa 


Gr. Duke 


Tuscany 


Oct. 3, 1797 


June 18, 1824 


26 


do. 


Duchess 


Parma 


Dec. 12, 1791 


May 30, 1814 


^ 


do. 


Francis IV. 


Duke 


Alodena 


Oct. 6, 1779 


Juno 8, m^ 


35 


do. 


Ob. Lonis 


do. 


Lucca 


Dec. ^, n«J9 


Mar, 13, 1824; 24 


do. 


Kua VII. 


Pope 


States of the Ch. 


Nov. 20, 1761 


Mar. 31, 3829 67 


do. 


Francis 


King 


Two Sicilies 


Aug. 19, 1777 


Jan. 4, 182.5 47 


do. 


Mahmoud II. 


Sultan Turkey 


July 20, 1785 


July 28, J808 23 


Mah'an 



. * The King of Saxony and the Dukej>f Anhalt-Cothen are CatkoUes, thoogh the greater 
part oftheireubjectf are PrsCeieaiito. ' 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



9M 



XUROPZ. 

STATISTICAL VIEW OF ALL THE 
IFrom the Weimar Gettealogieai, BuHru 



EmonAM Btatm. 


Abba 


POPULATION. 


1b Eof Bsh 




Fioleet- 
ants. 












Catholica. 


Greeks. 


Jaws. 


TotaL 


1 Anhmlt-Beniboii 


334 




38,510 




390 


x^nA 


9 Anli«lt-1>MM« 


345 


1,900 


56,800 




1,970 


58,970 


3 Aahah-CaUMn 


330 


360 


34,835 




415 


35^0 


4 Attstrta^ . . . 


958,603 


25,fi50,000 


3,000,000 


9,970,000 


480,000 


38,10^ 


5 Baden . . . 


5,996 


73U,808 


343,173 




16,930 


I^OQO^ll 


6 Bavaria . . . 


3r,317 


2,880,;«3 


1,094,633 




67,574 


4,'oaS^ 




1,491 


^,jOO 


940,400 




1,300 


B44,9M 


8 Breman . . . 


68 


1,.500 


50,000 






5I9SOO 


BriUak EmpiM 


117,788 


6,085,;»0 


^^*^Vn^ 




15,000 


99,997^ 


10 Craoow . . . 


494 


100.819 


19,000 




7,988 


197^ 


11 JDeamark . . 


59,968 


2;(K)0 


9,049,531 




6,000 


9,057;S31 


19 Frankfort odMHi 


^91 


6,()00 


43,800 




54i00 


5«5w 


13 Franco . . . 

14 Graece . . . 

15 Hambarf . . 


913,838 
150 


31,099,518 


899,947 




60,000 


150^ 


3,060 


139,440 




7,500 


16 Haaorar . . . 


14,735 


900,000 


1,370,574 




19,000 


1,588;»4 


17 H«Me-CaMel . 


4,498 


105,000 


JS»2S 




5,400 


608,100 




3,993 


190,000 


583,900 




16,000 


718,900 




166 


9,931 


17,683 




1,050 


"•K 


30 Hoh. Heehinaen, 


139 


15,000 








16,060 


33 Ionian iBlandi . 


386 


39,600 






400 


40,^ 


998 


35,900 


800 


133,896 


5,500 


ITS^ 


33 Liehtenstein . 


51 




5,800 






S^jBM 


34 LippeDetmold 


436 


1,600 


75,118 






76,718 


35 Lucca .... 


413 


145,000 








145000 


36 Lobeck . . . 


143 


400 


45,703 




400 


2>03 


37 San Marino . . 


99 


7,000 








7?80 


38 Meek. Schwerin 


4,746 


'957 


437,105 




3,109 


441^ 


29 Meek. StroUU . 


765 


50 


78,510 




833 


97^ 


30 Modena . . . 


9,099 


377,500 






1,500 


379,M0 


31 Nanaa . . . 


1,753 


157,638 


184,651 




5,717 


348^ 


33 Netherlands . . 


95,367 


3,660,000 


3,937,500 




80,000 


6,977^ 


33 Oldentmrc . . 


9,450 


70,700 


175,538 




970 


WSK 


34 Parma . . . 


9,303 


437,400 








437,«N> 


35 PortuMl . . . 


36,610 


3,789,550 








3,789^ 


36 Pnima . . . 


107,159 


4,694,000 


7,roo,403 




154,000 


12,778,403 


37 Reaaa, elder line 


145 


^ 


34,030 




80 


94,160 




447 




57,470 




990 


57,190 


39 RuMia* . . . 


1,414,436 


5,500,000 


9,658,500 


;»,390,SOO 


360,000, 


41,985^ 


40 Sardinia . . . 


98,919 


4,1«,I77 


33,000 




3,900' 


4,15^ 


41 Saxony . . . 
43 Saza-Altenburf 


675 


48,000 


1,350,000 




9,000 


hmgo 


496 


150 


109,343 








43 8axeCob>g.Gotha 

44 Saze-Meininaea 


1,036 


11,500 


130,593 




1,300 


]^Q>93 


884 


^WO 


198,339 




950 


littSW 


45 Saaa-Weimirr . 


1,416 


9,519 


910,911 




1,931 


isiJB4 


46 Sehauenb. Lippa 

47 Seh. Radolfltadt 


906 
404 


^00 
900 


35,500 
56,635 




160 


^ffi 




358 


900 


47,906 






48^6 


49 Siclliet (the Two) 


41,964 


7,419,717 






9.060 


7,414^17 


50 autea of Church 


17,910 


9,468,940 






15,000 


9,48^M0 


518wedaB . . . 


991,163 


5,000 


3,869,700 




4,000 


3J^^PM) 


59 Bwitnriand . . 


14,761 


817,110 


1,917,760 




1)810 


9jQ0£880 


53 Spain .... 

54 Turkey*. . . 
55Tuacaay. . . 


179,074 

903,566 

8381 


13,651,179 

310,000 

1,991,130 




5,878,000 


815,000 
9,400 


'^g 


56WaldeGk . . 


459 


800 


59,700 




500 


5%M0 


57Wnrta»berf . 


7,615 


464,000 


1,069,953 




9,150 


IJ^^ 


Tout . . . 


8,104,780 


116,559,075 


49,847,495 


49,306^ 


1,671,640 


9i3,9n,ioe 



* •^?*T**» •coofdina to the Weimar Almanac, comatmi, in additioa to the 
■as is the rifht-hand column, and also in the sum totar. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



mATtwTWCAL ynw. 
XUROPEAN STATES, FOR 1828. 
c< mid SUHitikai Abmamaefot 1830.] 



GovBa«ifM». 


FiRAircsi. 


LaITD FoRCfiS. 


Bba Fobcbs. i 


Rerenoe. 


Debt. 


In peace. 


In war. 


Peace. 


War. 




8aiL 


Sad. 




9 180,000 


9 940,000 


370 


740 






3 Do. 


984,000 


900,000 


599 


1,058 






3 Do. 


92,000 


640/XK) 


334 


648 






4 Do. 


59,000,000 


900,000,000 


271,404 


750,504 


31 


31 


5 OoDstitntaoiMil Hon. 


3,932,880 


6,392,494 


11,566 


90,000 






6 Do. do. 


12,031,547 


44,403,257 


53,896 


71,600 






7 Absolute Mod. . 


950,773 


1,400,000 


9,433 


4,199 






8 Republic . . . 


160,000 


1,300,000 


385 


770 






9 ConBtitoUonal Mob. 


SB8,8'19,600 


3,490,896,768 


90,519 


378,370 


610 


1,050 


10 Aepublie . . . 


133,348 


10,000 










11 Absolute Moo. . 


4,060,000 


40,000,000 


38,819 


74,000 


97 


190 


13 Republic . . . 


304,000 


3,300,000 


475 


946 






13CoD«titutk>nalMoo. 
14 ? 


157,700,000 


480,000,000 


961,000 
3,580 
1,060 


390,000 


329 


350 
50 


15 Republic . . . 

16 Liittited Mod. . 


600,000 


5,300,000 


3,596 




4,680,000 


12,000,000 


19,940 


96,108 






17 Absolute Mon. . 


1,800,000 


780,000 


9,859 


11,353 








3,351,456 


5,589,450 


8,431 


13,390 






19 Absolute Mon. . 


72,000 


180,000 


900 


400 






» Do. 


48,000 




145 


990 






21 Do. 


130,000 


300,000 


370 


740 






23 Republic . . . 


565,600 




1,600 


1/SOO 






23 Constitutional Mod. 


480,000 




55 


110 






24 Absolute Mod. . 


196,000 


380,000 


690 


1,380 






2S€k>nstiiutioD«lMon. 


968,000 


600,000 


800 


^ 


3 


3 


I?'^C'" : : : 


160,000 

13,000 

990,000 


1,200,000 


406 


819 






38 Limited Mon. . 


3,800,000 


3,137 


7,160 






39 Do. 


900,000 


3ee,ooo 


'749 


1,434 






30 Absolute Mod. . 

31 Limited Moq. 


^^ 


400,000 
3,000,000 


1,860 
9,800 


J,d60 

6,(i56 






32 Constitutional Mon. 


19,000,000 


178,078,670 


4:^,297 


69,472 


93 


150 


33 Ab«>lute Moo. . 


600,000 




9,177 


4,354 






34 Do. 


600,000 


3,000,000 


1,320 


j,;so 






S !J?- 


8,740,W)0 


94,000,000 


40,000 


70,(100 


93 


93 


36 Do. 


30,477,«<H) 


114,840,410 


165,000 


524,428 






3T Do. 


56,000 


9,000,W)0 


306 


419 






38 Do. 


160,000 


480,000 


538 


1,076 






39 Do. 


52,000,000 


200,000,000 


' 600,000 


1,039,117 


13 


19 


40 Do. 


8,740,800 


94,000,000 


36,000 


60,000 


8 


8 


41 Limited Mod. . 


4,400,000 


19,800.000 


13,307 


94,000 






© Do. 


340,000 


339,640 


963 


1,964 






43 Do. 


360,000 


1,200,000 


1,366 


9,rJ3 






44 Do. 


300,000 


1,000,000 


1,150 


3,300 






45 Constitutional Mon. 


71!),784 


2,400,000 


9,164 


4,090 






46 Absolute Mon. . 


86,000 


190,000 


940 


480 






47 Limited Mon. . 


130,000 


170,933 


,'i39 


^»!!S 






48 Do. 


190,000 


160,000 


451 


909 






49 Absolute Mon. . 


19,593.484 


84,000,000 


96,436 


60,000 


19 


946 


60 Do. 


4,600,000 


98,000,000 


9,100 


9,100 


6 


6 


61 Constitutional Mob. 


7,000,000 


17,964,819 


45,901 


138,-569 


30 


399 


S3 Coofed. RepubUcs 


25>9 






33,578 






53 AbM>lnto Mob. . 


96,590,000 


930,443,063 


46,000 


173,550 


34 


60 


54 DespotUm . . . 


11,900,000 


36,000,000 


80,000 


200,000 


80 


160 


65 Absolute Mon. . 






8,000 


8,000 






56 Limited Mon. . 


160,000 


480,000 


516 


1,036 






57 Constitutional Mon. 


3,343,818 


10,942,766 


4,906 


27,910 






Total . . . 


658,847,899 


5,341,731 ,311 


1^9,175 4,578,430 


1,368 


9,641 



in'the Tabfe, 500 AdlMMCoM; Ru»da 150,000; Turkey 9,890,000, wfaicll aie lAdttdad in the 
23 



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98S sv&ora. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

Kino ahd Rotal Family. 

CHARLES XIV. (fonneriy iiarthal BemadotUj, King of Sweden and 
Norway; b. Jan. 26, 1764: elected Crown Prvtet of Sweden, August 21 » 
1810; succeeded to the throne, on the death of ChaxUi XUI, Feb. 5, 1816$ 
m. Aug. 16, 1798, Euoknie Berhardhime de Clart, b. Nov. 8, 1781 : — 
Issue: — 

Joseph FrancU Oscar, Crown Pritice ; b. July 4, 1799 ; m. June 8, 182S, 
to Piincess Josephine of Leuchtenberg, b. March 14, 1807 : — Issue : — 

1. Charles Louis Eugene, Duke of Scania ; b. May 3, 1826. 

2. Francis Oustavus Oscar , Duke of Upland j b. June 18, 1827. 
9. Oscar Frederick, Duke of East Gothland ; b. Jan. 21, 1829/ 

GOTERHMEHT. 

Sweden and Norway, thouzh under the government of one and the 'same 
king, who is a limited monarch, have different Constitutions. 

The Diet or legislative body of Sweden consisU of four orders, 1st, nobles, 
hereditary; 2dly, bishops, ex officio, and clergy ; 3dly, merchants or citizens; 
4thly, peasants or .agriculturists. Each body deliberates separately. The Diet 
has the right of legislation and taxation, and the superintendence of the finances ; 
but the kmg has an unconditional veto. 

The Council of State, composed of two m'mistcrs, six Counsellors of Sta(% 
the Chancellor of the Court, as permanent members, and reporters (rapporteurs) 
form the ministry of the king. The two Ministers of State, the Manhal of tho 
Empire, and Lo;xls of the Empire, are the highest officers of the kingdom. 

CouncU of StaU. 

Count de GyUenborg, Minister of Justice. 

Count de Wetteratedt, Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the Dqpttrtmemt 

of the Colonies, 

Count de Rosenblad, Lord of the Empiref Counsellor of State. 
Count de Moemer, do, do. 

Count de Loewenhielm, do, do. 

Baron de Nordin, do, do. 

Count de Ugglas, do, do. 

M. de Schulzenheim, Chancellor of (he Court. 

Reporters (Rapporteurs.) 

If. de BergenskOld, Chumcetlor of Justice, 

M. de Kulberg, Secretary for Ekclesiastieal Affmrs. 

M. de Danckwardt, Secretary for the Home Department. 

M. de Skogman, Secretary of Finance and Commerce. 

M. de Nordenfalk, Secretary of War^ ad interim. 

Mi||or Gen. Count de Brahe, Commander of the Army. 

Vice- Admiral M. de Klint, Commander of the Navy. 

His Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, Grand Admiral of Sweden^ Chief Df. 

rector of the adsministraiion of the Navy, and Orand Master of ArtilUry. 
Count de Fle^oing, Maraud of the Empirt, and Head of the Royal Court. 



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iroitWAT. Tfff 

NORWAT. 

The Constitutioa of Norway combines the principles of monarchy and de- 
mocracy. Nobility is abolished, and the legislative body or Diet, called the 
Stortkbngi consists of two houses. 

The Cowieil of States composed of the Governor of the kingdom, the ministry 
of state, and counsellors of state, form the ministry of the kingdom of Norway. 
The secretaries of state are not members. One part of the ministry, namely 
the minuter of state and two counsellois of state, who change alternately every 
year, reside at the royal court at Stockholm : the others compose the regency at 
Chfistiania. 

Part ofihe Council of State at Stockholm, 

M. Lowenskjold, ... . Minister of State, 

M. Motzfeld, CounseUor of State. 

M. Krog, do, 

M. Due, Secretary of State, 

Part of the Council of State at Christiania, 

Count de Platen, Ocvemor Cferural of the Kingdom. 

M. Collet, Head of the Depcuiment* of Finance, Commerce, and 

Cuttomt. 
M. Dirrickf, Head of the Department of ReHgion. 

M. de Fastbg, Head of the Departments of the Navy and the Army, 
M. de Hoist, Head of the Department of Justice and Police, 
M. Falbe, Head of the Department de la revisioQ. 

LM. Vogt. 
Stoud Platow, Secretary of Slate, 



RUSSIA. 
Emperor ahd Imperial Family. 



NICHOLAS, Emperor of all the Russias, and King of Poland j b. July 6, 
1796; m. July 13, 1817, Alexandra (formerly Charlotte), daughter of the 
King of Prussia, b. July 13, 1798; succeeded his brother Alexander, Dec. 1. 
1825:— Issue:— 

1. Alexander, Hereditary Prince; b. April 29, 1818. 

2. Mary; b. August 18/1819. | 4 Alexandra; b. June 24, 1826. 

3. Alga; b. Sept. 11, 1822. | 5. Constantine; b. Sept. 21. 1827. 

PHnces of the Blood, 

Constantine ; b. May 8. 1779 ; renounced his right to the throne, J[an. 26, 
1822, with the consent of the Emperor Alexander, and confirmed his renuncia> 
tion, Dec. 8, 1825 j m. May 24, 1820, Jane, Princess of Lowicz. 

Maria, Princess of Saxe- Weimar; b. Feb. 16, 1786. 

Anne, Princess of Orange ; b. Jan. 18. 1795. 

Michael; b. Feb. 9, 1798 ; m. Feb. 20, 1824, Paulina, niece of the Ring of 
Wurtemberg, b. Jan. 9, 1807 : — Issue j Maria, Elixabeth, and Catherine, 

GOTKRHMBITT. 

The government of Russia is an absolute hereditaiy monarchy ; and in the 
foccession to the throne females are not exchided. The government is con- 

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dncted by a Conndl of* the Empire, U10 Ministry, and a Senate ; but there is no 
reprraentative body. The late Emperor Alexander gave the Senate the right 
of renenilratSiig agaimtt any nkase or ^et contrary to law. It i» a body 
partly deliberatire and partly executive, and forms the highest jadicial tribcmal 
of the empire. It is divided into 9 departments or sections, of which six; com- 
prising 6Z members, hold their sittings at 8t. Petersburg, and three sectioos, with 
26 members, at Moscow. The ministers of the great departments axe responsible 
to the Senate. The established religion is t^t of the Oreek Chur<ch, but all 
others are tolerated. 
"^ CooirciL o^ TBS EMPims. 

Count Victor Kotschoubey (Aitual Privy Counsellor J, President of the 
Council. 

M. de Paschkoff, Fres. of the Department of Legislation ; (Grand- Veneur.) 

Count Petcgr de Tolstoi. General of Cavalry, Pres. Dep. of Military Affairs. 

M. Nicol de Mordwinoff (Admiral), President of the Department of Cknl and 
Ecclesiastical Affairs, 

Prince Alexis de Kourakin (Actual Privy Counsellor) , President of the De- 
partmenl of Political Economy. 

Ml truTBT OP Statje. 
(Mimstres h PortfeuilU.) 

His Royal Higfafiacs Duke Alevaader of Waftembeig, G^eneral of Cavalry^ 
Director General of the Department of Omuls , Bridges, and Roads. 

Prince Peter de Volkonsky, Omercl of Infantry f Aidt-de^Ciump General, 
Minister of the Mmtterial Court, and Minister des Apanages. 
' Prince Alexander Galitz3rn, (Actual Privy Counsellor,) Director General of 
Jte Posi'OJice of the Empire. 

Count de Nesselrode, Vice- Chancellor, and Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Count Tchemilcheff, General of Cavalry, Minister of War. 

Prince Charles de Liven, General offnfantry. Minister of Public hutruction* 

M. Georges de Kankrin, General of Infantry, Minister of Finance, 

M. de Zakrefsky, General of Infantry, Minister of the Home Department, 

M. Anihony de Moller, (Admiral), Minister of the Naty. 

M. Alexis KhitroiT, Privy Counsellor, Comptroller General of the Empire, 

Prince Alexis Dolgorouky, Privy Counsellor ^ Attorney General, and Mima-' 
ter of Justice. 

His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Constantiiie, Commander in Chief of 
the Army if Poland. 



DENMARK. 
KlirO AND ROTAL Familt. 



FREDERICK VI, King of Denmark, Duke of Pomerania; b. Jan. 28, 
1768; declared co-regeiii with his Father Christian T7/, April 14, 1784, suc- 
ceeded to the throne March 13, 1808 ; m. July 31, 1790, Sophia Frcderica, 
ni«ce of the Elector of Hesse-Cassel, b. Oct. 28, 1767 : Issue : — 

1. Caroliste ; b. Oct. 28, 1793 ; m. to Prince Frederick Ferdmand, Aug. 1, 
1829. 

%, Wilhelmina; h. Jan. 17, 1808; m. to Prmce Frederick, Nov. 1. 1820. 

CBRisTiAir FakdsrkiK, Crown Prince, cousin to the King; b. Sept. 18, 
ne^j m. (l)^eb. 18, 1806, Chsrlotte Frederica, Prinoesa of Mecklenburg) 



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DKNItARK. 209 

(— Iffoe; 1. Frtdentkj b. Oct. 6, 1808; m. Princess WWieln^na, Nov. 
1, 1828); m. (II) May 22, 1815, CaroKna .Omelia, daughter of the 
Duke of Holstein-Augttstenburg: — Issue; 2, JuUenna; 8. Charlotte; 
4, Frederick Ferdinand, b. Nov. 22, 1792 ; m. the Princess Caroline 
Aog. 1, 1829. 

Government. 

Denmark has been since 1660, in law, an absolute monarchy of the 
most unqualified kind ; the will of the King is supreme, in both civil and 
ecclesiastical affairs ; but in religion he must be of the Confession of Augs- 
burg. The crown is hereditary in the male line. ^ 

Privy Ministry of the Kino* 

Count de Schimmelmann, Privy J^nister of State, Head qfthe Depart" 
ment of Foreign Affairs, 

M. de Moesting, Privy Minister of State for Finance, and Preiident 
qfthe Chamber of Finance, 

M. de Sehestedt, Privy Minister of State, Head of tJie Chamber of 
Commerce and Customs. 

Count de Moltke, Privy Minister of State, President of the German 
Chancery. 

M. Mailing, Privy Minister of State for Piiblic Instruction. 

M. de Steemann, Privy Minister of State and Justice, President of the 
Danish Chancery. 



NETHERLANDS. 
King and Royal Family. 



WILLIAM, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, and 
Grand Duke of Luxemburg; b. Aug. 24, 1772 ; succeeded his father in his 
hereditary possessions in Germany, April 9, 1806 ; declared Sovereign Prince 
of the Netherlands Dec. 3, 1813 ; assumed the crown March 15, 1815 ; 
m. Oct. 1, 1791, WiLHELMiHA, sistcr of the King of Prussia, b. Nov. 18, 
1774 : Issue : — 

1. William, Prince Royal and Prince of Orange; b. Dec. 6, 1792; 
m. Feb. 21, 1816, Anne, sister of the Emperor of Russia, b. Jan. 18, 1795 : — 
Issue ; WUliam, b. Feb. 18, 1817 ; Alexander, b. Aug. 2, 1818 ; Frederick, 
b. June 18, 1820 ; Sophia, b. April 8, 1824. 

2. Frederick ; b. Feb, 28, 1797 ; m. May 21, 1825, Louisa, 8d daughter 
of the kine of Prussia : — Issue ; Alexandnna, b. Aug. 5, 1828. 

3. Mananne ; b. May 9, 1810. ' 

Government. 

The kingdom of the Netherlands, which was constituted in 1814, it a 
limited hereditary monarchy. The Constitution is formed on the b^is of 
the representative system, and bears a close resemblance to that of Great 
Britain. The executive power is vested in the King ; the legislative power 
In the King and the States-General, consisting of two Houses. The members 
of the Upper House are named by the King for life. They roust be 40 
jrears of age ; in number not less than 40, nor more than 60 ; and their 
ttQe§ are not hereditaiy. The members of the Lower House, 110 in num- 

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970 



EUBorc 



ber/tw«l«etodby (he people for ibe term of three jrears, asdeoM^of 
4bree orders, gentry, citizens, and peasants. The aeveral provinces have 
elao their Astembliet of States, which meet for the purpose of legialatiiig 
on matters of local interest. 

The religion of the Dutch provinces is the Calvinist ; that of the Belgic 
provioces* Roman Catholic; but all sects are tolerated; and the clergy 
are supported by the state. 

Ministry. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange, Pretident of the CouneU of 
Ministers; also President of the Council of State, in the absence of the 
King, 

His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, Commissary 
General of War, 

Their Excellencies ; 

Count C. J P. de Thiennes de Lombize, Minister of State. 

[M. C. F. van Maanen, Minister of Justice, — Recently discharged.] 

Baron A. W. C. de Nagell van Ampsen, Minister of State. 

Baron W, F. Roel, Minister of State, Chancellor of the Order of the 
Belgic Linn. 

Baron J. H. Mollerus, Secretary of State, Viee-PresideM of the Coun" 
ett of State. 

Baron G. A. G. P. van der Capellen van Berkenwoude, Secretary of 
State. 

M. 0. Repelaer van Driel, Minister of State. 

M. O. T. Elout, Minister of the JVlavy and the Colonies. 

Baron J. G. de Mey van Streef kerk. Secretary of State. 

M. P. L. J. S. Gobbelschroy, Minister of the Home Department, 

Baron J. G. Verstolk de Soelen, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 

Baron C. C. Six van Oterleek, Minister of State, 

M. A. W. N. van Tetz van Goudriaan, Minister of Finance, 

Yicount L. P. J. du Bus de Givignies, Minister of State. 

BaroQ F. W. F. T. de Paliandt van Keppel, Minister of State, 



The following statement exhibits the heads of Expenditure of the king- 


dom of the Netherlands, and their average annual amount, a« derived from 


official returns for the last eleven years. 


[Liverpool I^per, Sept. 1830.] 


King^s Household (CivU List) 


. X211.000 


Officers of State and Secretaryships . 


100^85 


Foreign Afl&irs . . 


65,635 


Courts of Law, Judges, &c. 


270,297 


Home Department, Dikes, &c. 


478,203 




112,651 


Catholic Elstablishment 


128,671 


£diicaitioo« Arts, Tifwke, «od Colonies , 


179,626 


Hepftrtoeot of Fimnce and Debt 


. 2,629,258 


War .... 


1,904,890 


Nvrj 


484,310 



,Sverage annual MacpendUwe 



£6,564J^» 



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»B£AT BSITAIF. 871 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

KlHO AND ROTAI. FaMILT. 

WILLIAM IV. Kin£ of Great Britain and Ireland, and Kins: of Han- 
over; Defender of the Faith ; b. Au^. 21, 1765; m. July 11, 1818, Ad- 
XI.AIDE, sister of the Duke of Saxe-MeiniDgen, b. Aug. 18, 1792 ; succeeded 
his brother George IV, June 26, 1830. 

Brothers and Sisters of the King^ with tJieir Annual Parliamentary 
JilMwanee, 

1. Augusta Sophia; (£13,000) ; b. Nor. 3, 1768. 

2. Elizabeth ; b. May 22, 1770 ; m. April 7, 1818, to Frederick Joseph 
LeunSy Landgrrave of Heipse-Homburg, who died April 2, 1823. 

3. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberiand ; (£25,000) ; b. June 5, 1771 ; 
m. May 25, 1815, Fredenca Sophia Carolina, sister of the Duke of Meck- 
lenburg-Strelit^, and widow of Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braun- 
fels, b. March 20, 1778 :— issue; George Frederick, b. May 27, 1819. 

4. Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex; (£21,000) ; b. Jan 27, 1778. 

5. Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge ; (27,000) ; b. Feb. 24, 1774 ; 
m. May7, 1818, ^u^usto Wxlhelmina Louisa, niece of the Landgrave 
of Hesse, b. July 25. 1797 :— issue ; 1. George William, b. March 26, 
1819 ; 2. Augusta Caroline, b. July 19, 1822. 

6. Mary, Duchess of Gloucester ; (£13,000) ; b. April 25, 1776 ; m. July 
22, 1816, to her cousin the Duke of (Gloucester. 

7. Sophia; (£18,000) j b. Nov. 8, lt77. 

JVUce of the Sing. 

Alsx^ndrina Victoria, Heiress Presumptive, (daughter of the late 
Prinee Edward, Duke of Kent,— b. Nov. 2, 1767, died Jan. 23, 1820,— by 
Vietoria Maria Louisa, (£12,000), sister of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, b. 
Aug. n, 1786) ; b. May 24, 1819. 

Cousins of the Eing.^-Usue qfthe late Duke of Gloucester, 

Sophia Matilda, (£7,000) ; b. May 23, 1778. 

William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester ; (£14,000) j b. Jan. 16, 1776 J 
m. July 22, 1816, his cousin the Princess Mary. 

Meiated by Marriage, 

Prinee Leopold of Saxe-Coburg ; (£60,000) ; b. Dec. 16, 1790 ; m. Miy 
2, 1816, Charlotte, daughter of George iV. who died Nov. 6^ 1817. 

GoTSRinfurT. 

The govemmeDt of England is a oonatitutioiial hereditary roooarcby, in 
which the power of soveraign is controlled by the influence of the ariitoc- 
lacy in the House of Peers, and by that of the democracy in the Houie of 
, Coinmons. The executive authority is vetted in the King ; the legislative, 
Jo the King and Parliament. The Jring has ike power of appointing aU the 
great officen of etate, and all the ezecntive acta of the governmeBt are 
fftcf»mied in hia name ; but tko miniileia only are reapooaible for them. 



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07^ 



CUIKAT BRITAIN. 



Thk KufO'f Ml^If TKItS. 



Jhske of Wellington, 

Rt Hon. Henry Goulbuni, 

Lord Lyndhurst, 

Eirl Bathurst, 

Eari of Rosslyn, 

Rt Hon. Sir Robert Peel, 

Eifl of Aberdeen, 

Rt Hon Sir Geo. Murray, 

Vifcount Melville, 

Rt Hon. John C. Henries, 

Lord Ellenborough, 

Rt Hon. Th. F. Lewis, 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Hardinge, 
Viscount Beresford, 
Duke of Montrose, 
Marquis Conyngham, 
Duke of Leeds, 
Marquis of Winchester, 
Rt Hon. C. Arbuthnot, 
Lord Hill, 

Rt Hon. John Calcraft, 
Viscount Lowther, 
Rt Hon. T. P. Courtenay, 
Duke of Manchester, 
Lord R. E. H. Somerset, 

Sir James Scarlett, Ent. 
Sir E. B. Sugden, Ent 



First Lord of the Treasury. 

Chanrtttor of the Exchequer. 

Lord' Chancellor. 

President of the Council, 

Lord Privy- Seal. 

Secretary of State for the Hmne Department* 

Secretary of State for tht. Foreign do. 

Secretary of State for the Colonial do. 

First Lord of the .Admiralty. 

Master of the Mint fy Pres. of Board of Trade. 

Pres,of Board of Control, (Affairs of India.) 

Treasurer of the Ahvy. 

above form the Cabinet. 

Secretary of War. 

Master' General of the Ordnance 

Lord Chamberlain. 

Lord Steward. 

Master of the Horse. 

Groom of the Stole. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Commander of the Forces. 

Paymaster of the Forces. 

First Commissioner of the Land Revenue. 

Vice-President of the Board of Trade. 

Postmaster- General. 

Lieutenant- General of the Ordnance. 

Attorney- General. 
Solicitor- General. 



The Ministry of Ireland. 

Duke of Northumberland, Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland. 

Rt. Hon. Sir A. Hart, Ent Lord- Chancellor. 

Lieut. Gen. Sir J. Byng, Commander of the Forces. 

Rt Hon. Lord Lev. Gower, Chief Secretary. 

Rt Hon. Maurice Fitzgerald, Vice-TYeasurer. 



Rt. Hon. Henry Joy, 
John Doherty, Esq. 



Attorney- General. 
SoUcitoT' General. 



Thk pRivv Council* ahd Cabiitst. 

The principal council of the sovereign is his Privy Council, the i 
bers of which are chosen by him, and, on changes of administration, art 
seldom erased, though those in opposition seldom attend. They are styled 
Might Honorable^ and are sworn to observe secrecy. The lowest of the 
board pronounces his opinion first, and the king, if preeent, condudes by- 
declaring his judgment. 

The Cabinett or Cabinet Council, consists of those ministers of state, 
Vho bold the highest rank and dignity. The number of members vtrie« 
|»nerally from 10 to 14 ; consisting of the Lord ChanceUor, the Loid 
Privy Seal, the President of the CoHncU, the First Lord of the Trettuiy, 



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GREAT BRITAIN. ^^ 

the Chancellor of the Excfiequer, the three principal Secretaries of State, 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, and commonly some others of the princi- 
pal officers of government. The First Lord of the Treasurer U considered 
as the Premier or Prime Minister of the country. It has sometimes hap- 
pened that the offices of the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, have been held by the same person. The King; removes 
his confidential servants, or ** the administration," as it is called, at his 
j;>leasure. 

llie Lord ChaneeUar 

Keeps the Great Seal, not to judge according to the common law, as 
other courts do, but to dispense with such parts as seetn, in some cases, to 
oppress the subject ; and to judge according to equity, coii!4cience, and 
reason. He presides in the High Court of Chancery, which is the most 
important of all the King*s civil courts of justice. He take^i precedency of 
every temporal lord, and is by office Speaker of the House of Lprds. To 
him belongs the appointment of justices of the peace throughout the king- 
dom ; and he is patron of all the ecclesiastical benefices under the yearnr 
value of £20 in the King*s Books. He is also the general guardian of all 
infants, idiots, and lunatics. The Court of Chancery in which the Lord 
Chancellor alone sits and determines without a jury, judges causes in 
equity, in order to moderate the rigor of the law, to defend the helpless 
from oppression, and especially to extend. xelief in cases of accident, fraud, 
and breach of trust. From this court an appeal lies immediately to the 
House of Peers, which is the Supreme Court of Judicature in the kingdom. 

7%e Lord Privy Seal 

Is so called from his having the Ktng*8 Privy Seal in hi£i custody, which 
he must not put to any grant without warrant under the King's signet. 
This seal is used to all charters, grants, and pardons, signed by the King, 
hefore they come to the GreeU SecU, 

The Lord President of the Council 

Holds his post by letters patent durante beneplarito. By stat. 21, 
Henry VUL, he is to attend the King's person ; to manage the debates in 
Council ; to propose matters from the King at the Council y and to report 
to the King the resolutions thereupon. 

The Treasury, 

Formeriy there was a Lord High Treasurer ; but for upwards of a cen- 
tury the management of the Treasury has been put in commission, the 
commissioners being the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of 
^le Exehequer, (to whom is entiusted, in an especial manner, the revenue 
and expenditure of the nation, and who often takes the lead on the minis- 
terial side in the House of Commons), and three other Commissioners. 
The First Lord of the Treasury has the appointment of all officers employed 
in collecting the revenues of the Crown ; the nomination of all escheators ; 
the disposal of all places and ways relating to the revenue ; and power to 
let leases of the crown lands. 



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974 EUROPE. 

The Three 8ecretarie$ ofStaU^ 

The Secretary of State for the Home Department Ins the mtna^meiit 
of, and control over, th<^ internal affairs of the kingdom ; issues all ^Erec- 
tions and commands to Lord Lieutenants, Sheriffs, and other magistrates ; 
and makes out and executes all grants, pardons, and regulations in dvil 
matters of every kind. The Secretary of State for Foreijgn .Affairs has 
the management of all correspondence and transactions with foreign na- 
tions. The Secretary oj State for the Colonial Department has the man- 
agement of all the amdrs relating to the colonies of Great Britain. 

The AdmiraUy, 

The superintendence of the navy Is seldom now entrusted to a Lord 
High Admiral ; but a board of admiralty is appointed, consisting of a first 
Lord and several subordinate members. The duty of the admiralty is to 
consider and determine on all matters relating to the navy ; to give direc- 
tions for all services that are to be performed therein, both in its civil and 
naval branches, and generally to superintend the naval and marine estab- 
lishment. 

The Lord Chamberlain, 

The office of the Lord Chamberlain is to take care of all officer^ and ser- 
Tants (excepting those belongit>g'to the King's bedchamber, who are under 
the groom of the Stole), belonging to the King's chambers, who are sworn 
in their places bv him. He has the oversight of the officers of the ward- 
robe at all the J^ing's houses ; of tents, revels, music, comedians, hunts- 
men, messenger?, and artisans ; also of the King's chaplains, heralds, phy- ^ 
flicians, apothecaries, &c. It is his duty to inspect into the charges of cor- 
ronations, marriages, public entries, cavalcades, and funerals ; and into all 
furniture for and in the parliament house, and rooms of addresses to the 
King. 

The Lord Steward, 

The estate of the King*s household is entirely committed to the Lord 
Steward, to be ruled and governed by his discretion ; and all his commands 
in court are to be obeyed. His authority reaches over all the officers and 
servants of the King's house, except those of the King's chamber, stable, 
and chapel. Under the Lord Steward, in the counting-house, are the treas- 
urer of the household, comptroller, coffiirer, master of household, clerks of « 
Ae green cloth, &c. It is called the counting-house, because all the 
accounts and expenses of the King's household are daily taken and kept 
in it ' 

The Master of the Horee 

Has the charge of all the King's stables and horses ; also power over 
equeries, pages, footmen, grooms, farriers, smiths, saddlers, and all trades 
relating in any way to the stables. He has the privilege of applying to his ' 
own use one coachman, four footmen, and six grooms, in the King's pay, 
and wearing the King's livery. In any solemn cavalcade he rides next 
behind the Kbg. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



eEEl^T BRITAIir. 



S75 



Parliamirt. 

The PttUament of Great Britain is the great cooDcil of the nation, con- 
■tittttiiig the legislature, which is munraoned by the King's authority, to 
consirit on public affairs, and enact and repeal laws. It consiflts of Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal, called the Peers or Upper House ; and Knights, 
Citizens, or Burgesses, who are comprehended under the name of the 
CooomoDs or Lower House. 



The House of Lords or Peers. 
The Lord High Chancellor Lyndhurst, Speaker, 

The House of Lords is composed of all the five orders of nobility of Eng- 
land, dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons, who have attained 
the age of 21 years, and labor under no disqualification ; of 16 representa- 
tive peers from Scotland ; 28 representative peers from Ireland ; 2 English 
archbishops and 24 bbhops ; and 4 representative Irish bishops : — the num- 
ber of each, in 1830, being as follows : 

Representative Peers of Scotland, - 16 
Representative Peers of Ireland, - 28 
English Archbishops and Bishops, - 26 
Irish Representiitive Bishops, - 4 

2btal of the Howe qf Peers, 401 



Dukes (4 royal Dukes), 


23 


Marquesses, 


• 18 


Earls, - 


- 104 


Viscounts, 


22 


Barons, 


- 160 



jS. LUt of the. House of Lords, with the Date of the Creation qfthe 
Family, and the Birth oj the present Peer. — The Titles here giver^ 
are those by which the J^Tobletnen sit in the House of Peers, 



Royal Dukes. 
TtOe, JSTame, 



Camberlaad 
SuMex 
Cambridge 
Gloacester 



Or§- 



1383 
1546 



1675 



1663 
lOM 



1711 
1716 



Braest Augustus 
Frederick Augustus 
Adolpbus Frederick 
William Frederick 



Dukes. 



Norfolk 
Somerset 



1675 Richmoud 



Gmfton 
Beanfort 
St. Albans 
Leeds 



16»4 Bedford 
1604 Devonshire 
1703 Marlborough 
1703 Rutland 



Brandon 
Portland 



1719 Manehester 



Mune, 



B. E. Howard 
£. A. Seymour 
Charles Lenox 
G. H. Fitzroy 
H. C. Somerset 
W.doV.Beauclerk 
G. W. F. Osborne 
John Russell 
W. S. Cavendish 
G. S. ChurchiU 
John H. Manners 
Alex. Hamilton 
W.H.C.S. Bentinekll768i 
Wm. Montague 



J5_ 

1771 
1773 
1774 
1776 



«^ 

1765 
1775 
1791 
1760 
1766 
1801 
1775 
1766 
1790 
1766' 
1778 
17671 



1771 



Ore 



17aj 
1756 
1766 
1814 



TUle. 



Dorset 

Newcastle 

Northumberland 

Wellington 

Buckingham 



JVame. 



C. S. Germame 
H. P. F.P.Clinton 
Hugh Percy 
Arthur Wellesley 
R. G. C. Temple 



B'n. 

mf 

1785 
1785 
1769 
1776 



Marquesses. 



1551 
1784 
1786 
1787 
1789 
1789 
1790 
1793 
1796 
1801 
L619 



1815 
1815 
1816 
1821 
1836 
1837 



Wincherter 

Lansdowne 

Stafford 

Townshend 

Salisbury 

Bath 

Abereom 

Hertford 

Bute 

Bxeter 

Northampt<m 



1819 Camden 



Anglesey 

Cholmondeley 

Hostings 

Aylesbury 

Bristol 

Cleveland 



C. I. Paulet 
Henry Petty 
G. G. L. Gower 
G. Townshend 

B. W. 6. Cecil 
Th. Thynne 
J. J. Hamilton 

F. C. S. C. Conway 
J. C. Stuart 
Brownlow Cecil 

8. J. A. Compton 
J. J. Pratt 
H. W. Paget 

G. J. Cholmondeley 
G. A. F. Hastingi 
C. B. B. Bruce 

P. W. Hervey 
Wm. H. Vane 



[774 
1780 
1758 
1778 
1791 
1765 
16U 
1777 
1703 
1795 
1790 
1750 
1708 
1798 
1803 
1773 
1769 
L766 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



976 



Bimops. 



Cf-\ 



TkU. 



^mme. 



BSl 



Or*- 



TUU. 



JWmm. 



*"I^ 



E€trU. 



178t Orosvenor 
1781 & 



1448(Slif«wrimr7 
1484- - 



Derby 
15S9{Huntinsdmi 
Pembroke 
Saffblk 
Denbi^ 
Wo^tmoreland 
Lind>>ey 



1551 
1603 



lOM 
1696 



169B Stinnfurd 



1638 
1626 
1636 



1661 
1661 



Wincbel«ea 

CbMterfield 

Thaiiet 

Sandwich 

Essex 

Cardigan 

Carlisle 

Doncaster 



1679 ShaiYefbary 



1679 

11 

II 

1695 

1696 

1697 

1679 

170G 

1711 

1711 

1711 

1714 

1714 

1718 

1718 

1719 

1721 

17ai 

1^ 

17S9 
1730 
1741 
1743 
1746 
1746 
1746 



1749 £gi 
1749 -' 



1776 
1784 



John Talbot 
B H. Stftflley 
P. T. H. HnatHigV 
R. H. Herbert 
Th. Howard 
B. P. Fielding 
John Fsno 
Albemarle l)ertio 
G. H. Gray 
G. W. F. Hattoft 
O. A. F. Stanbope 
(*harlesTu(lon 
G. J. Montagu 
G. C CoAtniaby 
tell 



Berkeley 

Abingdon 

Plymouth 

Scarborough 

Rochford 

Albemaiie 

Coventry 

Jersey 

Poulett 

Oxford 

Ferrers 

Dortmooth 

Tankurville 

Ayletiford 

Cowper 

Stanhope 

Harborouph 

Macclesfield 

Ponifret 

Graham 

WaWegfave 
Asbbarnham 
Harrington 
Portsmouth 
Brooke &War*k 
Buckingham'ire 
FiUwiflia 
jreasont 
Harcourt 



175eGniJr<»rd 
Cornwallis 
Hardwicke 
llchoater 
De Lawarr 
Badnor 
Spencer 
Chatham 
Dathurst 

1779 HiUsbofoogh 



Clarendon 
Abergavenny 



1784 Norwich 

•^rraibot 



R. Brudenel 
George Howard 
W. P. Scdtt (D. of 

Buccleuch, Scot.) 
C. A. Coopwr 
T. M. F. Berkeley 
M. Bertie 
O. A. Wind«»r 
R. L. Sannderaon 
W. N. de Zulestein 
W. C. Keppel 
G. W. Coventry 
George Villiers 
John Poulett 
Edward Harley 
W. Shirley 
Wm. Legge 
C. A. Bennet 
Heneafie Finch 
P. L. L. F. Cowper 
P. H. Stanhope 
Philip Sherard 
George Parker 
Th. VV illiam 
JftDies Graham (D. 
of Montrose, Scot.) 
J. J. Waldeerave 
G. Ashbomham 
Charles Stanhope 
J. C. Wallop 
M. R. Greville 
G.R.T^. Hampden 
W. W. FitzwiUiam 
G. 0*B. Wyndham 
Wm. Harcourt 
Francis North 
James Mann 
Philip Yorke 
H.a.F.Strangeways 
O.J. West 
W. P. Bouverie 
G. J. Spencer 
John Pitt 
Henry Bathurat 
A.B.S.T.Hill(M.of 

Downshire, IrePd) 
J. C. VUUers 
Henry Neville 
Geone Gordon, (D. 

of Gord. Scotland) 
C. C. T. Chetwynd 



ri79i 

175Q 
1806 

1791 
1776 
1796 
1759 
1814 
17«> 
1791 
1805 
1770 
1811 
1757 
1769 
1773 



1806 
1768 

1784 

1789 
1757 
1754 
1772 
1758 
1773 
1783 
1773 
1760 
1784 
1776 
1786 
1778 
1781 
1797 
17W 
1768 

1755 
1785 
17U0 
1780 
1767 
1779 
1816 
1748 
1751 
1743 
1772 
1778 
1757 
1787 
1791 
1799 
1758 
175^ 
1763 

1788 
1757 
1755 



M*nt Edgecma. 
789 Fortoflcoe 
I790f)igby 



Beverley 

Manafield 

Carnarvon 

Liverpool 

Cadogan 

Malmeabdrf 

Rosslyn 

Craven 

Onslow 

Romney 

Chichester 

Wilton 

Powis 

.Nelson 

Manvera 

Orford 



806 Grey 



807 

809 Hi 

[812 

812 

813 

1814 

815 

815 

815 

815 

815 

Q15 

821 

821 

821 

[821 



1827 



Lonsdale 
larrowby 
Mulgrnve 
Harewood 
Minto 
Catbcart 
Verulam 
Brownlow 
St. Germans 
Morloy 
Bradford 
Beauchamp 
KIdon 
Fulmonth 
Howe 
Somen 
Stradbroke 
Vane 

Amherst 
Dudley 



d37|Cawdor 



R. Groitvenor 
Joha]li«inmy(D.«r I 
Athol, Scotland) ' 
R. Edgeeulkibe 
H. Fortescue 
Edward Digby 
Algernon Pta«7 
Wm. Murray 
H. G. Herbert 
C. C. C. Jenkinson 
C. H. Cadogan 
J. E. Harriv • 
J. St. C. Erskine 
Wm. Craven 
A. 6. Onslow 
C. Maraham 
H. T. Ptelham 
Th. Egertcn 
Edward Clive 
E. Nelson, D. D. 
C. H. Pirrrepont 
Horatio Walpole 
Charles Gn- y 
Wm. Lowther 
Dudley Ryd^r 
Henry Phrops 
H. Lascelies 
G E. Kynvnmoond 
W. S. C5atWait 
J. W. Giimston 
John Cust 
Wiy. Eliot 
John Parker 
G. A. F. Rridgmmbi 
J. R. P. Lygon 
John Scott 
Ed. Boncawen 
R. W. P. C. Howe 
J. S. Cocks 
J. E. Rous 
S. W. V.Stewart (M. 
of Londonderry, I.) 
W. P. Amherst 
J. W. Ward 
J. F. Campbell 



1755 
1764 
1753 
1773 
1750 
1777 
1779 
1785 
1749 
1778 
1708 
1809 
1777 
1777 
1804 
1799 
1754 
1757 
1778 
1783 
1764 
1757 
1762 
1755 
1767 
1783 
1765 
1775 
1779 
1766 
1772 
1789 

1751 
1787 
1796 
1760 
1794 

1778 
1773 
1781 
1790 



VtscouiOg, 



1549 
1712 
1791 
1746 



Hereford 

Rolingbroke 
Torrington 
Leinster 



1761 Courtenay 



1770 
1777 



1766 
1789 
1796 
1797 
1801 
1802 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1814 

1815 
1816 



Maynard 

Sydney 

Hood 



Dnncan 

St. Vincent 

Melville 

Sidmouth 

Anaon 

Lake 

Gordon 

Granville 
ExoMMith 



H. Devereux 
Henry St. John 
George Bynrf 
A.P.Fitagerald(D. 
of Leinster, Irel'd) 
Wm. CourtenaT 
Henry Maynard 
J. T. Townshend 
Henry Hood 
R. D. n. Hahlane 

E. J. Jervia 
R. S. Dundas 
Henry Adington 
T. W. Anaon 

F. G. Lake 

6.H. Gordon (E. <d 
Aberdeen, Boot.) 
O. L. Gowf r 
Edward PoUaw ^ 



1777 
1786 
1768 

1791 
17» 
1986 
1764 
1793 
1786 

1771 
1757 
1796 
1779 

1784 
1786 
1750 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



OREAT BRITAIN. 



977 



Crt- 

WtBd. 


TiOv. 


JVorn*. 
J.H.IIutchiui!OR(E. 


fi'n. 


Cer 
ated 


; Tide. 


JVam*. 


... 


Imi 


Hotchinson 


1786!Carletoa 


Henry Boyle (E. ofl | 






Donoughmo[e,IreO 
W. C.Bereaford 


1757 






Shannon, Ireland) 
Edward Harbord 


1771 


1623 


Beresford 




178( 


, Suffield 


1781 


1823 


Clancarty 


R. Le P. Trench (E 




I78t 


Dorchester 


Guy Carleton 


1711 






of Clancarty, Ira.) 




1786 


Kenyon 


George Kenyon 
Richard Griffin 


1776 


1826 


Combermere 


S. Cotton 




1786 


Braybrooko 


1783 


1823 


Goderich 


F. J. Robinson 


1782 


179C 


Fisherwick 


G.A.ChicheaterCM 












of Donegal, Irel'd) 


1769 


Barons, 


179C 


Douglaf 


A. Douglas 


1773 






179C 


Gage 


H.H. Gage { V.Gage 

Ireland) 
W. W. Grenville 




iseg 


Le Deapencer 
De Clifford 


Th. Stapleton 
E. S. Clifford 


1766 






1791 


1269 


1767 


1790 


Grenville 


1759 


1296 


Audley 


G. J. T. Tuchet 


1783 


1792 


Thurlow 


E. T. H. Thurlow 


1781 


1298 


Clinton 


R. C. S. J. Trefusis 


1787 


1793 


Aiicklond 


George Eden 
W. fl. Lyttelton 


1784 


1307 


Dacre 


Thomas Brand 


1774 


1794 


Lyttellon 


1782 


1314 


WiHoughby de 






1794 


Mendip ^ 


H. W. A. Ellig (V 






Eresby 


P. R. D. Burrell 


1782 




' 


Clifden, Ireland) 


1761 


1448 


Stourton 


Wm. Stourton 


1776 


1794 


Selsey 


H. J. Peachey 


1787 


1492 


Willo'bydeB. 


Henry Verney 


1773 


1794 


Dundas 


Laurence Dundaa 


1766 


1553 


Howard 


K. A. Howard 


1767 


1794 


Yarborough 


C. A. Pelham 


1781 


1558 


Saint John 


St. And. Saint John 


18J1 


1796 


Stuart 


Fraoeia Stuart (E. 




1597 


Howard deW. 


C. A. Ellis 


1779 






of Moray, Scot.) 
George Stewart (E. 


1771 


1603 


Petre 


W. H. F. Petre 


1793 


1796 


Stewart 




1603 


gay and Sele 


G.W.E.T.Fienne8 


1769 






of Galloway, Scot.) 


1768 


1605 


Arundel 


Everard Arnndel 


1786 


1796 


Sallersford 


J.G.Stopford(E.of 




1606 


Clifton 


J.Bligh(E.Darn.,L) 


1767 






Courtown, Irel'd) 
J. C.B. Dawnay (V. 


1765 


1615 


Dormer 


J. T. Dormer 




1796 


Dawnay 




1616 


Teynliara 


H. F. R. Curzon 


1768 




. 


Downe, Ireland) 

George Brodrick (V, 

Middleton, Irel'd) 


1754 


1640 


Stafford 


G.W.S.Jernyngham 


1771 


1796 


Brodrick 




164;J 


Byron 
Clifford 


G. A. Byron 


1689 






1755 


1672 


Charles Clifford 


1759 


179G 


CaltUorpe 


G. G. Calthorpe 


1787 


1703 


Gower 


G. G. L. Gower 


1786 


1796 


De Dustanville 


Praucia Basset 


1757 


J711 


Boyle 


Edmund Boyle (E.of 




1796 


Rolle 


John Rolle 


1756 






Cork &; Orrery,!.) 


1767 


1797 


Wellesley 


Rich. C. Wellesley 




1711 


Hay 


T. R. H. Drummond 








(M.ofWell'yfre.) 


1760 






(E.of Kinnoul, Sc.l 
H. WiHoughby 


1785 


1797 


Carrington 


Robert Smith 


1752 


1712 


Middleton 


1761 


1797 


Bayning 


H. W. Powlett 


1797 


1725 


Kin- 


Peter King 


1776 


1797 


Bolton 


W. O. Powlett 


1782 


1728 


Mo nson 


J. G. Mcnson 


1809 


1797 


Wodehouse 


John Wodehouse 


1741 


1741 


Mountford 


H. Bromley 
F. Ponsonby (E. of 
Beaborough, IrePd) 


1773 


1797 


North wick 


John Rushout 


1770 


1749 


Potiaonby 




1797 


I ford 


T. A. Powis 


1801 






1758 


1797 


RibbleRdale ^^ 


Thomas Lister 


1790 


1760 


Sondes 


L. R. Watson 


1792 


1799 


t'itzgibbon 


John Fitzgibbon (E. 




1761 


firanthara 


T. P. Weddell 


1781 






of Clare, Ireland) 


1792 


1761 


Scarsdale 


Nathaniel Curzon 


1751 


1801 


Moore 


CharLs Moore (M. 




1761 


Boston 


George Irby 
H. R. N. Fox 


1777 






of Drogheda, Irel.J 


1770 


17r^ 


Holland 


1773 


1801 


Loftus 


John Loftua (M. of 




17^ 


Level and Hol- 


John Perceval (E.of 








Ely, Ireland) 


1770 




land 


Egmonl, Ireland) 


1767 


1801 


Carysfort 


John Proby (E. of 




1769 


Vernon 


G. C. V. Vernon 


1803 






Cjrysfort, Ireland) 




176:^ 


Dncie 


T. R. Moreton 


1776 


1801 


Alvanley 


William Arden 


1789 


1766 


Suod ridge and 


G.W. Campbell (D. 




1801 


Abercromby 


G, Abercromby 


1770 




Hamilton 


of Argyll, Scot.) 
E. W. Hawke 


1768 


1801 


t. Helena 


A. Fitzherbert 


1753 


1776 


Hawke 


1799 


1802 


Redesdale 


J. T. Mitford 




1776 


Foley 


Thomas Foley 


1780 


1802 


livers 


W. H. P. Rivert 


1777 


1T80 


Dynevor 


G. T. Rice 


1765 


1802 


Kllenborough 


Edward Law 


1790 


J780 




G. de Grey 


1776 


1802 


Arden 


C. G. Perceval 


1756 


1780 


Biigot 


Wm. Bagot 
Charles Fitzroy 


1773 


1802 


Sheffield 


G.A.F.C.B.Holroyd 

(E.of Sheffield, 1.) 




1780 


Southampton 


1804 






1882- 


1782 


Crantley 


Plctcher Norton 


1796 


1805 


Carbarn 


Charles Noel Noel 


1781 


1782 


Rodney 


Ffiorge Rodney 


1789! 


1806 


ilrskine 


D. M. Erskine 




1784 < 


Caijteret 


Jeorge Thynne 


17701 


1806 


tVlounteagle 


H. P. Browne (M. of 




1784 


tpiwick 


Thomas N. Hill 


1770 






Sligo, Ireland) 


1788 


1734 ! 


^berborno 


iohn Button 


779| 


1806 


A^rdrossan ' 


A. Montgomorie (E, 




1786 


tlontagu 


I. J. M. Scot J 


1776) 






of EgUntone, Sc.) 


1319 


1786' 


ryrone 


FI.de la P. Beresford 




1806 


Laudcrdal« 


r. Ma it land (B. of 








M. of Waterrd, I.) 


[815, 






Lauderdale, Scot.) 


1759 



24 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



fm 



XUEOPX. 



ISoci 

1806 



1806 PooMidyjr 
1806AiI>a 



TkU, 
Granani 
Crawe 



iao6 

1806 
1807 
1»07 
1809 

1814 
1814 
1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 
1815 
1816 
1817 
18ai 

1821 

1891 

1831 

1881 

1891 

1891 



Breadalbaiie 

Gardner 
Mannera 
Gambier 
Uop«»town and 

Nidry 
Lynedock 
HiU 
DalboutM 

Meldrnm 

Rom 

Grinstoad 

Foxford 

Melboarae 

Charchill 

Harris 

Prudhoe 

Oolehester 

Ker 

Minster 

Ormonde 

Wemyss 

Clanbrassill 

Kingston 

SUcheeter 



JVbHM. 

George Forbes (B.of 
Granard, Inland) 

John Crewe 

JohnPonaonby 

A. Kennedy (£. of 
Cassilis, Scotland) 

John Campbell (EL 
ofBreadalb. Soot.) 

A. H. Gardner 

T. M. Satton 

James Gnmbier 

John Hope (E. of 



JB'».| 



1760 
1742 



Hopotown, irel'd) 
Th. Giahnm 
Rowland HiU 
George Ramsay (E. 
ofDalhousie,&cot.) 
George Gordon (E. 
of Aboyne, Scot.) 
George Boyle (E. of 

Glasgow, Scot.) 
J. W. Cole (E. of 
Enniskillen, IrelM) 

E. «. Fory (E. of 
Limerick, Ireland) 

Wm. Lamb (V. of 
Melbourne, IrePd) 

F. A. Spencer 
Wm. George Harris 
Alg. Percy 
Charles Abbot 
J. W. R. Ker (M. of 

Lothian, Scot.) 
H. B. Conynghom 
(M.ofCon., lrcl»d) 
James N. Butler (M. 
of Ormonde, Irel'd) 
F.W.C. Douglas (E. 
ofVV.&M'ch,Sc.) 
R. Jocelyn (E. of 

Rodon, Ireland) 

George King (B. of 

Kingston, IrelM) 

Th. Pakenham, E.) 

of Longford, Ire Pd) 



1762 
1810 
1756 
1756 

1803 
1750 
1772 



1770 

1761 

1766 

1778 

1758 

1779 
1779 
1782 
1792 
1798 

1794 

1766 
1773 
1772 
1788 
1771 
1774 



Ore 
aUi. 
1821 
1821 
1821 

1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1833 
1824 



1836 
1836 



1837 
1897 

1827 
1827 
1827 



1823 
1828 
1829 



Title, 

Glenlvon 

borough 
Oriel 

Stowell 

Ravensworth 

Delamere 

Forester 

Bexloy 

Gifibrd 

Penskurst 

Tadcaster 

Somerhill 

Wigan 

Ranflirly 

Fomboroogh 

l)e Tabley 

Wharnclifle 

Feversham 

Seaford 

Lyndhurst 

Fife 

Tenterden . 

Plunket 

Melroso 

Cowley 
Stuart de Roth- 
say 
Heytesbnrg 
Roseberry 

Clanwilliom 

Durham 
Bkelmeradale 
Wallace 
Wynford ' 



JVohm. 



B>n, 



James Murray I^S 

Wm. W. Pule [1763 

T.U.Skeffington (E. 
Ferrard, Ireland) 

Wm. Seott 

T. H. Lidden 

Th. Cholmondeley 

J. G. Forester 

Nich. Vansittart 

R. F. Gifibrd 

P.C.S SmytheC^. 
Sttangford, IrePd) 1780 

Wm. O^Brien (M. of 
Thomond, (Irel'd) 

U. J. de Burgh (M. 
of Clanicarde, Ire^ 

James Lindsay (£. 
of Balcurras, Scot.) 

Th.Knox I V.North- 
land, Ireland) 

Charles Long 

G. Xiclceeter 

J. A. S. Mackenzie 

Ch. Duncombe 

C. R. Ellis 



1745 
1775 
1767 
1801 
1766 
1817 



1809 
1784 



J. S. Copley, 
James Duff (E. of 

Fife, Ireland) 
Charles Abbot 
Wm. C. PIvoket 
Th. Hamilton (E. of 
Haddington, Scot.) 
H. WeUesley 

Charles Stuart 
Wm. A»Court 
A J. Primrose (E. of 
Roseberry, Scot.) 
Rich'd Mende (E. of 
Clanwiiliam, IreL) 
J. G. Lnmlrton 
P.. B. Wilhrabam 
Th. Wallace 
Wm. D. Be^ 



1754 
1760 
1811 
1776 
1764 
1771 
177a 



1769 
1765 

1790 
1773 

1780 
1779 

1783 

1795 
1799 
1771 



J*'^ To obviate the difllcnlty of finding the names of those Scotch and Irish Peers, ti^o sit 
in Parliament under English Titles, but who are not commonly addressed by them, the fol- 
lowing List is subjoined. 



Aberdeen, E., »ee Gordon 
Aboyne, E., »ee Meldrnm 
Anryll, I)., gee Snndridge and 

Hamilton 
Atholl, D., see Straiuro 
Balcarras, E.,see Wlgan 
Beaborouch, E., see Ponsonby 
Bncclough. D., see Doncaster 
Cassilis, E., see Ailsa 
Clanriearde, M., see Somerhill 
iClare, E. «e0^ Fitzsibbon 
nifden, V., see Mendip 
k, E., see Boyle 
irtown, E., see Saltenfcrd 
"*'^, E., see CKftoD 



Donegal, M., see Fisherwick 
Dononghmore, E., see Hutch- 
inson 
Down, v., see Dawnay 
Downshire, M., see HiUsbo> 

rough 
Dro^heda, M., see Moore 
Eghnton, &, see Ardrossan 
Egmont, E., seeLoToll 
Ely, M., see Loflus 
Galloway, E., «ee Stewart of 

Garlies 
Glasgow, E., see Ross 
Gordon, I)., see Norwich 
Haddington, E., see Melrose 



Hamilton, D., see Brandon 
Kinnoul, E., see Hay 
Londonderry, M., see Vane 
Longford, E., seeSilcbeater 
Lothian, M^ms Ker 
Middleton, V., see Brodriek 
Montrose, D., see Graham 
Moray. E., see Stuart of Caa> 

tie Stuart 
Roden, E., ses Clanbrasail 
Shannon, £., see Oaatkibar 
Sligo, M., see Moonieag Is 
Strangford, V., see PienalHirti 
Waterlbrd, M., see Tjnm 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



ORXAT BEITAIir. 



979 



P££RS OF Scotland, 
Elected Sept. 2. 1880. 



2S.I Titu. 


Name. 


B»n. 


Cre- 
ated. 


Title. 


Name. ' 


B'n. 


Marquesses, 


Viscovnts, 




lesaatteensberry ICh. Douriw 1777 
MB4|Tweeddale |George Hay 1787 


1641|Arbuthnot IJ. Arbuthnot 1 
1686lStrathallan |j. Drommood | 


1778 


1767 


Earls, 


Barons. 






1440 


Forbes 


J. O. Forbes 


1765 


1453 Errol Wm. G. Hay Carr 


1801 


1445 


Saltoun&Aber. 


A. G. Fiaser 


nas 


1457 Morton 6. S. Douglas 


1789 


1445 


Gray 


Francis Gray 
Ch. St. Clair 


1765 


1606 Home A. H. Ramey 


1769 


114891 


Sinclair 


1768 


1633 £lgin and Kin- Th. Brace 
1 Sardine 


1763 


1609! 


Colville 


John ColvUle 


1768 




1627 


Napier 
Belhaven & St. 


Wm. J. Napier 
R. M. Hamilton 


1786 


1647 Northesk Wm. Carnogio 


1758 


1647 


1793 


Peers op Ireland, 




Elected for Life. 




•ted. 


Title. 


Name. 


B'n.' 

1 


aS. Title. 


Name. 


B'n. 




1800 Caledon 


Pupr6 Alexander 

E. H. Pery 

R. Le P. Trench , 


1^ 


Marquesses. 


1803 Limerick 
1803 Clancarty 


1758 
1767 


MdOIThomond IWm. O'Brien 1 
1816|Ck>nyngham |H. Cpnyngham |l766 


180: Gosford 
1806 RoBse 
1806 Chaileville 


ArchM Acheson 
Laur. Parsons 
Charles W. Bury 


1758 
1764 


Earls. 


1816 Glengall 


Richard Butler 


1794 


I748,Oariek IS. R. Butler 


1779 


ViscowUs. 




1783 


(;harIeinont 


F. W. Cauiaeld 


1776 






1788 


Kingston 


George King 


1771 


1785 Doneraile H. St. ledger 
1806 Lor ton Robert E. King 


1786 


1781 


Mount Cashel 


Stephen Moore 


1792 


1773 


1785 


Longford 


Pakenham 


1774 


1816 Gort Charles Vereker 


1768 


1785 


Mayo 


John Bourke 


176G 






1789 


Enuiskillen 


J. W. Cole 


1768 


Barons, 




1793 


Wicklow 


W. E. Howard 
R. Bingham 
8. L. <>»rry 
C.H.St.j:0'Neil 








1795 


Lncan 


1764 


1715 


Carbery J. E. Preke 


1765 


17»I 


Belmore 


1774 


1756 


Farnham John Maxwell 


1707 


1800 


O'NeU 


1779 


1800 


Ihifferin & CI. J. S. Blackwood 


775 


1800 


Bandon 


Fr. Bernard 


1756i 


1800 


Dunalley H. 8. Frittie 


1775 


Scotch Peers not is Parliament. 




Dukes, 


Torpichen 


K.G.V.Leven 

And Melville 


Traquait 


DuffVis 
Elibank 




lUnbargh 


Earls, 


Blar 

Newburgh 


Viscounts. 


ElphinstODC 
Fairfiiz 




Marquesses, 


Airly 
Bttchaa 


Rosebernr 
G. C. B. Port' 


Dunblane 
FalkUnd 






KiiJteodbriiht 


Caithness 


mon 


Kenmure 


PSEREfl. 


It. 


KuHuOrd 


Carnwatb 


Rothes 


Storroont 






NainM 


Dumfri(.>s and 


Seafleld 




Countess 


es. 


Re«y 


Bute 


Selkirk 


Barons, 






RoUo 


E. M. Dttudon- 


Stair 




Dysart 




BotllTM 


aid 


StirUng 


Aston 


Orkney 




Semple 


Dunmore 


Strathrooreand 


Blantyre 




KeUie 


Kinghorn 


Cranstonn 


Sutherland 






Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



IsitR Pssmi iroT nr Pabuakbpt. 



■M. AMb•v•■cl^ AsBwIinrf / 
loM, Bftatnr, Oufiwptoo, CMls-Stewmrt. 
Canui, K. CClonoien, OeMrtyDuDnTen mmI 
MMMMtle. FlafaU, K. P. Bowth, Kennmrs, 



KiflGMUiy. KILBoray. LuddT, LuMk 
Leitrim, licbonie, LMtewel, liodlow, 
K.F. ll«Bboro«ch, IQltowo, Mooni 



.Heath, 
Moontaorris, 



Bufor, Baniiiftoii, B<mw, Uactlemaii , 
ClMiUr7»d, Cfaf wea u De Vetei, DtHon, Don- 
•nule, DoDfuuMm, FitswUliiun, Frmnkfort, 
0alway. GonaMwiowB, Harberton, Hawar- 
leti, Kilnmideii, Kiogalud, Lilfbrd, Lis- 



FteliMrataa, F*weneoort, Kaithffc, BmA- 
welt, Taaft, Temptetowo. 

BmMm, — Aabtowo, Ayfanor, Bkji 
Bkwmfield, Bnndoi 
morrit, Ckrina, Cr 
monMjCroAoii, be 



btowo, Aylner, Blajnej^ 
ndoD, D. D. Bridport, CkB- 
Cleobroek, Ckmcnrry, Cre- 



B Bl»qaiere^peei^,Dimaes, 

^, ^ DaoMiby, FTreaeh, Grevee, HftrdBiMl. flead> 

Korbonr, honmiatoii, PorUrUnfton, Rath- ley, Henley, Heimiker, Botbem, Hovdeil, 
lown, Saftoa, TyreeoiieL H^^terUm. HantinffieM, Kenainftoo, Kilmaioe, Kineals, 

'v.~AI]aa, AAbrook, ATOoniore, Laaflbrd, Lisle. Loath, Maodonald, MaMy, 



Bfoont-Saodlbcd, Muneaster, Maskerry, New- 
boroof h, Norweod, Nofnit, Omrley, Rad- 
iitock. fiancliflb, Rendlesham, Riversdale, 
Rokeby, Rossmoie, Tra;niiianth,Triinlest(», 
Ventry, WaUseonrt, Waterpark. 



•FVvfB 
EngUmd.* 

From 
fVal€$. 

From 
Scotland. 

From 
Jrtland. 



Thk House of Commons. 

''89 Counties, 2 each, and Yorkshire 4, 
28 Cities, 2 each, and Londoo 4, 
166 Boroughs, 2 each ; 6 Boroughs, 1 
6 Cinque-ports, 16, - - - 
2 Universities, Oxford and Cajobridge, 
12 Counties, ... 

12 Cities and Boroughs, 
Shires, .... 
Dtles and Boroughs, 
Counties, .... 
Cities and Boroughs, ... 
University of Dublin, 



send 



each; 



82^ 
353] 

12 J 

16 J 
64) 



4S9 



24 

45 



100 



Tbeo/ ntimber ofMtmhen, 668 
The union with Ireland was carried into effect January I, 1800, and the 
Parliament, which met the same month and which included the members 
from Irefamd, is staled the Fir$t Imperial Parliament or the Fint PorUa^ 
ment qf the Umted Kingdom. The following Parliaments have ainco 
been elected. 









Exisied. 






Y. M. 1). 


2d Imofial Parlim*t 


August 81, 1802 


October 24,1806 


4 1 25 


8d do. 


Nov. 26, 1806 


May 27. 1807 


6 2 


4th do. 


Nov. 27, 1807 


Sept. 29, 1812 


4 10 2 


5fh do. 


Nov. 24, 1812 


June 10, 1818 


5 6 16 


6di do. 


August 4, 1818 


February29, 1820 


1 6 26 


7di do. 


April 28, 1820 


June 2, 1826 


6 19 


8th do. 


Nov. 14, 1826 


JulT 24. 1880 


4 1 22 


9th do. elected between the Uth of July tr the \^h Sept 1830.| 



Thb Ecclksiasticai. Estabi.ishmknt. 
Tho King is considered tlie supreme head on earth of the Church of Eng- 
land. The Archbishop of Canterbuiy is styled the Primate of all England, 
ind takes precedence of all persons, except the royal family- The Arch- 
bishop of York is styled the Primate of England, and his province inclodea 
Ae four bishoprics of Durham, Carlisle, Cliester, and Sodor and Mann ; all 
Ibe rest being included in the province of the Ardihisho|^ of Cantethury, 
The Bishop oS Itoadon has the 1st rank among the Bishops ; the Bishop 
•fDoriiam.the 2d; the Bishop of Winchester, the Zd\ the rest laok 
aeeoidlBf to the priority of theh* consecratioa. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



OBEAT BUTAIN. 



af%e JlrchUnhops and BithofB of England, triih ihe>l)aU of their Con* 
aeeruHon emd TranalaHon to the See ; the Sum each See i» charged 
tn the £mg*$ Booke ; and the actual Income, a$ stated for the year 

1814. 



Cobs. 
1813 


Archbishops. 


Sees. 


Trans. 


King's Books. 


Income. 


Wm. Howley, D. D., 
Primate of all England, 












Canterbury 


1828 


£2,682:12:2 


£20,000 


1791 


Ed. V. Veraon, D. C. L., 












Primate of England, 


York 


1807 


1,610:00.0 


14,000 




Bishops. 










1824 


Ch. J. Blomfield, D. D. 


London 


1828 


1,000:00:0 


9,000 


1819 


Wm. VanMUdert,D.D. 


Durham 


1826 


1,821:01:3 


24,000 


1826 


Ch. R. Sumner, D. D. 


Winchester 


1827 


2,873:18:1 


18,000 


1797 


F. H. W. Cornwall, D. D. 


Worcester 


1808 


929:13:3 


6,000 


1802 


G. 1. Huntingford, D. D. 


Herefoi^ 


1816 


768:12:0 


4,000 


1803 


Th. Burgess, D. D. 


Salisbury 


1826^ 


1:385:05:9 


6,000 


1806 


H. Bathurst, D. C. L. 


Norwich 




834:11:1 


4,000 


1809 


B. Ed. Sparke, D. D. 


Ely 


1812 


2:134:18:0 


12,000 


1812 


Geo. Henry taw, D. D. 


Bath & Wells 


1824 


633:01:3 


4,000 


1813 


George Murray, D. D. 


Rochester 


1827 


358:14:0 


1,500 


1815 


Henry Ryder, D. D. 
Herbert Marsh, D. D. 


Lichfield &C. 


1824 


669:17:3 


6,000 


1816 


Peterborough 


1819 


414:17:8 


1,000 


1820 


John Kaye, D. D. 


Lincoln 


1827 


828:04:2 


6,000 


1820 


Wm. Carey, D. D. 


St. Asaph 


1830 


187:11:8 


6,000 


1824 


Christo. Bethel!, D. D. 


Exeter 


1830 


600:00.-0 


8,000 


1824 


Robert J. Carr, D. D. 


Chichester 




677:01:3 


4,000 


1826 


J. B. Jenkinson, D. D. 


St. David's 




426:02:1 


6,000 


1827 


Robert Gray, D. D. 


Bangor 


1830 


133:16:3 


6,000 


1827 


Hugh Percy, D. D. 


Carlisle 




420:13:3 


8,000 


1827 


Ed. Copleston, D. D. 


Llandaff 




154:14:2 


900 


1828 


J. Bird Sumner, D.D. 


Chester 




420:13:3 


1,000 


1S28 


Richard Bagot, D. D. 


Oxford 




381:11:7 


3,000 


iSSO 


James H. Monk, D. D. 


Gloucester 




315:07:3 


1,200 


1830 


Henry Philpotts, D. D. 


Bristol 




294:11:0 


1,000 


1827 


Wm. Ward, D. D. 


Sodor&Mann 




not a Vd. of Pari, \ 



To every cathedral belong a dean and several prebendaries, who form 
the dean and chapter, or council of the bishop. The next order is that of 
archdeacons, who are about 60 in number, and whose office is to reform 
abuses, and induct into benefices. The number oC dignitaries of the sev* 
eral orders is stated as follows ; 2 Archbishops, 26 Bishops, 27 Deans, 
60 Archdeacons, and 644 Canons and Prebendaries : — ^total 6s!>8. The num- 
ber of churches belonging to the establishment^ in 1818, was 10,192 1 
Chapels, 1,651 : total 11,741. "According to the last diocesan returna,*f 
says the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, (1815), " the number of non-resident 
parochial clergy was 6,037 ; the number of residents 5,397 ; the number of 
curates on livings, where the incumbents were not resident, 3,926. The 
annual income of the clergy of the Church of England of all ranks, is sup- 
posed to be about £3,000,000 ; but the annual average income of the paro- 
chial clergy, or rectors, vicars, and curates, does not exceed £100." Of 
10,666 livings, according to a statement in a late English newspaper, 5,030 
arc in the gift of the Nobility ; 3,567, in the gift of the Church ; 1.015, of 
the government ; 784, of the Universities ; 197, of public bodies ; 63, of 
the inhabitants. — Some make the income of the clergy lower th^n the above 
statement, while others make it as high as £7,600,000, i^ 



44* 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



t%§folUyfki/t nUe, wkiek WM$ tom/Ued (y «w Jimeriean S^af,fiom 
Si^gli$h DoeumenU, mnd wa$ eopUd tnto the C^rUUan Ob$erveifor, 
Mmf^ 1880, jftvet m wkw 9fO^ PopylaHom and «f tkt SeclewkuHcal 
8laHtiU$ ofthe r 





i 


n 


1 

J 


1 


1 


i 




s 


|. 




\ 


1 


5 


4 


c 

■1 


1 




i« 








1 


1 


^ 




§5 


7 




Bedfordshire 


83.716 


124 


1 




35 


"21 




Berkshire 


131,977 


148 


6 




33 


11 


3 


14 


61 


Buckinghamshire 


134,068 


135 


I 




25 


28 




21 


74 


Cambridgeshire 


121.909 


164 


1 


1 


29 


27 


2 


22 


81 


Cheflhire 


270,093 


86 


7 


14 


48 


6 




26 


93 


CortiwaH 


257,447 


206 


2 




216 


12 


2 


32 


262 


Cumberland 


156,124 


104 


4 




31 


1 




16 


48 


Devonshire 


439,040 


398 


9 


11 


90 


32 




57 


190 


Dorsetshire 


144,499 


248 


7 


3 


21 


6 




23 


62 


Durham 


207,673 


113 


14 


2 


72 


8 




13 


96 


Derbyshire 


213,333 


13G 


8 


14 


84 


5 


2 


36 


140 


Essex 


289,424 


400 


7 


4 


35 


24 


1 


59 


123 


Gloucester 


335,843 


231 


5 


4 


51 


3! 


5 


35 


126 


Hampshire 


283,298 


293 


11 


4 


26 


26 


1 


SO 


86 


Herefordshire 


103,231 


221 


4 




16 


9 


1 


11 


37 


Hertfordshire 


129,714 


150 


1 


1 


2 


13 


2 


21 


39 


HuntingdoDshire 


48,771 


107 






8 


11 




9 


28 


Kent 


426,016 


403 


6 


8 


88 


30 


7 


41 


174 


Lancashire 


1,052,859 


62 


81 


39 


154 


29 


6 


82 


310 


Leicestershire 


174,571 


196 


7 


4 


66 


13 




15 


98 


Lincolnshire 


283,058 


630 


12 


4 


211 


31 


1 


20 


267 


Middlesex 


1,144,531 


230 


25 


10 


57 


65 


6 


90 


217 


Monmouthshire 


71,833 


127 


6 




10' 2^ 




24 


63 


Norfolk 


344,368 




8 


6 


73 32 


2 


20 


133 


Northamptonshire 


163,483 


336 




1 


61 40 




35 


13T 


Northumberland 


198,965 


460 


19 


2 


28 


Si 




6 


39 


Nottinghamshire 


186,874 


168 


3 


2 


77 


7 




12 


98 


Oxfordshire 


134,327 


207 


8 


1 


43 


12 




12 


68 


Rutland 


18,437 


60 






7 


2 




3 


12 


Shropshire 


206.2G6 


170 


7 


3 


31 


15 




20 


69 


Somersetshire 


355,314 


.482 


8 


7 


94 


34 


1 


47 


183 


Suffolk 


270,542 


575 


4 


& 


40 


35 




32 


112 


Surrey 


398,658 


140 


3 


1 




21 




23 


46 


Sussex 


232,927 


342 


6 


7 


20 


13 


3 


29 


72 


Staflgrdshire 


341,824 


181 


21 


7 


81 


16 




31 


136 


Warwickshire 


274,392 


209 


11 


8 


18 


16 




26 


68 


Wiltshire 


222,167 


304 


3 


4 


36 


31 




30 


101 




184,424 


152 


8 


6 


22 


22 


2 


10 


60 


Westmoreland 


51,359 


32 


2 


1 


13 






10 


24 


Yorkshire 


1.173,137 


363 


46 


20 


645 


51 

806 


1 

47 


156 


772 


l^otal ia England 


11,292,577 


9,133 


335 


203 


2.597 


1,205 


4,866 


Wales 


717,108 


9.133 


6 
391 


14 

217 


214 

2,811 


176 
981 


w 


209 
1,414 


443 


Total 


12,009,655 


6.296 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



▲ur. 



Tlia ombfrg of the <MMm«tfipM« of tb« •ertril JenawinatiQM oC Dif* 
•enters, wer« stated to «o fiiupfish newspaper, in 1830, as leUiiws >— * 

• * 1,J89 Baptists, - - 888 

1,288 Quakers, - • •897 

424 Roman CathoUes, • 888 



Independents, - 
Wesfeyan Methodists, 
Calvinistic do. 
Otiierclaasesof do* 



Presbyterians, 



268 



ESTABLIBRSS ClIVllCH OF ImULND. 



j§rekbi$hop$ and Bi»kop$ of the JB$tabU$hed Church cf Ireland, with the 
Date of thtir CorieeraHon oiui TransloHon to the See, and the 
Meome of the Seee, at ttated in the Edinburgh Review in 1822. 



Jtrthbiehope. 



VSS^ Lord J. G. de la Poor BeresfordfD. D., 

Primate of all Ireland. 
1819| William Magee, D. D., 

Primate of Ireland. 
18^ Richard Laurence, D. C. L., 

Primate of Munster. 
1802|P. le Poer Treocb, D. D., 

Primate of Connaught. 



Biehope. 

1801 N^ithaniel Alexander, D. D. 
1808 Charles O. Lindsay, D. D. 
1784 William Knox, D. O. - 

1802 G. de la Poer Beresford, D. D. 
1804 Christopher Butson, D. D. 
1804 Lord Robert P. Tottenham, D. D. 
1807 Thomas St. Lawrence, D. D. - 
1810 James Versehoyle, D. D. 

1812 John Leslie, D. D. - 
1818 Robert Fowler, D D. - 

1818 RiclMfd Bourke, D. 0. 

1819 James Saurin, D. D. - • 

1820 Richard Mant, D. O. - 
1820 Thomas Elrington, D. D. - 
1822 Wiinam Bissett, D. O. 
1822JohnJebb, D. D. - 
1826 John Brinkley,0.0. - 
182B|Richaffd Ponsonby, D. D. 



Be-. jTran.. 


loeomt. 






£ 


Armagh 


1822 


14,000 


Dublin 


1822 


14,000 


Cashel 




9,000 


Tuam 


1819 


9,700 


Meath 


1823 


8,000 


Kildaro 


1804 


8.000 


Derry 


1808 


16,000 


Kilmore 




7,000 


Clonfert&Rirh 




4,000 


Clogher 


1822 


9,000 


Cork & Ross 




64M)0 


Killala&AehV 




4.000 


Elphin 


1820 


12,000 


Ossory 




6,000 


Waterford & Lis. 




8.000 


Dromore 


1820 


6,600 


Down & Connor 


1823 


7,000 


LeigbUn & Ferns 


1822 


8.000 


Raphoe 




10,000 


Limerick, A. &A. 




8.000 


Cloyne 




7,000 


KiUaloe & Kilf. 


1 


7,000 



The Bishops of Meath and Kildare take precedence of all the other Bish- 
ops ; the rest rank according to priority of consecration. 

notation of Irish Biehope nttingin parHament. 
The rotation in which the Iiish Bishops sit in Parliament, is regulated by 
Jhe following cycle ; by which each Archbishop^ sits onee in fouft aoa 
each Bishop onee in nx sessions. 



1. Primate, Meatli, Kildare, Derry. 
24 Dablin, Raphoe, Limefick,Dfomore. 
8. Casbd, Elpbia, Dowb» Walerford, 
(18.310 

4. Toam, Ferns, Ck>yne, Cork. 

5. Pnmate»Kinaloe,Kilnofe,Cloglier. 
6* Dublin, Ossory, KHlala, C^paiert. 

The cycle is completed at the end of every twelve sessloni* 



7. Casbel, Meath, Kildare, Derry. 

8. Tnam, Ra^ioe, Limeiick, Dromofe. 

9. Priainte,ElplitB,Dofvn,Walefffiiffd} 
10. Dublc9» Ferns, Cloyne, Cork. 
U. Casbei,KillalM,K3hnore,Ck>gher. 
12. Tnam, Ossory, KillaU, CkmfefW 



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9M- '-Mwops; --'^ 

••In Ireland,** sayi the Eclectic Review (ltS8),' "tbe Chimih of Edc- 
laiid h«9 the tithes-; the Church of Rome has the p^bple. Out of nesurly 
7 inillioiw of people^ 5^ millions are Roman Catholics ; above one million 
■re Fresbyterians and Dissenters of other Be'ctM ; and not half a million 

i40((,000) is computed to be the outside of the numbers who adhere to the 
^0(e8tant establishment. To minister to these 400,00(F' hearers, there are 
no fewer than 1,700 clergy (of whom 687 are dignitaries), with an income 
o'iSl,SOO,DOO." 

The Church or Scotland. 

The established religion of Scotland is Presbyterianism. The Church of 
8cotland is governed by one General Assembly* 16 Synods, tmd 78 Pm9- 
liyteries. It contains 899 parishes, and has 93S clergymen. 

Members of the Established Church, - 1,638,484 

Seceding Presbyterians, ... 285,000 

Roman Catholics, ..... 70,000 
Other Denominations, »- - . . 98,530 



Total, 2,092,014 

Judiciary. 

High Court qf Chaneery, 

RL Hon. Lord Lyndhurst, Lord High Chancellor, 

Rt. Hon. Sir John Leach, - Master of the Rolls. £7,000 a year. ; 

Rt. Hon. Sir Launcelot Shadwell, Viee Chancellor, £6,000 a year. 
John $princ!;ett Harvey, Esq. Accountant General. 

Amount of effects of suitors in chancery, in 1828, £39,210,326. 

Court of the Mng's Bench, 

Rt. Hon. Lord Tenterden, Chief Justice. £10^000 a year. - 

Sir John Bayley, - - . ^ 

Sir Joseph Littledale, - - > Judges. £6,000 a year each. 

Sir James Parke, - - ^ 

Court of Common Pleas, 
Rt. Hon. Sir Nicholas C. Tindal, Chief Justice, £8,000 a year. 
Sir James Allan Park, - - - ^ , 

Sir Stephen Gaselee, " ' c Judges. £6,000 a yesw each. 
Sir John B. Bosanquet, - * ) 

Court of Exchequer* 
Sir William Alexander, - Lord Chief Baron- £7,000 a year. 

Sir William Garrow, ' " ? ^ 

Sir John Vau^ban, - - ? Barons. £6,000 a year. 

Sir .William Bolhmd, - - ) 

The average number of acUons brought every year in England and Wales 
18 86,279. 

The amount of damages recovered in the King's Bench, as shown by ^e 
i^««£ea«»vas,inl828t J^2214M. . ^ . 

Court of ^dmiralii^ 

Sir Christopher Robinson, 'Kiit. Jkidge of (He Cifurt ofMmiraUy. 
Sir. H. Jenner, £tii^«.jf<ieoea<e'>&eneraf. *' 



Digitized by L^OOQ IC 



emxAT BmiTAiN. 



fbw JSeeletioiHeai Cowri$ : — 



Prerogmiiot, for WiNs k, Adiiiiii*M, Docton* Coohboim) q.. « wi^i^n 
jSrehe$ Hr PeeuUar$, Appeals from Ecdes'l Courti, do. f %i'tJ!l^J 
JVfaeu/ty, for DispeDMtioat to marry, - - do-t ^'^^ * 

JDelegaUs, - - do.) «>y^«e«- 

The number of Proctora is Hmiled to 34. 
Uruelvent Debtors* C&wrty Portugal Street.~H. R. Reynolds, Ea^ 
Chief Com.— T. B. Bowen, Esq., J. G. Harris, Esq., W. J. Law, Eaq.— 
Salaries, £11,254. — ^The number discharged under the present Act, ap It 
1829, was 51,000 ; their debts 4 millions sterling ; assets a Arthing \m the 
yonod ; expense of discharge over £25 each. About 65 in every 1,209 
produce any assets. 
ManhaUea Oturt, Scotland Yard. 
Courts of Requests in and about the Metropolis : — 
CUffy Guildhall Buildings, King Street, Cheapside, ') 
Sottthwark, Swan Street, Horsemomrer Lane, (For Debts nndor 

Wandsuforthf Ram Inn, Wandsworth, - f Xft. 

Greenwich^ -.J 

County Courtt Kingsgate Street, Red Lion Square, ] 
Tower Hamlets^ Osborne Street, Whitechapel, I For Debts under 
Wettminster^ Castle Street, Leicester Square, f 40t. 

— — — Vine Street, Piccadilly, - . J 
There are 164 places in England where the power of committiBg for debt 
exists. 

The number of Banisters Is calculated at 1,024; Conveyancers and 
Pleaders, 138; London Attorneys, 9,056; Country Attorneys, 2,667.. 
Total Lawyers in England and Wales, 12,895. — For uie 9 years endiiig ia ' 
1829, the attorneys paid in duties on articles of clerkship, adoiisaions, tat 
fiearly certificates, upwards of one milHon sterling. 
Barristers* fees constitute 25 per cent, of the whole ezpeoiet of law fdlf. 

AmMT. 

The amount of the land forces voted for the servlee of the year 1829 waa 
89,728 men, e:|clusive of the men employed by the East India Company* 
The sum voted for the whole expenses of the army, including every cliarge 
eoonected with it, was £6,386,231. The British army is composed of 108 
battalions. About twenty of these are in the service and pay of the East 
India Company, and fifty-four more are disposed of in the Colonies. Four 
battalions, on an average, are constantly on their passage to relieve the 
regiments on foreign stations, leaving twenty-five Inttalions (exclusive of 
guards) for the service of the United Kingdom. The casualties in tiie 
army, according to Sir Henry Hardinge's estimate, amount to about one- 
eleventh or one-twelfth of the whofo forces annually. The Mutiny BiH 
underwent an alteration in the session of 1829. The clauses, which used 
to amount to 163, are now condensed to 77, and the Bill is rendered more 
toncise and plain. It enables general commanding officers in a district tQ 
order district courts-martial instead of general regimental courts-martiaL 
Hie oath is the same for all members of courts-marfiiJ. 

Offieers and JnstUutUnu connected wUh the Jhmj/. 

Staff at Head QiMirfers.~Commandant fai Chief, Staff; 8ecretaiiet» Ice. 
(Horse Guards), £12,167 9s. M, 
BeereUry at War, Deputy, Clerks, Ue, (do.), £82^806 lOt. 
Piymatter, do. do. (Whitehall) X21,008 His. 
A^Qutant-i^eneral do. (Horse Guards), £6gB85 19s. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



mo KITBOPK. 

Qoarter-Master-General do. (do.) £5;905 6«. 

Judge- Advocate-Gcnenil, do. (Upper Crown Street), £5,962 6*. . 

Comptroller of AccounU do. (Whitehall), £13,000 Hi. 

Recruiting Office, (Eng. and Ireland) £56,776 9*. 

Board of General Officers, 21, Spring Gardens. 

Army Medical Board, Berkeley Street, Piccadilly. — Direetor- General, 
Sir J. McGrigor. — Secretary , S. Reed, Esq. 

Bayal MiHtary College, Sandiiurst, Berks. Instituted 1799. Pari. 
aUow. £10,029 17s. Id.-^Gov. Sir £. Paget. 

Royal Ho$pitat, Chelsea.— Goo. Sir S. Hulse. Pari, allow, (with Eil- 
flMinhaoi Royal Hospital, Dublin, and including In and Out Pensioners), 
£1,825,014 6s. Id. 

Royal Military Asylum, Chelsea. — Command, Lieut. Col. Williamson. 
Pari, allow. £24,155. 

Cfarrisons at home and abroad. Pari, allow. £36,862 18s. lid. 

The sum of £700,000 was also granted for the extraordinary expenses 
of the army. 

Navy. 

The number of men voted for the service of the Fleet for 1829, was 
•0,000, including 9000 marines. The sum voted for the general expenses 
oCtfie Navy was £5,878,794. 

Officers and Institutions connected tvith the JVavy. 

Admiralty, Charintc Cross. — Lords Commiss. Viscount Melville, £5,000; 
Sir O. Cockbum, Sir H. Hotham, Sir G. Clerk, Visct. Castlereagh, £1,000 
etch.— «cc. Rt. Hon. J. W. Croker, £3,000.— 2d Sec. J. Barrow, Eso. 
£1,600.— Total for office, £52,976 5s. Id. 

J\ravy Pay, Somerset Place.— TVeos. Rt. Hon. W. V. Fitzgerald, 
£3,000.— Paymosr Capt. Huskisson, £1,200.— Total for office, £83,449 
e«.7d. 

JVavy Office, Somerset Place.— Cc;mpt Sir T. B. Martin, £2,000. — 
Vep. Hon. H. Lejcge.- Total for office, £60,830 155. 

Vtctualling Office, Somerset Place. — Chairm. of Board, Hon. G. A. C. 
Stapylton, £l,20a.— Dcp. I. Wolley, Esq. £1,000.— Total for office 
£180,827 lis. Id. 

Bis Majesty's Yards at home, £1,385,529 1 8s. Sd. 

His Majesty's Yards abroid, £52,141 3s. M. 

In lieu of the Board of Longitude, which was abolished in 1828, a coun- 
cil composed of Messrs. Yo'iDg and Faraday and Captain Sabine, at £100 
a year each, assists the Admiralty in matters of science. 

Vtduallins Yards, £64,356. 

Kavai College, £3,121 8«. 3d. 

Royal Hospital. Greenwich. — Military Department, Governor, Sir R. 
Keats. — Civil Department, Commissioners, V. Fitzgerald, Lord Lowther, 
Sir W. J. Hope, Lord Auckland, E. H. Locker, Esq.— iSec. W. H. Hooper» 
Esq.— Pari, allow. £250,000. 

Ptfotfl^e.— 60.000, £64,465 13s. 6d. 

Mmne Pay Office, 22, Now Street, Spring Gardens. 

Ordnance. 

The sum voted for the general expeuaes of the Ofdkwnee for 18M^M 
was £1,728,908. 



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GREAT BRITAIlf. 9Kf 

Offices and SstabKihmenis tomueted with the Ordntmee, 

Ordnance Office, Pall Mall and Tower. — Master- Oeneral, Viicoimt 
Beresford, £:)476. — Lieut.- Gen. Lord R. Somerset, £l,2(>0. — Surveyor- 
General, Sir H. Fane, £1,500.— C/wAr, Spencer Perceval, Esq., £1,200.— 
Total for office, £70,544. Constable of Tower, Duke of Wellington. 

Establishments at Woolwich, £8,600. 

Stations at home and abroad, £42,817. 

Jioyal Military Academy, Woolwich, £3,507. 

Barracks, Great Britain and Colonies, £117,636. 

jBariacA:^, Ireland, £102,721. 

Bank of England. 

Samuel Drewe, Esq. Governor. J. Horslcy Palmer, Esq. Dtp. Gov. 

The charter by which this Company subsists is the eighth that has been 
granted to them since their incorporation. It was granted in 1800, and 
will expire on the first of August, 1833. On the 28th Feb. 1829 their ad- 
vances to Government amounted to upwards of twenty millions and a 
half sterling. The balance of public money in their hands is from three to 
five millions on the average ; and they are paid better than a quarter of a 
million yearly for the management of the Public Debt. The amount of 
their circulation in Seplembec, 1829, was £18,873,740. From the lit 
Jan. 1826 to the 1st May 1828, the Bank issued £21,766,905 in sovereigns 
and half-sovereigns, of which £1,090,858 Is, were issued in exchange for 
guineas. 

The dividend is eight per cent, per annum on Bank Stock. 

£500 Bank Stock qualifies a holder for voting at a general court, if he be 
in possession of it for six months ; £2,000 qualifies the holder for a Direc- 
tor ; £3,000 for Deputy-Governor ; and £4,000 for Governor. No proprie- 
tor can have more than one vote. 

[The above notices of the Judidary, Jlmtfy JVIavy, and Banh of Englaai, are taken 
ehiefly from the Englishman's Almanac for 1830.] 

Revenue and Expenditure. 
[From die Englishman's Almanac for 1830.] 
In opening the budget for 1829-30, the Chancellor of the Exchequer cal- 
culated the Revenue for the year at £51,347,000. The actual produce of 
the two quarters ended 10th Oct. 1829 is upwards of 25 millions, so that if 
the other two quarters equal the preceding ones, the computation of the 
•^government will have been correct. The expenditure ' for the year has 
been settled by the House of Commons at £48,333,593, which, deducted 
from the expected Income, yields a balance of £8,018,407 for reducing the 
debt. The expenditure consists of payments on account of the debt 
amounting to £27,903,000 ; for annuities payable by the Bank, £585,000 ; 
and for the fixed charge on the Consolidated Fund, £2,200,000. Then for 
the Army, Navy» Ordnance, Miscellaneous Services, &c. there have been 
▼oted about 18 millions, making the total expenditure as above. It was 
calculated in parliament last year, that the amount of government taxes 
each year is £50,700,000, which, with manifold local rates, voluntarily and 
otherwise borne by the community, is swelled to nearly 80 millions a year. 
Calculating the population at 20 millions, there is paid every year in tins 
country, in the shape of taxation, at the rate of £4 each person. In France, 
the total taxation does not exceed the rate of £l 6«. per soul ; in America 
it amounts to only IQs. a head. The annual average official value of our 
exports, from 1810 to 1820, was upwards of 96 millions sterling; from 1821 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



to 18S6 Jt 1MM «pwMp4t of 4S mlUioiM ttodbif ; in ISnjt WM £46,U«AM) ; 
•nd in I828» £52A^>000.^The number of foctoriei in Manchester, in ISSt, 
was 54, and their value as assessed to the poor's rates, £16,806. In 1928» 
the number was 66 ; value, £18,293. In 1826 the number was 72 ; value* 
£24,0S4. In 182s the number was 73 , value, £25,246.— The import of 
cotton in the year 1824, was 147.000,000 lbs. In 1827 it was 268,000,006 
lbs. The average quantity of cotton wool imported annually it about 
197,000,000 lbs. weight Of this quantity, 161,000,000 lbs. are imported 
from the United Sutes of America; 17,000.000 firom BrazH; Egypt» 
7.000,000 ; West Indies, 12,000,000 ; and the rest from the East Ii^ea. 
The duty on British woollen cloth imported into the United States of 
America, after June 1829, is, on coarse teztute, 46 per cent. ; on finer 
cloths, 60 per cent 



N»T PmoDUCK qf the Revenue oj 
Great Britain m the Years end- 
ing Oet. 10, 1828 4* Oct. 10, 1829. 
[Ooi p smon to Um Brttith AlmaiMe, 1830.] 



7f\Ukredeemed Fuitdko Dkbt, emd 
Charge thereof. [Companioo to 
the British Aknanac, 1830.] 



188B. 1820. 
Customs, £16,268.170 £16.961,206 
Excise, 17.906,978 17.904.027 
Stamps, 6.676.318 
Post-Oftce, 1,387.000 
Taxes, 4.836.464 
Miscellaneo us, £66.171 

Total £47,619,101 £47,472,659 



6,704,792 

1,396,000 

4.905.886 

600,848 



Debt. Chant 

6. Britain,£741,0893S6 £a6,436;35t 
Ireland, ^1.282,704 1,165397 
£772.822,640 27,602,266 
This is the total amount of the Debt, 
as sUted for Jan. 6, 1829, with tbe 
annual expense 6t it for interest Mid 
management. 



East India CoscPAinr. 
William Astell, Chairman efthe Directors, 

This Company was incorporated in 1700 ; but their present charter was 
granted in 1813 ; and it will expire in 1834. The proprietors of East India 
Stock consist of about 3,000 persons. A proprietor of £1,000 stock is 
entitled to one vote ; of £2.000, to 2 votes ; of £3,000, to 3 votes ; of 
£10,000 and upwards, to 4 votes. The dividend is 10^ per cent. |>er 
annum. The produce of the Company's trade with India, in 1828, wa9 
£6,891,000 ; the value of their exports to China (of which they have tbe 



opoly), was £863,494. 
The Receipts, Territorial and Commercial, (exclusive of 

the duty on Tea), for the year ending May, 1829, were £9,371,230 12 6 
Expenditure, ..... 838,667 96 



Balanee, 



£1,061,668 81 



Tbe gross produce of the Tea sold in 1826, was £4,254.000. 

From 1814 to 1826, there were sent out to India, 8,174 Cadets ; io te 
year 1828, 77 writers, 367 cadets, and 69 assistant surgeons. IJBSn gHs M 
m<m*s AlmanacJ\ 



Behoai.. 



Lord William Cavendish Bentinck, 
EariofOalhousie, . ... 
Sir Charies Grey, 
John M. Turner, D. D. . 



Oovemor-Generai ofMHeu 
Comniander-in' Chirfl 
ChitfJuftiee. 
Bishop of Cateutta. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



eaXAT BBHTAIN. 



Madras. 
Rt. Hon. Stephen R. louhington, Governor, 



Sir George T. Walker, 
Sir Ralph Palmer, 



Sir John Malcolm, . 
Sir Thomas Bradford, 
Sir James Dewar, . 



Commander of the Forces, 
Chief Justice, 



Bombay. 



Governor, 

Commander of the Forces, 

Chief Justice, 



Newspapers. 



The number of Newspapers published in London, in 1829, has been stated 
at 65; in other parts of England, 158 ; in Scotland, 38; in Ireland, 74: — 
total, 325. The number of Newspapers and Periodical Journals, in the 
United Staies, in 1828, accordingto the statement in the first volume of this 
Almanac (see p. 229), was 802. The present number is not fu from 1,000. 



The following statement exhibits the number of 
of the principal London Newspapers, in 1829, and 
ceived for them. 

TiuMs and Evening Mail ..... 

lAorn'g Chron., Observer. BelPs Life in L., and Englishman 
Morning Herald and English Chronicle 
Standard, St. James's Chronicle, London Packet, and Lon- 
don Journal ....... 

Morning Advertiser and Weekly Register 

Courier ....... 

Globe and Traveller .... * 

Bell's Weekly Despatch ..... 

Sun 

Morning Post ....... 



stamps issued for some 
the amount of duty re- 



Stampa. 



3,275,311 
2,331,450 
2,000,475 

1,367,000 
1,145,000 
995,200 
864,000 
780,552 
635,000 
596,500 



I>ii<y. 



£54,5:18 10 4 
33,857 10 
33,341 5 

32,783 6 8 
' 19,083 6 4 
16,586 13 8 
14,400 
13,009 4-0 
10,416 13 4 
9,975 



The following remarks are from « Th^ EnglUhman's Ahnanac '' for 1830. 

<* There are printed in London 50 newspapers ; in the eountry parts of England, 155. 
These consume 25 millions of stamps in the year. The principal London papers are the 
21me«, Mormmg Herald^ Mortumg Chroaide, Morning Post, Monuftg Joitmai, Morning A^ 
vertis&r^ and Ledger, morning papers : the Conner, Olobe, Standard, British Traveller, ^m, 
and Star, evenins papers. Most of these journals are conducted with amazing ability. 
Articles almost daily appear in the THmee, which, for rhetorical merit, would adora some 
of the most illustrious names in our literature.-oThe subscription to the Morning Papers 
is £2. Gs. per quarter. — ^The charge for advertising is 7s. for each advertiMmeat at and 
under Mom lines, and at the rate of 6<i. a line aflerwards." 

English Benevolknt Societies. 



Name. 


Date. 


Income. 


Name. 


Date. 


Income. 






1898-9 1899-10 
86,259 84,982 




1806 


1828-9 
T395 


1829-10 


British & Foreign Bible 


1801 


riibernmn 


9,208 


Prom'g Chr. Knowledge 


1799 


72,486 60,000 


i^und. School Union 


1803 


5,276 


6,323 


Was ley an Missionary 




50,005 55,565 


Home Missionnry 


18J9 




5,783 


London Missionary 


1795 


41,803 48,526 


MiMiotvsUnit.Breth. 


im 


8,930 


4,091 


Church Missionary 


1801) 


53,C,75 47,393 


Nnviil Ik Mill t. Bible 


1780 


3,771 


3,396 


Prnpa;^ntin^ the Gospel 
Religious Tract 


1701 


27,582 29,168 


British Rerormntion 


1827 


1,741 


3,000 


1799 


•>2,469 21,973 


Pra'er B'k &, Homily 


1813 


2,IP9 


2,207 


National School 


18J0 


20,102 20,000 
13,190 12,272 


A 11 ti -Slavery 


1823 


1,787 


2,134 


London Jews' 


1803 


Hrir. 3t For. School 


1805 


2,6)5 


2,038 


Baptist Missionary 


17*2 


10,393,11,300 


Peace 


1816 


612 


638 



25 



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tM ximopx. 

FRANCE. 

mif« Amo ^oTAi. Fjlkilt. 

LOUIS PHILTP, King of the French 3 of the Branch of Orleans, and de- 
•ceoded tnm a brother of Louis XIV ^ b. Oct 6, 1773 ; proclaimed King of 
die French, Aug. 9, 1830 ; m. Nov. 25, 1809, Maria Amelia^ daughter of 
Ferdinand, king of the Two Sicihet, b. April 26, 1782^ laaoe:-*- 

1. FfRDUTAirD, Duke of Chartres; b. Sept. 3, 1810. 

2. Louisa; b. April 3, 1812.—^. Maria; b. April 12, 1313. 

4. Louis Charles, Duke of Nemours j b. Oct. 25, 1814. 

5. CUmenttMa ; b. June 3, 1817. 

6. Francis, Duke of Joinville $ b. Aug. 14, 1818. 

7. Henry, Duke of Aumale; b. Jan. 16, 182^. 

8. Anthony, Duke of Mootpensier ; b. July 31, 1824* 

Sister of the King. 
Eugenie Adelmde Louisa, Mad. d'Orleans ; b. Aug. 23, 1777. 

[Thx Kiro AifD Favilt excluded by the Declaration o/Ote Chamber of 
DqmHes of the 7th of Augutt, 1830. 

CHARLES X, King of France and Navarre; Most Christian Majesty $ 
b. Oct. 9, 1767; succeeded his brother Louis XVIII, Sept. 16, l^M; 
crowned at Rbeims, May 29, 1825 ; m. Nov. 6, 1773, Maria Theresa^ sister oC 
the king of Sardinia, who died at Gratz, June 2, 1806 : Issue : — 

Louis Arthont, Duke of Angouleme, Dauphin; b. Aug. 6, 1775; m. Jime 
10, 1799, Maria Theresa (Dauj^viness), daughter of Louis XVI, b. Dec. 19, 
1778. 

Louisa Maria Theresa, (daughter of the late Duke of Berry, next brother to 
the Dauphin) ; b. Sept. 21, 1819. 

Henry, Duke of Bourdeaux (grandson of France, a posthumous son of the 
late Duke of Berry) ; b. Sept 29, 1820. 

OnmeU efMimttters of Charles X, 1830. 

Prince do Folignae, President of the Council ofMkdsttro^ 

M. de Chantelauize, Keeper of the Seals, 

Count de Peyronuet, Minister of die Interior, 

Baron d'Haussez, Minister of Marine. 

Baron de Montbel, Minister of Finance, 

Count de Guemon Ranville, Minister ef Eccles. Affairs 4* Pub^ Sutrtieikm, 

Baron Capelle, Secretary of State for PuUie Works,^ 



The following are some of the principal events of the Revolution which has 
recently taken place in Friance. On the 19th of March, 1830, the King pro* 
rpgued . the Chamber of DepQtier tiU September 1, in cons#(|iiei>c« of the 0mii 
which they took against the ministry, in their answer to the King's i^iee(A| 
on the 17th of Mav, he dissolved the Chamber ; and at the same tinM new 
elections were ordered, and the two Chambers convoked for Aogust 8d* 
Of the 221 Deputies who voted £h> the answer, 220 were recfected; and 
in the new Chamber, the liberals had a large majority. In consequence «^ this 
result, the ministers made a report to the King, which was puUidied Jidy 19» 
accompanied by three ordinance^ ; one dissolvii^ the Chamber of D^mties % 
another suspending the liberty of the press ; and a third altering the hnr eP 
election. All the liberal papers in Paris were suppressed; the bank rpgued 



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FKAHCX. m 

to ditcount bOlt ; the ■MomliieUiren diaebarfBd their WDrlmea ; wad the itreeU 
of Paris were thronged with people. The oditon Mgned a reoMMMtruice de- 
daring the ordinances illegal, and that they ought to be rerittod. On the 
momiog of the 27th, the newspapers aad jo«mali appeared as usual, aad the 
leizure of the presses and the imprisonment of the editors were signals of Ifaa 
revolution. The citizens took up arms against the government, and by one o'clock^ 
the following day, obtained^ complete victory over the King's Guards.. On the 
29tb of July, the liberal deputies, who had assembled ia Paris^ appointed Lafayetl* 
commander-in-chief of the National Guards ; and on the Slst, they published 
a declaration inviting Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, to become Lieutenwrt 
General of the kingdom. On the same day (31st) Charies X. and his house*- 
hold fled from St. Cloud to Rambouillet ; and on the 2d <tf August, the abdica- 
tion of the King and the Dauphin, in favor of the Duke of Bourdeauz, with the 
title of Henry V, was placed in the hands of the Lieutenant General. Tha 
two Chambers met on the 3d of August : the Chamber />f Deputies decided the 
throne of France vacant de facto et dejure on the 6th ; adopted the aew*modeUed 
diarter by a vote of 219 to 33, and voted to invite the Duke of Orleans to become 
King of Uie French, on condition of his accepting the changes of the Charter, on 
the 7th 'j the Duke accepted the crown on the 8&, and took the prescribed oath 
eu the 9th. The Chamber of Peers adopted, on the 7th of August, all the 
provisions contained in the Declaration of the Chamber of Deputies, except the 
Ibllowing, namely, ** All the creations of peers during the reign of Charles X. 
are declared null and void ;" declaring, that they ** would leave the decision of 
this question to the high prudence of the Prince Lieutenant General.'' 

CoirSTITUTlONAL CHARTER AS MODIFIED BT THE DECLARATIOTr OF THX 

Chamber of Deputies, Ado. 7, and sworn to bt Louis Philip of 
Orleans, Aug. 9, 1830. 

Declaration of the Chamber of DeptttUt. 

The Chamber of Deputies, taking into consideration the imperious necessity 
which is the result of the 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th of July, and the following 
days ; and of the situation in which France is at this moment placed, in conse- 
quence of this violation of the Constitutional Charter ;— considering, moreover^ 
that by this violation, and the heroic resistance of the citizens of Paris, his 
Miyesty King Charles X, his Royal Highness Louis Anthony, his s<hi, and the 
senior members of the Royal Hoace are leavmg the Kingdom of France, de- 
clare that the Throne is vacant de facto el dejure, and that there is an absolute 
necessity of providing for it. 

The Chamber of Deputies declare, secondly, that according to the wish, and 
for the interest of the people of France, the preamble of the Constitutional 
Charter is omitted, as wounding the national dignify, in aj^aring to grant to 
them rights which esseatially b^ong to them : and that the soeceeding Artidei of 
the same Charter ought to be suppressed or modified in the following manner ^— 

[Translated from " Le Coorrier des ^ts-Uak.*'] 

Art 1. Frenchmen are to be equal in the eyeof the law, whatever may be 
tbeir tides or their ranks. 

2. They are to contribute in proportion to their fortunes to the ezpenes of 
Ae State. ^ 

Z, They are all to be equally admissible to civil and milharv employments., 

4. Their individual liberty is hereby equally guarantied. No person can be 
eMker prnsecoted or arrested, except in cases prescribed by the law. 

A. EUich one may profess his religion wHh equal liberty, and shall obtain for 
lii leMgiooi wei ' shi p the same protection. 



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90S XUBOFX. 

6. The mbbteri of the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion, professed 
by the majority of the French, and- those of other Christian worship, receive 
ftipends from the public treasury. 

7. Frenchmen liave the right of publishing and printing their opinions, pro- 
vided they conform them^lves to the laws. The censorship can never be 
reestablished. 

8. All property is inviolable, without any exception of that which is called 
national ; the law making no difference. 

B. The Slate may exact the sacrifice of property for the good of the public, 
legally proved ; but an indemnity shall be first given to those who may siifier 
firom the change. 

10. All searchbg into the opinions and votes given before the Restoration, 
is interdicted j and the same oblivion is enjoined upon the tribunals and upon the 
citirens. 

11. The conscription is abolished; )he method of tecruiting the army for 
the land and' sea service, is to be determined by law. 

Of the King's Authority. 

Art. 12. The person of the Kmg is inviolable and sacred ; his ministers are 
responsible ; to the King alone belongs the executive power. 

13. The King is the supreme head of the State ; he commands the forces by 
sea and by land j declares war ; makes treaties of peace, alliance, and com- 
merce \ appoints all those who are employed iji the public admbistraticm ; and 
makes the regulations necessary for the execution of the laws, without haviii^ 
power either to suspend the laws themselves, or dispense with their execution. 
Nevertheless, no foreign troops can ever be admitted into the service of the 
State, without an express law. 

14. The legislative power is exercised collectively by the King, the Cham- 
ber Ojf Peers, and the Chamber of Deputies. 

15. The proposing of the laws belongs to the King, to the Chamber of Peers, 
and to the Chamber of Deputies. Nevertheless, every law imposing a tax 
must be first voted by the Chamber of Deputies. 

16. Every law must be discussed and voted fireely by the majority of each 
of the two Chambers. 

17. If a proposed law be rejected by one of the three powers, it cannot be 
brought forward again in the same session. 

IS. The King alone sanctions and promulgates the laws. 
19. The Civil List is to be fixed for the duration of the reign by the first 
Legislative Assembly afler the accession of the King. 

Of the Chamber of Peert. 

Art. 20. The Chamber of Peers it an essential portion of the legislatire 
power. ~ 

fl. It is to be convoked by the King at the same time as the Chamber of 
Deputies. The session of one is to begin and to end at the same time as that 
of the other; 

22. Any assembly of the Chamber of Peers which may be held at a time 
which is not that of the session of the Chamber of Deputies, is unlawfiil and 
void of all force, except in the single case in which it is assembled as a Court 
of Justice, and then it can exercise only judicial fiincticms. 

28. The nomination of the Peers of France is the prerogative of the Kiiif. 
Their number is unlimited. He can vary their dignities, and naoie them Peec» 
for lifo, or make them hereditary at his pleasure. . . . ' 

24. Peers may enter the Chamber at , tweqty-fi^ve years of age» and. have « 
deliberative voice at the age of thirty years. 



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riukKCK. urn 

26. The Chamber of Peers is to be presided over by the Chancellor of 
FVance, and in his absence, by a Peer nained by the King. 

26. The Princes of the Blood are Peers by right of birth. They take their 
fMlg next to the Presitlent. 

27. The sitting of the Chamber of Peers are tA be public, and also those of 
the Chamber of Deputies. 

28. The Chamber of Peers takes oosrnizance of high treasoi, and of attempts 
against the safety of the State, which shall be defined by the law. 

29. No Peer can be arrested but by the authority of the Chamber, or judged 
but by it in a criminal matter. 

Of the Chamber ofDtjmHoi. 

Art. 30. The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of deputies elected by 
the electoral colleges, of which the organization is to be determined by law. 

81. The deputies are to be elected for the space of five years. 

82. No deputy can be admitted into the Chamber till he has attained tha 
age of thirty years, and if he does not possess the other conditions prescribed by 
t^law. 

33. If, however, there should not be in the department fifty persons of the age 
specified, paying the amount of taxes fixed by law, their number shall be com- 
pleted from the persons who pay the greatest amount of taxes under the amount 
fixed by law, who may be elected concurrently with the first. 

84. No person can be an elector if he is under 25 years of age ; and if he 
does not possess all the other conditions determined by the law. 

85. The presidents of the electoral colleges are to be named by the electors. 

86. One half at least oi the depsties shall be chosen firom those who have 
their political residence in the department. 

37. The President of the Chamber of Deputies is to be elected by the Cham- 
ber itself, at the opening of each session. 

88. The sittings of the Chamber are to be public ; but the request of five 
members shall be sufficient to enable the Chamber to resolve itself into a secret 
committee. 

89. The Chamber is to be divided into committeeg , to cfiscuss laws which may 
be proposed. 

A. No tax can be established or collected, if it has not been consented to by 
the two Chambers, and sancUoned by the King. 

41. The land and house tax can be voted mr one year only. The indirect 
taxes may be voted for several years. 

42. The King is to convoke every year the two Chambers, and he has the 
right to prorogue them, and to dissolve that of the Deputies ; but in this case he ' 
must convoke a new one within the period of three months. 

43. No bodfly restraint can l>e exercised against a member of the Chamber 
dnriDg the session, nor for six weeks which precede or follow the session. 

4i. No member of Hie Chamber can be, durii4^ the session, prosecuted or 
anefted in a criminal matter, unless taken in the act, till after the Chamber has 
permitted his arrest. 

46. Every petition to either of the Chambers most' be made in writing. The 
Itw interdicts its being carried in person to the bar. 

CftheMimtter$. 

An. 46. The miaisisft may be members of the Chanber of Pimti or ik& 
Chaiaber of Depmiet. They have, noreover, their entfaaee into evlher Cham- 
ber, and are emitled to be heard, ni^ea they denand it* 

47. The Cha«b«r of Deputies has the r^t of impeochuif themwMUnb or 
of bringing them before the Chamber of Peers, which akme can jodgQ Ikmtm 

26* 



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294 ' KimoPE. 



Judiciary, 

Art. 48. AU justice emanates from the King ; it is administered in his i 
by the judges, whom he names, and whom he institutes. 
49. The judges named by the King are not removable. 

60. The ordinary courts and tribunals existbg are to be muntained, und 
there is to be no change but by virtue of a law. 

61. The existing institution of the tribunal of commerce is preserved. 

62. The office of justice of the peace is equally preserved. The justices of 
the peace, though named by the King, are not unremovable. 

63. No one can be deprived of his natural judges. 

64. Consequently, there can be no extraordinary commissions or tribonalsy 
under any title or denomination whatever. 

66. The debates shall be public in criminal matters, except when that pub- 
licity may be^ dangerous to public order and manners 3 and in that case the 
tribunal is to declare so b^ a distinct judgment. 

66. The institution of juries is preserved j the change* which a longer experi- 
ence may render necessary can be effected only by a distinct law. 

67. The punishment of the confiscation of goods is abolished, and cannot be 
reestablished. 

63. The King has the right to pardon and to commute punishments. 
69. The civil code, and the laws actually existing, that are not contrary ta-the 
present Charter, shall remain in full force until they shall be legally abrogated. 

Particular Rights guaraifdied by the State, 

Art. 60. The military in actual service, officers and soldiers retired, widows, 
officers and soldiers pensioned, are to preserve their rank, honors, and pen- 
sions. 

61. The- public debt is guarantied 5 every sort of engagement made by the 
State with its creditors, is inviolable. 

62. The ancient nobility resume their titles; the new preserve theirs; the 
King creates nobles at his pleasure; but he only grants to them rank and 
honors, without exemption from the burdens and duties imposed on them as 
members of society. 

63. The Legion of Honor is maintained. The King is to determine the 
regulations and the decorations. 

64. The Colonies are to be governed by particular laws and regulations* 

65. The King and his successors shall Swear, at their accession, in presence 
of the two Chambers, to observe faithfully the present Constitutional Charter. 

66. The present Charter, and all the rights it consecrates, remain entrusted 
to the patriotism and courage of the National Guard and all the citizens. ''^ 

67. France resumes her colors ; in future no other cockade shall be worn than 
the tri-colored. 

Supplementary Precisions, 

The Chamberof Deputies declares that it is necessary to provide successively 
by separate laws, and that with the shortest possible delay ; — 

1. For the extension of the trial by jury to misdemeanors of the press ; 

% For the responsibility of ministers and the other agents of govemmtot; 

8. For the reelection of deputies appointed to public offices with salaries ; 

4. -For the annual voting of the army estimates ; 

6. For the oganization of the National Guards, their officers to be chosen ' 
by themselves ; 



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jrKANcx. 295 

6. For regulations securing, in a jegal manner, the condition of officers 
both military and naval, of all ranks ; 

7. For departmental and municipal institutions founded on an elective 
•yvtem ; 

8. xFor public instruction and liberty in teaching ; 

9. For the abolition of the double vote, and for fixing the qualificatiou of 
electors and deputies. 

Special Provisions. 

All the creations of Peers, during the reign of Charles X., are declared 
null and void. 

Article 23 of the Charter (the 27th of the old Charter) shall undergo a fresh 
examination during the Session of 1831. 

Upon condition of accepting these provisions and propositions, the Chamber 
of Deputies declares, that the universal and pressing interest of the French 
People csJls to the throne his Royal Highness Louis Philip, Duke of ^Orleans, 
Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, and his descendants for ever from male to 
male, in the order of primogeniture, and to the perpetual exclusion of the 
female branches and their descendants. 

In consequence his Royal Highness Louis Philip, Lieutenant-General 
of the kingdom, shall be invited to accept and make onth to the above clauses 
and engagements — the observance of the Constitutional Charter, and the 
modifications indicated — and aAer having made oath before the assemMed 
Chambers, to assume the title of the King of the French. 

Debated at the Palace of the Chamber of Deputies, 7th August, 1890. 

Presidenis and Secretaries. — LmJIU, Vice-President* Jaquftniwft, Pavie <k 
Vendeurre^ Cunin Gridaine, Jars. 

Examined with tlie original by us President and Secretaries — iMjUte, Jars, 
Jacquenanoty Paxie de Vendeuvre, Deputy de TAube. Cumn Gridaine Deputy 
des Ardennes. 

Ministry of Louis Pkilip, 



Count de Mole, Jffin. For, Affairs. 
General Gerard, Minister of War. 



M. de Guizot, Mxn. of the Interior, 
Gen. Sebastiani, Min. of Marine, 
M. Dupont d'Eure, Keeper of Hie Seals 
and Minister of Justice, 



Baron Louis, Min. of Finance. 

Tk. I J i> I- ^ Min. Pub. Inst, and 
DukedeBrogl.o.| p^, Co«n. StaU. 

M. Casimir-Perrier, & M. J. Lafitte, Ministers of State. 

P^ . p ( President of the Committee of Legislation and the Ad- 

uenj. i^onsiant, ^ ministration of Justice in the CouncU of StaU. 

Baron Pasquier, Presideid of the House of Peers, 

M. Lafitte, President of the House of Deputies. 

The number of Deputies is 480. The number of Peers, before the recent revo- 
lution, was 367, of which 93, who were created b/ Charles X, have been dis* 
qoalified from taking their seats under the new government, by the decision of 
the Chamber of Deputies. 

The old Charter permitted only those Frenchmen (30 years old) vfbo paid 
annually 300 francs in direct taxes, to be electors, and those only to be eligible, 
who paid 1,000 francs. Of nearly 32,000,000 of people there were supposed 
to be only about 80,000 electors ; and only 5,000 or 6,000 persons eligible. 
The new Charter leaves these qualifications to be settled by law. 



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Wm XUEOPX. 

PRUSSIA. 
Knro AND RoTAL Fam n.T. 
FREDERICK WILLIAM III., King of Prussia, Mar|irreye of Brandmi- 
burg, and Sovereign Duke of SUesia ; b. Aug. 8, 1770 ; succeeded his 
fiither Frederick tVUUam II. Nov. 16, 1797 ; m. Dec. 14, 1793, Lomsa 
Augu$ta, Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who diod July 18, >814l. 
[m. (11.) (by private marriage, tnariage morganatique) Nov. 9, 1824, to 
Jlugiutay Princess of Liegnitz :] — Issue by tbe first marriage : — 

1. Frederick William, Prince Royal; b. Oct. 16, 1795; m. Nov 
M, 1818, EUxmbeih Lauisa, sister of the king of Bavaria, b. Nov. 18, 1901. 

2. WiUiam Louis ; b. March 22, 1797 ; m. June 11, 1828. Jhkgwtet^ 
dtogbter of the Duke of Saxe- Weimar. 

8. Charlotte, Empress of Russia, b. July 13, 1788. 

4. Charles ; b. June 29, 1801 ; m. May 26, 1827, Maria, daughter of 
Ih6 Duke of Saxe- Weimar. 

6. Alexandrina ; b. Feb. 23, 1803 ; m. Sept. 24, 1820, to Prteee JVe^- 
$nck of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 

6. Louisa ; b. Feb. 1, 1808^, m. May 21, 1825, to Frederick of Oraoge. 

7. Albert; b. Oct. 4, 1808. 

GOVERMENT. 

The govemment of Prussia is an absolute monardiy, and ia perbape at 
aiilitary in its character as any other in Europe. The king is assi^ed 1^ a 
Boiniftry or cabinet, on a similar footing to tliat of England ; but there is vo 
representative assembly, although the royal decree of May 22, 1815, prom- 
ised the nation a representative constitution. The king, some years since, 
bovFover, establisbed Provincial Estates, which may be consulted in resard 
to taxation, and discuss what is laid before them by the authority of the 
aorereign ; but they have not the power of even making propositions to the 
jj^vemment. The religion of the royal family is the Calvinist or Evangel* 
ical ; but there is no religion of state, and all denominations are equid^ 
tolerated. In 1817, the Lutherans and Calvinists of Prussia and some 
other German states formed a union -under tha name of Evangelical Chris- 
tians. 

Supreme Authorities. 
2%e Ministry of State, 
The Ministry of State is composed of his Royal Higbaess the Prhlc« 
Ro3ral, the Actual Privy Counsellor of State, the General of the Infantiyi 
Count de Lottum, and the chiefs of particular ministries or departments. 
Hie President of the CouncH of State, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg, hiis 
the right to assist at the conferences of the Ministiy of State when he 
pleases. 

. ParHeulm Mmietnes or Dej^artments. 

Baton d*Altenstein, Minuter for Eeelesiastiegl JSffiaiirSf PvkUc jButruC" 
Hon, and Health, and Priw Mmiater of StaU. 

Baron de Schuckmannj Min, qf Interior, and Privy MinUier of S^Oe, 

Prince de Sayn- Wittgenstein, Chief Minister of ike King's HwmehcMi, 
Prioy Counsellor of State, and Ortmd Chamberkm^ 

Count de Bernstorff, Minister for Foreign Jj^airs, and JlCnirier^ 
/State and qfthe Cabinet. 
. M. de Hake, Minister of War and of State ; Gemrtd ef^ke Jh^^Mlry. 

Count Dankelmann, MinisUr of Justice, and Prwv Minisier if J8km. 

M. de Motz, Minister of Finance, and Minister of State. 



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SAXONY. 297 

Education. 
The Prussian government is distinguished for patronizing learning ; and 
the Idngdom is one of the best educated in Europe. The following partic- 
ulars respecting primary education are talcen from the official statement for 
the year 1825. 
Number of Elementary Schools, - - - - 20,887 

Number of Schools of a higher order, ... 736 



Total 



Boys in the Elementary Schools, - 
Girls, do. 

Boys in the Schools of a higher order, 
Gurls, do. 



21,623 

822^77 

755,922 

49,169 

87,050 



Total 1,644,219 
Students in the Unitersities of the Prussian States, 





StudenU in The- 
ology. 


Students in 
Philology and 
Philosopliy. 


Students in 
Jurispru- 
dence and 

Cover nmenl. 


Stu- 
dents in 
Medi- 
cine. 


ToUl. 


Evang. 
Church. 


Calholic 
Church. 


leaO- Winter of 1820-$1 
1825— Winter on825— 96 
188ft-Winter of 1856—27 
1827— Winter of 1826—28 


892 
1,674 
1,796 
1,951 


264 
763 

878 

868 


450 
577 
637 
714 


1,109 
1724 
1,651 
1,670 


667 
714 
693 
731 


3,389 
5/IS2 
5,656 
5;956 



SAXONY. 

Kiiro AND RoTAL Familt. 
ANTHONY, King of Saxony ; b. Dec. 27, 1755 ; succeeded his brother 
Frederick Augustus, May 12, 1827 ; m. Maria Therssa, sister of the 
Emperor of Austria. 

Maria Amelia, sister of the King; b. Sept. 26, 1757. 

Maximilian, brother of the King; b. April 13, 1759 ; m. (I.) Caroline, 
of Parma, March 1, 1804; m. (II.) Maria Louisa, sister of the Duke of 
Xucca, Nov. 7, 1825: — Issue by the 1st marriage; — Amelia^ b.' Aug. 10, 
1794; ^arux, April 27, 1796; Fredrrick Augustus, lately appointed 
Joint Regent, b. May 18, 1797, m. 1819, Caroline of Austria :-^.^f»<, b, 
Nov. 15, 1799 ; John, b. Dec. 12, 1801, m. \S22, Amelia of Bavaria, 

Government. 
The government is a limited monarchy. TTiere Is an Assembly of 
Estates composed of three orders, clergy, nobility or gentry, and deputies 
from the towns. This Assembly regBlates the taxes and imposts, and delib- 
erales on important laws. The inhabitants are chiefly Protestants ; the 
number of Catholics being computed at only 48,000, though the religioa of 
the reigning family has been' Catholic since the year 1697. 

Supreme Authorities or State. 
Privy Cabinet. 
Count Detlev d*Einsiedel, Minister of the Cabinet and Seereiaty of 
State, [Recently dismissed.] 

M. de Mincl(witE, (Actual Confidential Counsellor^ and Major Otn* 
end J, Director of the Department of Foreign Affairs, 



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jM •Azomr. 

Member B of the Priey CouncU, 
His Ro3ral Hi^ness Prince Frederick Augustus. 
M. de NostittB and Jaenkendorf, MmUter qf Car^erence^ 
Baron de Gutscbniidt, Minister of Cot^fertnee. 
Baron de Weithern. Minuter of Conference and Chancellor. 
Baron de Manteuffel, Minister of Conference and President. 
General de Zezschwitz, Jetual Priey Counsellor and President. 
M. de Carlowiz, Jictual Ptivy Counsellor. 

Lxipsic Literary Fair. 
Leipsic is the greatest centre of bookselling in Germany. The foHowuig 
statement of the number of new books offered at this literary fiiir, for iS 
years, exhibits a surprising regularity of increase. 



Ymn. 


Works. 


Years. 




Work*. 


Yean. 


Wocki 


1814 


2,529 


1819 


• 


3,916 


1824 


4,511 


1816 


2,750 


1820 


. 


«,9d8 


1825 


4386 


1816 


8,197 


1821 


- 


3,997 


1826 


4,074 


1817 


8.352 


1822 


- 


4,288 


1827 


5,108 


1818 


8,871 


1828 


• 


4,309 


1828 


5,654 






HANOVER. 







WILLIAM, King of Hanover, (WiUiam IV, Kng of Great Britain.) 
Government. 

The King of Great Britain is King of Hanover ; yet Great Britain and 
Hanover have no political incorporation with each other, but have differ- 
ent constitutions ; and the succesmion tp the throne in Hanover Is limited 
to the male line. The power of the King b limited by the States, which 
consist of tlie nobility, the heads of the church, and the deputies of tlw 
towns. 

The Seng's Ministry of State and Cabinet. 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, Oovemor Oentred, 

Count de Munster, resident in Lond. as Min. Reporter (Rapporteur.) 

M. de Bremer, Min. of For. Affairs^ Finance^ and of the Post- Office. 

M. de Meding, Minister of the Interior ^ Police^ Mines,, Commerce, 
and Manufactures. 

M. de Ompteda, Minister of War ; of the Boundaries of the Kmgdam, 
Roads, and Bridges. 

Baron de Stralenheim, Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs, the Univer* 
sity of Gottingtn, Public Instruction, the Administration of Convents, 
National Economy^ and Fiefs. 

M. de Schmidt Phiseldeck, Pritfy Coun. and Head of the Dep. of Just 



WURTEMBERG. 

King and Royal Family. 

WILLIAM, King of Wurtemberg, Duke of Swahia and Te^ ; b. Sfpt 

27, 1781 ; succeeded his father Frederick, Ort. 30, 1816 ; m. (I.) Jan. 74, 

1816, Catharine, sister of the Emperor of Russia and widow of the 0ake 

of Oldenburg, b. May 21, I7d8, d. Jan. 9, 1819 ;— m. (U.) AprU lA, I82Q, 



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WURTBMBURG. 9M^ 

Pi UX.IVA, daughter of his uncle, Duke Alexander yb. Sept. 11, 1800: — 
Issue, by the first marriage : — 

1. Maria; b. Oct. 80, 1816.— 2. Sophia; b. June 17, 1818.— Issuft 
by the 2d marriage : — 3. Catharine ; b. Aug. 24, 1821. — 4. Chaaues, 
Prince Royal; b. March 6, 1823 ;— 5. Augustus; b. Oct. 4, 1826. 

GoVERRMXJfT. 

The government is a constitutional monarchy. The Constitution which 
was formed in 1819/ provides for a legislative Assembly of States, com- 
posed of two houses, one consisting of members chosen for life among the 
nobles, and the other of members elected by the people for the term of six 
years. 

Privy CouneiL 
11 de Otto, Pretident of the Privy Council. 

BaroB de Mauckler, Minister of Justice. 
Count de Beroldingen, J^mater of Foreign Jlffiiirs, 
M. de Scmidtlin, Min, of the Home Dep. and ofEcdes* Affcdrt. 

Count de Franquemont, Minister of War. 
Baron de Vambuler, Minister of Finance. 



BAVARIA. 

Kino and Rotal f*AHtLT. 
LOUIS, King of Bavaria ; b. Aug. 25, 1786^ succeeded his father MaX' 
imilian Joseph, Oct. 13, 1825 ; m. Oct. 12, 18 iO, Theresa, daughter of 
the Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, b. July 8, 1792 :— Issue :— 



6. .Adeline ; b. March 19, 1823. 

6. Hildegarde ; b. June 10, 1825. 

7. Alexandrina ; b. Aug. 26, ] 

8. Albert; b. July 19, 1828. 



1. Maximilian, Prince Royal; 

b. Nov. 28^ 1811. 

2. Matilda ; b. Aug. 80, 1818. 

3. Otho ; b. June 1, 1815. 

4. Leopold; b. March 14, 1821. 

GrOVERNMEHT. 

The government has been, since 1818, a constitutional monarchy. The 
FMiament or Diet is composed of two chambers or houses, namely, a Sen- 
ate or Chamber of Peers, and a House of Commons or Chamber of Depu- 
ties, consisting of representatives of the lower nobility, the Catholic and 
Protestant clergy, cities, towns, and agriculturists. The Ministers are 
responsible ; though they have great power. 



AUSTRIA. 
Emperor and Imperial Family. 
FRANCIS, Enperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Lomban^, 
and Venice, and President of the German Confederation ; b. at Florence, 
Feb. 12, 1768; succeeded his father Leopold IT, as Emperor of Germany, 
July 7, 1798; declared himself Hereditary Emperor of Austria, Aug. 11, 
1804, and resigned his title of Emperor of Germany, Aug. 6, 1806 ; m. (I.) 
Jan. 6, 1788, liUzaheth of Wurtemberg, who died 1790 ; m. (H.) Aug. 14 
1790, Maria Theresa, daughter of Ferdinand I V of Sicily, who died Apm 
18.1807: m. (III.) Jan. 9, 1808, Jtfaria Louisa Beatrix, daughter of tbtt 
Duke of Modena, who died April 7, 1816 ; m. (IV.) Nov. 10, 1816, Caro- 



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100 AUVTBIA. 

uiTK Augusta, daughter of the king of BtTaiia: — Issue by the 2d 
marriage : — 

1. Mcaria Louisa; b. Dec 12, 1791 ; m. 1810, to the Emperor Napoleon 
Bonaparte : [issue ; Francis Joseph Charles [Napoleon] Duke of Beich- 
stadt, b. March 20, 181 1] ; created Duchess of Parma, May 30, 1814. 

2. Ferdinand, Crown Prince; b. April 19, 1793. 

8. Maria Carolina, Princess of Salerno ; b. March 1, 1798. 

4. Carolina Ferdinanda; b. April 8, 1801 ; m. Oct. 7, 1819, to Prince 
Frederick Augustus of Saiony. 

6. Francis Charles Joseph; b. Dec. 9, 1802; m. Nov. 4, 1824, Sophia, 
sister ol the king of Bavaria. 

6. Maria Anne Frances ; b. June 8, 1804. 

Princes of the Blood, 

1. Archduke Charles^ Palatine & Viceroy of Bohemia ; b. March 9, 1771. 

2. Archduke Joseph, Palatine and Lieut of Hungary ; b. March 9, 1776. 
8. Archduke Anthony, G. M. of the 1 eutonic Order ; b. Aug. 31,1779. 

4. Archduke John, General of Cavalry ; b. Jan 20, 1782. 

5. Archduke Retder, Viceroy of Lombardy and Venice; b. Sept 30, 1783. 

6. Archduke Louis; b. Dec. 13, 1784. 

7. Archduke Rodolph ; Card, and Archb. of Olmutz ; b. Jan. 8, 1788. 

Government. 
The government of the Austrian Empire is mainly an absolute monarchy, 
and Is noted for its arbitrary and illiberal policy in prohibiting political d& 
cussions, and suppressing liberal opinions. Yet' in some of the states the 
power of the emperor is limited by constitutional provisions, as in Hun- 
gary, where certain powers are possessed by the Diet, which is required to 
De convokcid at least once in three years. 

Ministers of State and Conference. 



Prince Clement de Metternich, 
Count Francis Saurau, 
Count Henry Bellegarde, 



Count Francis Eollowrat-Liebsteii^ 
ski, 
I Ciievalfer de Plenczig. 
M. Anthony Martin, Director of the Cabinet, 
Privy Chancery of the Household, Court, and State. 
. Prince de Metternich, Chancellor of the Household, Court, and StaUt 
(Minister of Foreign Affairs) ; Counsellor of State. 
Baron de Strumer, 13 Aulic Counsellors, and 5 Counsellors. 

Chancery of the united Court, 

Count de Saurau, High Chancellor and Minister of the Home Depart- 
ment; 3 Chancellors cfthe Court, 

Count Anthony Mitrowsky, Baron de Geislem, Chevalier Stahl; 16 
Aulic Counsellors, 

Chancery of the Court of Hungary. 
Adam Count Reviczky de Revisnye, Chancellor of Court ; John Btnm 
deMalonyai de Vicsay, Vtee- Chancellor ; 10 Aulic Counsellors, 

Chancery of the Court of Transylvania, 
Joseph Baron Miske de Magyar, President ; 4 Counsellors of Court, 
■ Michael Count Nadasd, 'J\linister (^Finance, * 

Baron Ferdinand de Fechtie, President of the High Court of Justice. 

Count de SedUiitzky, President of the High-Police and Censorsh^. * 

"^""it,,^*^*®' ^^ HohenzoUem-Hechingen, President of the CoHnea 
of War, 



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Spaik. 901 

SPAIN. 
King and Royal Familt. 

FERDINAND VII., King of Spain and the Indies ; Most Catholic ; 
b. Oct 14. 1784 ; succeeded, to the throne on the abdication of his father 
Charles JV.,M2Lrch 19, 1808; m. (I.) Sept. 29, 1816^ Isabella Maria, 
In&nta of Portugal, b. May 19, 1797, d. Dec, 26, 1818 : m. (II.) Maria 
Josephina, niece of the King of Saxony, d. May, 1829 ; m. (III.) Dec. 4, 
1829, Maria Christina, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies : — 
Issue ; a daughter, b. 1830. 

Princes of the Blood, 

Don Charles Isidore ^ Infant, brother of the King ; b. March 29, 1788 ; 
m.- Sept. 29, 1816, Maria Frances, Infant of Portugal :— Issue ; Charles 
Lows, b. Jan. 31, 1818 ; John Charles, b. May 15, 1822 ; Ferdinand, b. 
Oct. 13, 1824. 

^on Francis de Paulas Infant ; b. March 10, 1794 ; m. June 12, 1819, 
iouisa Charlotte, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies : — Issue ; Isa- 
bella, b. May 18, 1821 ; JTVancis, b. May 13, 1822; Henry, b. April 17, 
1823 ; Louisa, b. June 12, 1824 ; Edward, b. April 4, 1826 ; Josephine, 
b. May 25, 1827; Maria, b. Nov. 16, 1828. 

Government. 
The government still remains an absolute, hereditary monarchy, though 
several unsuccessful attempts have been made to establish a constitutional 
goverpment Ttte succession was lin^ited to the male line till April 8, 1830, 
when, by a royal ordinance, females were rendered capable of succeeding 
to the throne. 

Council of Ministers. 
M. Salmon, Minister of Foreign Affairs (ad interim). 
Don Francisco Tadeo de Calomarde, Minister of Grace and Justice. 
Marquis de Zambrano, Minister of War. 
Don Louis Maria de Salazar, Minister of Marine. 
Don Louis Lopez de -Ballesteros, Jtfimsfer of Finance. 



PORTUGAL. ' 
King anb Royal Family. 



MIGUEL, King of Portugal and the Algarves ; 2d son of John VL of 
Portugal; b. Oct. 26, 1802 ; affianced at Vienna, Oct. 29, 1826, by proxy to 
his niece Maria de Gloria, who was declared Queen of Portugal ; toolc 
the oath of Feb. 26,1828, as Regent of Portugal ; was proclaimed SUng, by 
the Cohes, June 26, 1828, and foi*mally assumed the title of King of Por*' 
tagtl aad the Algarves, July 4, 1828. 

[MARIA DE GLORIA, eldest daughter of Pedro, Emperor of Bmzil, 
eldest son of John VI. of Pertugal ; b. April 14, 1819 ; declared Queen of 
Portugal in consequence of the abdication of her father. May 2, 1826. — 
Pedro having become Emperor of Brazil, under the conditions of the Con- 
stitution of that country, by an act of May 2, 1826, abdicated the throne of 
Portugal in favor of his daughter, promulgated a Constitution for the king- 
dom with a Cortes, and appointed his brother Don Miguel regent, during 
th^ minority of his daughter. Miguel, after having sworn to the Constitu- 
tion, renounced it, assumed absolute sovereignty in his own right, and is 
nowde facto King of Portugal.] 
26 

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mi BAmmanA. 

SAMDOHA. 
CHARLES FELIX, E3iig of Safdiaia, Duke of SaToy, Piedmont, and 
Qenoa ; b. April 6, 1766 ; succeeded to the throne on the abdication of bis 
brother, Victor Etnanuel, March 18, 1821 ; m. March 7, 1807, Makia 
Christiva, daughter of Ferdinand IV., of the Two Sicilies, b. Jan. 17, 
1779. 



STATES OF THE CHURCH. 

The government is an elective, absolute monarchy ; the sovereign is the 
Pope who is chosen for life, by the college of Cardinals from their own body. 

POPE PIUS VIII, (Francis Xao. Castiglioni) ; b. at Cingoli.Nov. 20, 
1761 ; created Cardinal March 8, 1816 ; elected Pope March 31, 1829. 

CardinaXk, The Cardinals have the raidc of princes, are next in C 
to the Pope, and together with him, they form the sacred college. 
number which was fixed, in 1626, at 70, is not generally full. They |ire 
divided into three ranks, of which the numbers, in 1829, were 4 Cardii^ 
Bishops, 48 Cardinal-Priests, and 11 Cardinal-I)eacons ;— total 58. 



THE TWO SICILIES. 
Kino aitd Rotal Famii.t. 
FRANCIS, King of the Two Sicilies ; b. Apriri9, 1777 ; succeeded his 
father J?Vrdinafid /F; Jan. 4, 1825 ; m. (L) April 24, 1797, Maria CU- 
menfina, sister of the Emperor of Austria: — (Issue; Maria CaroUne, 
b. Nov. 5. 1788, m. Feb. 14, to the Duke of Berry) :— m. (II.) Oct 6, 
1802, Maria Isabella, sister of the Kmg of Spain, b. Nov. 5, 1796 : — 
Issue : — 

7. JiiUameUe ; b. Dec 19, 1814. 



2. Louisa CharlotU: b. Oct. fl4, 1804 ; m. 

June 13, 1819, Don Franeis of Spain. 

3. Maria Ckrittinay Q.Spain -, b. Ap. S7, 1809^ 

4. FsBDi HARD, Duke ofCalabria:b. Jan. 19, 

1810. 

5. Ckarleay Prince of Capua : b. Dec. 10, 1811 
S. LMfiM, C. of SyracuM ; b. MaySS, 1813. 



8. jfntom*, Count of Lecce; b. Sept. 33, 181&, 

9. JimeUa; b. Feb. 35, 1818. 

10. Caroline} b. Feb. 38, 1818. 

11. Theresa i b. March 14, 1822. 

13. 1.OKW, Count of Aquila ; b. July 19, 18M« 
13. J^Voficw, Cof Trapani ; b. Aug. 13, 188r» 



TURKEY. 

Suz^Ax AND HIS Family. 

MAHMOUD II, Grand Seignior and Sultan of the Ottoman Em|^; 

b. July 20, 1785 ; called to the throne on the deposition of his uncle SMm 

UI, July 28, 1808 :— Issue i^-Ahdvl Medsehid ; b. AprU 20, 1823.— .^MtO- 

hamidj b. Fieb. 18, 1827;— and several daughters. 

GO¥BRlfMBHT« 

The government is an absolute monarchy ; the soverei^, who is sMed 
Saltan, Grand Seignior, or Emperor, is the sole fountain of honor and officei 
and is the absolute master of the property and Mves of his subjects. His 
cabinet council is styled the Divan; his court, the Porte or SubHtne Po9^. 

Reschid Mehemed Pftcha, Grand Vizier ^ (Prime Minister.) 

Jafendschi Sade-Effendi, Mufli, Head of the Religion of the State. 

Papudschi- Ahmed-Pacha, Capudan-Paeha, or Grand Admiral. 

Mohamed-Seid-Pertew-Effetkdi, Eeis-Effendi, Min. of Foreign Affairs. 

AH-Nedschib-Bei, Kiaja-Sei, Minister of the Interior. 

flMBan-Jisin-KtfeiidUMschandsehuBaschi^ Keejper of the SeoU. ' ' 

Mehmed-Sadik-Effendi, Befterdar, Minister of Finance. 

Chosrew-Mehmed-Pacha, Seraskier^ GenerdUsimo. 

Elhadsch-AU-Ber, Tersana-Emini, Minister of the Marine. 



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eftsses. 



MoiJ>AviA. Jean Stroudza, Ho9fod» ; inaugurated July 21, 1822. 
Wai«x«achia. Gregoiy Giiika, Hospodair ; inaugurated Sept 21, 1822. 



GRE£C£* 

The Greeks revolted from the Turkish domination in 1821, asserted 
independence, and established a republican government The Turks 
attempted to reduce them to subjection ; a destructive war ensued, which 
lasted several years ; at length the governments of Russia, France, and 
Great Britain interfered ; and the Sultan of Turkey was induced to consent 
to the independence of Greece. In 1827, Count Capo d*l8tria was 
elected President of Greece for the term of seven years ; in January, 1828, 
he entered upon the duties of his office, and he has succeeded in estab- 
lishing an efficient administration, and in gaining the confidence and affec- 
tion w the people. 

In February, 1830, the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and 
Russia, appointed Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg to be the hereditarf 
sovereign of Greece, with the title of " Sovereign Prince." The Princ# 
accepted the appointment ; but on learning the actual condition of the 
country and the feelings of the people with regard to an appointment In 
vHiich they had no voice, he afterwards resi^^ned it. 

The government was reorganized by the fourth national Congress, which 
met at Argos in the summer of 1829, Capo d'Istria still remaining at its 
brad. The Panhellenium, a Council of 27 members, was replaced by 
another body consisting also of 27 members, called the Oerousia, Senate 
or Congress. This body gives its opinion on matters of legislation ; but 
has not the power of a negative upon the decisions of the President 
Besides the Senate, there is a Ministry, consisting of four departments, each 
having a secretary, viz. the Home Department ; Foreign Affiurs, including 
Commerce ; the Judiciary ; and Public E lucatlonand Ecclesiastical Affiiirs. 

The country of Greece, which is liberated, comprises the Morea, the 
most of the continent lying south of ancient Thessaly and Epirus, the island 
of Negropont and most of the smaller islands in the Archipelago, leaving 
Candia, Samos, and Scio in the possession of the Turks. The total area is 
not far from 16,000 square miles. "The Peloponnesus contains about 
280,<H)0 inhabitants ; the islands about 176,000; and continental Greece, 
including Acamania and ^tolia, about 180,000 ;— in all 685,000 souls."-^ 

See Jnder8on*$ ** ObeervatUme upon th^ Peloponnetms and the Greek 
I$land8,made,in IS29.** 



Asiatic SfATis* 
Petsla— Fbtr-Ali, Schah, h. 1768, a^iended the throne 1796. 

Abbas Mirza, heir presumptive, b. 1785. 
Bokhara and Samarcand, — ^Mir-Haidbr, Xhofit 1826. 
Mecca— Yahia, Seherif, Nov. 2, 1818. 
China— TAou-KwAita, succeeded his fiither £ta-£ift^, Sept. 3, 18M. 

North- Africah Statb«. 

Eg3rpt-*MoicA]oai>-Ai.i, Paeka, (b. 1769,) May 14* 1800. 

TiipeK— SiDi-Yotfsaur, Paehaj 1796. 

Tunis—SiDi-IlAssAir, Bey, Blarcb 28, 1824. 

Algiers^ HouetAiBT^ /)ey, March 1, 1818 ; detbioiied July 6. 1830, 

Morocco — Mopl«y-Abp-Ebr A hm a n, SuUtan^ Nov. 28, 1822. 



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TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 



Ik the firtt Tolume of the American Almanac, in the article on the ** Vae 
and Abuse of Ardent Spirits,** it was shown that from 80,000 to 40,000 die 
annually in the United States in consequence of hard drinlcing. Some 
remarks were also made on the vast expense of money and the destruction 
of happiness and character, which attend this loss of life; and it was also 
shown that a moderate use of ardent spirits, even when it does not lead to 
intemperance, is useless, if not injurious, to persons in health. 

We are now happy in being able to lay before our readers a series of 
important foots, which show that a deep and ii*ost salutary impression has 
been made upon the public mind by the influence of Temperance Socie- 
ties ; and which also afford ground for hope that a most pernicious and 
destructive habit may be eventually banished from the United States. 
The friends of these societies ascribe intemperance, with its train of evfls, 
not to the tastes and habits of a few, but to the general use of spirituous 
liquors as an article of luxury, and as an auxiliary to labor in the neld and 
the workshop ; and it is against these uses that they especially direct their 
efiRirts. The facts which are here presented, have been brought to Hght 
chiefly by the efforts of the American Temperance Society, and have been 
furnished by a gentleman favorably situated for obtaining the most authen- 
tic information. 

The American Temperance Society, which was formed in February, 
1826, employs two agents in travelling from place to place to promote the 
objects of the institution ; and a newspaper entitled " The Journal of 
Humanity," printed at Andover, Mass., is devoted to the same object. 
As many as thirteen state societies have already been formed, one in each 
of the following states, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolfaift, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Ohio, and Indiana. 

The number of minor associations noticed in the pubUcations of the Amer- 
iean Temperance Society up to Aug. 19, 1830, was 1605, viz. in Maine 96, 
New Hampshire 84, Vermont 119, Massachusetts 232, Rhode Island II, 
Connecticut 181, New York 372, New Jersey 80, Pennsylvania 95, Belaware 
2, Maryland 11, District of Columbia 4, Virginia 111, North Carolina.IT, 
South Carolina 11, Georda 47, Florida 1, Alabama 8, Mississippi 9, Louis- 
iana 2, Tennessee II, Kentucky 19, Ohio 87, Indiana 26, IlUnois 4, 
Missouri 3, Michigan 10. 

The societies in these lists are not all connected with the A. T. S., bof ^ 
they all make the same fimdamental principle^— entire abstinence- |i#m * 
ardent 8pirits,~the basis of their eflbrts. Mtfny societies doubileM ezlat, 
of which the officers of the A. T. S. have recehred no informaffoik The 
whole number of membeca of theae associations caimot be fitetod« fai the' 



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iPSinnniAJ!fc» ••enmcs. 806 

bat Report of the A. T. S. it w» estimateii at 100,000, ixkd mote fiian 
60,000 uew members were reported to the office of the Journal of Human- 
ity during the first eight months of the year 1830. 

I. 2%e influenU ^ihe SodeUes txtendt to aUelaatea of the eommu- 
niijf. The practice of entire absttneBce has been recommended by many 
of oat largest and fiioSt respectable medical societies, by ecclesiastical 
bodies almost without exception in al| parts of the country, and by mem- 
bers of the bar in seyeial counties. Societies to promote it have been 
formed by females, by the young, by mechanics, by apprentices, by people 
of color, in churches, in the U. 8. Army (at Jive military stations). Sea- 
men are adoptine it extensively.* more than 40 vessels from Charleston, 
more than 60 from Boston, 66 from Gloucester, and 16 (square-rigged) 
firom Portland, are now navigated without ardent spirit. In our lareest and 
best regulated prisons and alms-houses, it is not allowed. In Connect- 
icut, more than 1000 fiirms are known to be ctihtvated without it. in New 
^aven, there are more than 100 master builders, mechanics, and artisans, 
who use none themselves, and allow none among their workmen. 

II. It has dimirmhed the number of dUtiUers and venders of afdent 
spirUt. The First Annual Report of the N. Yoric State Society (Jan. 1830) 
mentions the disoontiniiance of 85 distilleries in that State (1^ ii^ one 
couBty), and that of the Connecticut Society (May^ 1830) states that 30 > 
had been stopped, within its limits, during the year preceding. Out of 14 dis- 
tiileiies in one neighborhood in Westi«oreland County, Pa., 10 have been 
stopped within a few months. <* In Coni^cticut," says the Report abov- 
menfioned, '* more than 150 retailers have voluntarily relinquished the busi- 
ness within a year." In New London County only, 45 have ceased to desd 
in ardent spirit In Sandy Hill, New York, where 20 licenses were formerly 
panted, there are now but 2. In Augusta, Ky., and Kingston, Me., retail- 
ing has ceased. In December, 1829, the Secretary of the A. T. S. had 
received information of more than 400 dealers in ardent spirit, who had 
^vea up the business ; and during the first three months of the year 1830, 
similar information respecting 267 others was received at the office of the 
Society. There is a large number of towns, mostly in New England, in 
which the traffic no longer exists.. In Plymouth County, Mass., ardent 
spirit is retailed only bv innkeepers. In Clinton County, N. Y., one fourth 
of the merchants have oanished the article from their stores. 

III. J^ hoA greathf diminished the consumption of ardent spirits. In 
proof of this we mignt refer to a laree niimber of districts in different parts 
of the country, in which it has been found, by careful investigation, that the 
consumption of ardent spirits has diminished to the amount of one fourth, 
one hadf, two thirds, nine-tenths, and even more. But estimates founded 
on statements Srtim the public offices will be more satisfactory. 

(1.) The quantity of foreign distilled spirits entered at the Custom* 
House at Middletown, Connecticut, amounted, in 1828, to 186,846 gallons, 
in 1829 to 74,944, and in the first six months of 1830, to less than 4,000. 

(2.) The Custom- House books at New Haven show that the number of 
hogsheads (averaging 110 gallons) of foreign spirit, entered there in 1826, 
was 1760, in 1827, 691, in 1828, 787, in 1829, 445, and for the first 
6 jnonths of 1830» 85, which i» supposed to be more than half the unport 
of the year. 

(8.) The quantity of distilled liquors brought into Frededcksbure, Va., 
by water, was, m 1826, 126«273 gallons, and ia the year ending July 1, 
1880, 68,960 sallons. 

(4.) The following table shows the amount of distilled liquors brought 
Uito the port of New York for the first six months of the years 1828, 18l9, 
and 1810. 

26» 



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FrMK Jaanay 1> ta July II, 
Gin, do. 



182S 


1^ 


laao 




6,290 


1,060 
1,466 
2,60$ 



Tbtd, CMks 16^1 1M66 6,661 

(5.) The following statement, from (he tame office, extends onejrcM' 
-ftrtfaer back and embraces periods of 12 months each. 

1827 1828 1829 

ForeigndistflledUqaorsirop'd, (leans.) 2,066,739 2,925,705 1,695»868 
«« « " exp'd, (do.) 126,634 186,894 428,775 

Leaving for that market, - 1,936,206 2,738,811 1,267,093 

(6.) We refer, finally, respeeting the consumption ef foreign distilled 

Sirits, to the Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury. From 
ese the following statement of the imports and exports of this article for 
the three years ending Sept. 30, 1829, is prepared : 

1826-7 1827-8 1828-9 
Imp*d from Oct 1, to Sept. 80, (galls.) 8,637,426 6,102,699 3,420,884 
Exported " *' *« 223,816 266,841 906,006 

Leaving for home consumptioB, 3,818,611 4^47,268 2,616,878 

Statement (1), omitting the last half year, shows a diminution of three 
fifths in a single year ; — Statement (2) — with the same omission — a dimi- 
nutiun in 1829 of more than three-fifths from the average of the three pre- 
ceding years; — Statement (3), a diminution of more than one half in about 
tiiree years; — Statement (4), a diminution of more than two thirds from 
the average of two years (of which two, the last was about one third less 
than the preceding;) — Statement (6), a diminution of nearly one half from 
the average of two years; — and Statement (6), a diminution of more than 
one third from an average of two years. 

When we consider that none of these statements extend back beyond the 
date at which the efforts of the A. T. S. commenced, and that the imports 
have Seen rapidly diminishing down to the latest dates, it would seem that 
the decrease of consumption throughout the United States, must be at least 
66 or 70 per cent. We will suppose it, however, to be only 60 per cent. The 
average for the two years ending Sept. 30, 1828, was 4,080,434 gaHons at 
the expense of about as many dollars. The saving therefore, already 
effected in the article of foreign distilled spirit, amounts, on the lowest est!-- 
mate, to more than $2,000,000 a year. 

Some may suppose that the consumption of the domestic article has 
increased. That such is not the fact might be inferred from the Amin- 
ished number of distilleries and retailers of spirits, and from the known &ct 
that a large number of retailers, especially in New England, continue the 
sale of foreign who have abandoned that of domestic liquors. We are able, 
hotvever, to refer here also to the more satisfactory authority of official doc- 
uments. 

The quantity of whiskey brought into Fredericksburg, by water, in the jrear 
1826, was 114,277 nils., and in the year endine July 1, 1830, 62,621 calls. 

From Aug;. 1, to Dec. 1, 1828, the quantity of whiskey that passed Utica 
on the canal was 1,063,306 galls. ; — during the same months of the year 
1829, only 846,169 galls.,— although the quantity of wheat, flour, aMies, 
&c was Ur greater during the latter than daring the former period. 



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TB1IFXRA901 ••dXTtZS* ^07 

Mo0t of th« whiskey broucfat to PhUftdeliMa eomes from Hie West and 
is ioipected in what is called tlie Western District. The quantity inspected 
there in 1828, was 2,714,204 gallons, and in 1829, 1,822,400 galls. 

The quantity of domestic spirits inspected in the city of New Yorik io 
1827, was 98,310 easks ; in 1828, 111,504 casks ; and in 1829, 79,918 casks. 

These statements warrant the conclusion that the consumption of whis- 
key, in the Middle. States, has decreased at least one third. 

Of the saving in expense, suffering, and crime, effected by this diminu- 
tion of the consumption of ardent spirit, the following estimates will serre 
to form some conception. 

In 1810, the quantity of distilled spirituous liquors consumed in the 
United States amounted to about 4} galls, to each inhabitant. Did our 
present population drink at the same rate, the consumption (supposing our 
population to be 13,000,000) would amount to 68,500,000 galls, a year. 
Supposinff the consumption to be only one third less in proportion to the 
number of inhabitants, and the average e^ipense per gall, to the consumer 
to he 40 cents, there is a saving of $7,800,000 a year in the cost of the 
fiquor. 

In the 4th section of his Treatise on State Prison Punishments, &c. 
(published in the Journal of Humanity, Nov. ^, 1829), Samuel M. Hop- 
kins, Esq. who has paid great attention to the subject and enjoyed uncom- 
mon advantages for investigating it, for a series oi years, gives a variety of 
facts and estimates, from which he infers that the annual pecuniary loss to 
the people of the United States by crime, is $8,700,000, — occasioned by 
15,000 criminals, 11,000 of whom are at large. Ih another paper, furnished 
by the same gentleman to the Executive Committee of the New York 
State Temperance Society, facts are stated from which it is inferred that at 
least 37 parts out of 64 of the above sum — or $6,911,168 — must be charged 
to the account of intemperance. And from a similar investigation respect- 
ing pauperism, in the same paper, Mr. Hopkins concludes that intemper- 
ance must be charged with at least $2,534,000 a year on that account. 
These estimates, it should be noticed, show only the annual expense of 
criminals and paupers after they ?Mve become such in consequence of the 
use oj ardent spirit. The commencement of the reformation is too recent 
to furnish any statistics of the actual decrease of pauperism and crime. 

IV. B has caused t?ie reformation of a large number of intemptraU 
persons. This was not a prominent object with those who first adopted and 
recommended the measures at present pursued, and it must now be regarded 
as an incidental benefit of efforts intended for the good of otiiers. It is 
however great, — very much surpassing expectation. Instances of the refor- 
mation 01 intemperate persons, through the influence of Temperance Soci- 
eties, are frequent in all parts of the country. The Third Annual Report of{ 
the A. T. S. mentions more than 700 such cases. The Secretary of the 
New Hampshire Society states the ascertained number in that state at about 
100. In Windham County, Conn, there are 50 cases; in Washington 
County, Md., 30 ; in Orange County, N. C, 20. 



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CHRONICLE OF EVENTS 

FROM Sept. 1829, to Oct. 1880. 



[The fifum in the nuurgin designate the day of the mootli.] 

SEPTEMBER. 
8. The blockade of the Dardanelles raised. 

12. Capitulation of the Spanish Gen. Barradas to the Mexican Oenenl 
Sauta Anna, at Tampico, Mexico. This terminated the expedition to 
■ubdue Mexico after five engagements. 

14. A treaty of peace between Russia and Turkey signed at Adrianople, 
16. Slavery abolished in Mexico by a proclamation of the President 

16. Died, at Vauitza, Greece, Gen. Dantzel, commander of the Greek army. 
16. Died, at Dublin, Ireland, James Hamilton, the inventor of the HamUto- 

nian method of instruction. 
20. The treaty of Adrianople ratified by the Porte. 
22. Peace concluded between Colombia and Peru. 
24. A victory gained by the Greeks, under Gen. Ypsilanti, over the Turks 

near Fetria in Livadia. 
26. Revolution in Buenos Ayres. • The government restored to those from 

whom it had been wrested by LavalTe. 
26. Venezuela separates itself from the Republic of Colombia, and declarer 

itself independent. Gen. Paez placed at the head of affairs. 

OCTOBER. 

6. A Convention of ninety-six Delegates assemble at Richmond, Virginia, 

to amend the Constitution of that state, or to frame a new one. 
6. Died, in Louisiana, Peter Derbigny, governor of the state. 

10. The treaty of peace with Colombia ratified by the government of Peru. 

11. Adrianople evacuated by the Turks. 

12. Don Miguel acknowledged by Spain legitimate sovereign of PortogaL 

16. Arrival of the Empress Amelia Eugenia in Brazil. 

17. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal opened. 

15. Died, at New York, Wm. Harris, D.D., Principal of Columbia College. 

NOVEMBER. 

i. Separation of Yucatan from the Mexican Republic, and union with the 

Republic of Central America. 
11. A. Wylie, D. D. inaugurated President of Indiana College. 

16. The Province of Conception declares itself independent of Chilf. 
24. Great fire at Camden, S. C. Loss estimated at^l60,000 

26. Colossal statue of Washhigton placed on the Monument in BaUSmore. 
26. Died, at Philadelphia, Bushrod Washington, of Mount Vernon, Vii||;inia, 

one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the U. S. ; aged 71. 
26. Great inundation of the Nile in Egypt begins ; about 3( ,000 perish. 

DECEBfiSE R. 

4. CoouBeacement of a Revolution in Mexico. The Vice-President* 

Bostamente, issues a proclamation against the government of Guerrero* 

demanding the resignation of bis extraordinary powert. 

4. Abolition of the Suttee Rite in Hindostan by the English govenunent 

6. Gen. Rosas elected President of Buenos Ayiet in place of G«n. Lavalle. 



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CHBONICLX OF XTXHTll UV 1890. 9Q9 



I 7. Commencmnent of tiie fimt sestioii of tlie tweaty-fint CongieM. 

ii 11. A great fire in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

tf 12. Died, on a journey to Kentucky, William Stoughton, DJD., formeily 

> President of Columbtui College. 

18. The Russian ship St. Nicholas explodes at Isniael. 
, 14. Commencement of the civil war in Chili. Battle between the armies 
• under Generals Luctra and Prieto, in which the latter was defeated. 

> 19. Gen. Gamarra elected President, and Fuente Vice-President of Peru. 

t 22. The 209th anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims celebrated at 

Plymouth. Oration by W m. SttUivan, LL.D. 
,. 22. Died, in New York, John M. Mason, DJD. ; aged 60. 
i 23. Gen. Guerrero resigns the Presidency of Mexico. The new govern* 
I ment settled under Bustamente, the former Vice-President. 

i 24. A proclamation issued by General Bolivar convoiiing a Constituent 
I Congress at Bogota, to form a Constitution for Colombia. 

I ' 24. Venice made a free port 

\ JANUARY. 

7. Died, in London, Sir Th. Lawrence, President of the Royal Acadeniy. 
Y. Death of the Queen of Portugal ; aged 64. 
L IS. Great fire at New Orleans. Loss estimated at $300,000. 
.' 13. Mr. Foot's Resolution respecting the further survey of the pubUe 
f) lands, which gives rise to an animated discussion in the U. S. Senate. 

\'- 14. The amended Constitution of Virginia adopted by the Convention. . 
^. Gen. Bolivar issues a proclamation resigning his military and political 
offices. The Constituent Congress consisting of forty -seven Deputies 
assemble at Bogota, of which Gen. Sucre is chosen President, and 
Bishop Esteves, Vice-President. The object of the Congress was, to 
form a Constitution for Colombia conformable to the spirit of the age, 
and tlie condition of the people ; and to elect officers of Government, 
22. The Provincial Parliament of Lower Canada opened at Quebec. 
81. Very cold in New England ; the thermometer in Boston 6i|^ below 
at sunrise ; in Bangor, Me., 27^ below 0. 

FEBRUARY. 
4. Meeting of the Parliament of Great Britain. 
4. Prince i.copold of Saxe-Coburg elected Sovereign Prince of Greece 

by the plenipotentiaiies of Enguind) France, and Russia. 
10. Remarkable shower in Union county, Kentucky. 

21. A cotton manufactory at Saco, Me., burnt Loss about $300,000. 

22. The petition of the English Jews for the removal of their civil disabili* 
ties, presented to the British Parliament. 

26. Great fire at Bergen, Norway ; 200 houses destroyed. 

27. Died» at Jericho, Long Isl. Elias Hicks, of the Soc. of Friends ; aged 82. 

MARCH. 
2. Meeting of the French Chambers of Peers and Deputies. 
2^ Great freshet at Vienna. The Danube rises 23 feet The suburbs of 

the city containing 50,000 inhabitants, inundated. 
6. Died, at Raleigh, John S. Ravenscrofr, D.D., Bp. of N. C. j aged 58. 
9. Died, at Rio de Janeiro, William Tudor, Charg^ d'AMres of th« 
U. States at the Court of Brazil. 
10. Died, at Hagerstown, Md., Chr. Newcomb, Bp. German Methodist Sob. 
18. The answer of the French Chamber of Deputies made to the King's 
Speech, stating that a concurrence did not exist between the views 
of the government and the wishes of the nation ; 221 votings in fiivot 
ofit, 181 against it 



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fM CMMIOCLK OV KTSfTYt IK I8M 

10. TiM Fraadi ChMAiM o#>eMt «ii4 DepoOei p ivrogoed tffl 8^ t. 

11. Oftlle elected President of ChiU. 

llL A ykitBt hanfetM iti WMMiigton eounty, Obk». 

18. Peace concluded at Buenos Ayres, belweeA Baesos Ayrtn, 8atot« Fe, 
Entre Rios, and Conientes. 

M. A blgth tide along tfao coast of Hew Englaod. In Botton tiie water 

rose 164 ^U and eadsed mucli damage. 
17. Died, at Bedford, pR., John T«d, one of the judges of iha Sapfreme 

Court of Pa. ; ag»d 61. 

19. Died, in London, Major James Rennel ; aged 88. 

10. A violent bwricane in Maury county, Tennessee. 

APRIL. 
4* Tueatan declares itself independentk 

5. The bill to remore the dvil disabilities of the Jews, introdaced into 
the British Parliament. 

6. Joseph White, a wealthy merchant, aged 81, assassinated in his bed in 

Salem, Mass. 

6. Death of Louis X*, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt ; aged T7. 

8. Ferdinand VII. of Spain issues a decree abolishing tlie ofentioii of the 
Salic law in the succession to the Spanish Monarchy. 

11. Yiotent earthquakes in Central America ; several towns destroyed. 
19. The navigation of the Black Sea opened to American vessels. 

17. Died, at Philadelphia, Dn John Godman ; aged 82. ^ 

10. The Sultan of Turkey accedes to the resolutions adopted by the three 
AHied Powers respecting Greece. 

11. The boHer of the steam- boat Chief Justice Marshall burst at Newbuig, 
N. Y. About 16 persons killed. 

11. A revolution, headed by Gen. Urdaneta, at Bogoti, Colombia. 

15. The new Republican Constitution of Colombia signed by the memben 
of the Constituent Congress, and the Executive. 

10. Died, at Rome, Mad. Letitia Bonaparte, mother of Napoleon ; i^^ d6i' 
27. The city of Guatimala almost destroyed by earthquakes. 

27. The bill for removing the Indians passed by the Senate of the United 
States. Yeas, 27, nays 20. 

MAY. 

4. The Constituent Congress of Colombia eleet Joaquin Motquera, Presi- 
dent, and Domingo Cuicedo Vice-President of that Reput^. 

7, A Treaty between the United States and Turkey signed at Constanti" 
neple, secunng to the United States the free navigation of the Rack 
Sea and the trade of the Turkish Empire. 

11. The Constituent Congress of Colombia, after having formed a republi- 
can constitution and elected the officers of go vemment, adjourn iini did. 

11. Died, at Aberdeen, Scotland, William L. Brown, D. D* Prindpal of 
Marischal CoUege ; aged 76, 

16. Great eruption of Mount Etna. Seven new eraters were opened and 
ei^t villages destroyed, to which the lava had never before extended. 

16. The bill to remove the civil disabilities of the Jews leiected in the 
British Parliament by a vote of 288 to 166. 

16. Died, at Jedburgh, Scotland, Th. Somerville, D.D. 

17. The French Chambers of Peers and Deputies dissolved by fhe kbg. 
11. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg resigns the throne of Greece. 

24. Ttie bill for removing the Indians passes the House of RepreseatativM 
of the United States by a vote of 102 to 97. 

25. The ship Boston burnt at iea by lightning. 



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25. Tbft Frenck expeditioB an^iDst Alters tails bmn Toulon, coDsiitiig of 

11 men of war, 19 frigates, 21 sloops, 15 brigs, 2 irteamboats, and 280 

transports : — 84,165 men under tbe command oi Count de Boumont. 
31. Ead of the first session of the aist U. S. Congress. 
81. A violent tornado in Tennessee. The towns of Shelbyrille aiid 

Charlotte almost entirely destroyed. Loss eatim»ted at $100,000. 
81. Gen. Flores issues a proclamation at Quito, deciaiing the south part of 

Colombia an independent government 

Died in May, at Paris, Frederick A. Wilson, the inventor of gas light. 

JUNE. 
General Sucre assassinated in Colombia about the first of June ; aged 37. 

14. The French army lands at the bay of Sidi Feruch, near Algiers. 

17. Died, in England, the Earl of Harcourt, a Field-Marshal ; aged 87. 

18. A trea:y of peace ratified at Monte Video by the Governor, Gen. 

Lavalleja and Gen. Rivera, by which tbe latter acknowledged the 
existing government. Ttiis terminated the civil war. 

19. BatUe of Stroueli between the Algerines, Turks, and Arabs, (50,000) 

and the French, (25,000), in which the former are defeated. 

20. The Algerines defeated by the French near Sidi Ehalef. 

26. Death of George lY. King of England, at Windsor, in the 08th year of 
his age, and the 1 ith of his reign : — William IV. proclaimed on tfaie 26(ih. 

28. Celebration of tbe 2d centennial anniversary (tf the settlement of 

Charlestown, Mass. Oration by E. Everett. 

^^ JULY. 

% Died* ftt Natchez, Robert H. Adams, senator of the U. S. from^Missif- 

sippi. 
.5. Surrender of Algiers to the French army after a siege of six days^ 

iioas of the French in killed and wounded previous to effecting this 

conquest 2,400 men ; that of the Algerines 10,000. 

15. The funeral ceremonies of George lY. of England. 

16. Yery hot weather (from 16th to 23d) in the Eastern and Middle States. 
18. Died, at Peacham, Yt., Prof. Wm. Chamberlain of Dart. Col.; aged 38. 

24. British Parliament dissolved by the king. 

25. Died, in Boston, Isaac Parker, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 

Mass.; aged 62. 

25. Date of tbe three ordinances of Charles X. of France, dissolving the 
newly elected Chamber of Deputies, suppressing the liberty of the 
pr^ss, and altering the law of election, which were published on the 
26th, and gave rise to a revolution which terminated in the dethrone- 
ment of Charles, and tbe elevation of Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, to 
the throne as King of the French. See pages 290 and 291. 

26. Much damage done by a frediet in the towns of Middleburv, New 
Haven, and Lincoln, Yermont, caused bv the sudden rise of the Otter - 
Creek, in consequence of heavy rains ; fourteen persons destroyed. 

29. Died,atUarrowgate, Eng., J. S. J. Gardiner, D.D. of Boston ; aged 65. 

AUGUST. 
1. Great fire in New Orleans. Loss estimated at $150,000. 
7. Yiolent hurricane in Jamaica, W. I., by which several towns and villages 

are destroyed, several lives lost, and much damage done to shipping, 
7. The French Chamber of Deputies declare the throne of France vacant, 

make various important modifications of the Constitutional Charter^ 

and call to the throne Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans. 
9. Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, declares his acceptance of the modified 

Charter, takes the requisite oath, and is proclaimed King of Uie French. 



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dIS CHROinCiA OF BTXlTTi IIT 1890L 

9. A treftty of peace eoneliMled between France and Titnis, by wUek (Im 
commerce of the latter is opened to all nations. A siaiilar treaty was 
concluded with Tripoli on the 11th. 
14. Died, at Washington, Gen. PhiHp Stuart, an ofllcer of the revelntkni. 

17. Violent storm along the coast of the Southern and Middle States. 
19. The American Institute of instruction organized at Boston. 

28. Louis Philip issues an ordinance restoring their political rights, io &koae 
who were banished from France in 1816, and permitting their return. 

25. Insurrection of the Belgians coinmenced at Brussels. The populace 
attacked and destroyed several houses belonging to obnoxious individ- 
uals, and skirmishes followep between the inhabitants and the troops. 

27. Died, at St. Leu, France, Prince Bourbon de Cond^ ; aged 75. 

27. A reyolntion against the eovemment of Colombia - at Bogota. Battle 
between the parttzans o? the government and its opposers, in which 
the latter, commanded by Col. Pincres, are victorious. 

29. Insurrection at Antwerp and other towns in the Belgic Provinces. 

29. A deputation sent by the citizens of Brussels to lay their grievances 
before the King. Van Maaoea dismissed from the office of Minister of 
Justice ; but sometime afterwards reappointed. 

SEPTEMBER. 

4. Died, at Lynn, Mass.) Donald McDonald ; aged 108; b. in Scot. in'1722. 

0. Combination of the journeyman printers of Paris against the juse of en- 
gine presses. 

6. Insurrection at Brunswick ^ the Duke, Charles Frederick, sa^i^after 
flees to En^and, and is succeeded by his brother William.- 

18. An extraordinary session of the States General of the Netheriands 

opened at the Hague, for the purpose of reconciling the Belgians. 
16. The Liverpool and Manchester Rail Road opened ; the Rt. Hon. W. 
Huskisson killed by the Rocket engine. This work, which was com- 
menced in 1826, has been completed at the expense of neariy i&80C,000. 

16. Great fire at Gloucester, Mass. Loss estimated at $100,000. 

17. Celebration of the second Centennial Anniversary of the settlement of 
iBoston, Mass. Oration by Josiah Quincy, LL.D. 

18. Bolivar having been reappointed, again accepts the office of President of 
Colombia. 

18. Died, at Richmond, George Hay, judge of the Court of the Unit^ 

States for the eastern district of Virginia. 
20. Died, at Auburn, John H. Hobart, D.D., Bishop of New York. 
20. Public meeting at Columbia, S. C, on the subject of** State Rights." 
28. The Royal Troops to the number of about 18,000 under the command 

of Prince Frederick, enter Brussels, but obliged to retreat on the 27th. 

27. Prince de Polignac, late prime minister of Charies X., accused of higU 
treason by the French Chamber of Deputies, by a vote of 244 to 47. 

28. Peyronuet, Chantelauze, Ranville, Haussez, Capelle, and Montbel, ex- 
minister^ of Charles X., also accused of high treason. 

OCTOBER. 
4. The Independence of Belgium declared b^ the Central Conunittee, at 
Brussels : — ** The provinces of Belgium violently separated from Hol- 
land, shall constitute an independent state" 
6. Died, at Reading, Pa., Frederick Smith, one of the judges of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 
14. Died, at Shawneetown, John McLean, senator of the U. S. from Illinois. 
20. A convention of literary men meets at New York on the subject of es* 
tablbhing a new university. 



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